The State Council Information Office held a press conference on the operation of agricultural and rural economy in the first half of the year (written record)
By: Date: 2022-07-20 Categories: chinesefood Tags: ,
      国务院新闻办公室于2022年7月20日(星期三)上午10时举行新闻发布会,请农业农村部总农艺师、发展规划司司长曾衍德;农业农村部市场与信息化司负责人刘涵;种植业管理司负责人刘莉华;畜牧兽医局负责人陈光华介绍2022年上半年农业农村经济运行情况,并答记者问。以下为文字实录:

 Xinghuina, deputy director of the information bureau of the State Council Information Office and spokesperson:
 
Good morning, media friends! Welcome to the press conference of the Information Office of the State Council. Today’s press conference mainly introduces the operation of agricultural and rural economy in the first half of 2022 and answers your concerns. Present at today’s press conference are Mr. Zeng Yande, chief agronomist and director of the development planning department of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas; Ms. Liu Han, head of the Department of market and information technology of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas; Ms. liulihua, head of the planting management department; Mr. Chen Guanghua, head of animal husbandry and Veterinary Bureau.
 
Next, let’s welcome Mr. Zeng Yande to make a brief introduction.
 
  2022-07-20 10:00:15
 
  Zeng Yande, chief agronomist and director of the development planning department of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas:
 
Ladies and gentlemen, media friends, good morning! In three days, there will be great heat. According to the agricultural proverb, great heat enters and farming is busy. At present, all localities are promoting summer planting and summer management in an orderly manner to strive for a bumper harvest of grain and agriculture throughout the year. Thirdly, I will briefly introduce the operation of agricultural and rural economy in the first half of the year.
 
It is mainly manifested in the following seven aspects:
 
First, summer grain and wheat have increased production, and there is a foundation for a bumper grain harvest throughout the year. Adhere to the bottom line task of ensuring that the annual grain output remains above 1.3 trillion Jin, and promote the implementation of various measures with extraordinary and strong efforts to promote the stable development of grain production. Summer grain output hit a record high. Summer grain production has withstood the rare autumn flood last year, the spread of the COVID-19, the rise in the price of agricultural materials and other tests, and won another bumper harvest on last year’s high base. Summer grain output was 294.8 billion jin, an increase of 2.87 billion jin, of which wheat output was 271.5 billion jin, an increase of 2.57 billion jin, and high-quality special varieties accounted for 38.5%, an increase of 1.2 percentage points. In the first half of the year, the increasing production and bumper harvest of summer grain and wheat became the highlight of the development of agriculture, rural areas and even the economy and society. Early rice and autumn crops have a good harvest foundation. The area of early rice is expected to increase steadily, with a harvest of more than 60%and a bumper harvest in sight. The area of autumn grain is more than 1.3 billion mu, and its growth is generally normal. The effect of soybean oil seed expansion is obvious. The summer harvest of rapeseed achieved”three increases”, with an area of more than 100million mu, a record high per unit yield, and the output increased the most in the past six years. More than 15 million mu of soybean and corn strip compound planting will be implemented, and the area of soybean is expected to increase significantly. This will be another highlight of agricultural production this year.
 
Second, the supply of”vegetable basket” products is sufficient, and the market operation is generally stable. Pig production capacity returns to a reasonable range. By the end of June, 42.77 million sows could be bred nationwide, equivalent to 104.3%of the 41million normal stock. Meat and aquatic products increased in an all-round way. In the first half of the year, the output of pigs, cattle, sheep and poultry increased by 5.3%year-on-year, of which the output of pork increased by 8.2%. The output of milk increased by 8.4%, and the output of domestic aquatic products increased slightly. The supply of vegetables and fruits in the market is sufficient, and the prices fall seasonally. The quality and safety level is stable and good. The qualified rate of routine quality and safety monitoring of agricultural products has stabilized at more than 97.5%, and the number of green, organic and geographical indication agricultural products has reached 62000.
 
Third, the ability of industry to drive employment and increase income has been enhanced, and the achievements in poverty eradication have been continuously consolidated. We should focus on promoting the upgrading of industries in poverty relief areas, strengthen guidance services, strengthen policy support, and lay a solid foundation for preventing large-scale poverty return. The characteristic industries in poverty relief areas have developed steadily. Each of the 832 poverty relief counties has preliminarily cultivated 2-3 leading industries with outstanding advantages and strong driving ability. The central government has promoted the connection and promotion of rural revitalization, and the proportion of subsidy funds used for industrial development has increased to more than 50%. We increased the provision of microcredit. In the first half of the year, a total of 41.55 billion yuan of microcredit was granted to people who had been lifted out of poverty, and 945000 households were lifted out of poverty and prevented from returning to poverty. Employment assistance was overfulfilled. While guiding the people out of poverty to go out to work, we should guide more people out of poverty to obtain employment in various project construction. By the end of June, 32.23 million people had worked in poverty relief, achieving 106.7%of the annual target. In addition, cooperation between the East and the West and social assistance have been carried out in depth.
 
Fourth, the agricultural machinery foundation of seed cultivated land has been further consolidated, and the comprehensive agricultural production capacity has been continuously improved. The revitalization of the seed industry was solidly promoted. The progress of resource census is more than half. 110000 crop germplasm resources, 60000 livestock and poultry genetic materials and 50000 aquatic genetic materials have been collected. We will tackle key core agricultural technologies and approve a number of green, special and salt tolerant wheat varieties for the first time. The construction of high standard farmland was accelerated. In the first half of the year, 73.77 million mu of high-standard farmland was completed and under construction, accounting for 74%of the annual task volume of 100million mu. The conditions of agricultural machinery and equipment continued to improve. We will accelerate the improvement of agricultural machinery and equipment, and start the pilot project of the integration of research, development, manufacturing, promotion and application of agricultural machinery. We will promote the reduction of machine harvest losses and control the loss rate of wheat machine harvest within 2%.
 
Fifth, the rural industries that enrich the people have developed steadily, and the channels for rural employment and income growth have been continuously expanded. The agricultural products processing industry recovered. In the first half of the year, the added value of the national agricultural and sideline food processing industry increased by 3.3%year-on-year. In June, the purchasing manager index (PMI) of national key leading enterprises in agricultural industrialization was 52%, 1.8 percentage points higher than that of the manufacturing industry. E-commerce for agricultural products developed rapidly, with online retail sales of agricultural products of 290billion yuan, an increase of 12.4%year-on-year. Rural leisure tourism has gradually recovered. The momentum of rural employment and entrepreneurship is good. Build 50 national modern agricultural industrial parks, 40 advantageous and characteristic industrial clusters, and 200 strong agricultural towns to promote farmers’ local and nearby employment. By the end of June, the employment rate of migrant workers returning home was 90.7%, an increase of 2 percentage points year-on-year. Driven by industry, employment and entrepreneurship, the per capita disposable income of rural residents in the first half of the year was 9787 yuan, an actual increase of 4.2%.
 
Sixth, rural construction has been steadily promoted, and rural reform has continued to deepen. The office of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the implementation plan of rural construction action, established a special promotion mechanism, and promoted the orderly promotion of rural construction in all regions. The rural living environment continued to improve. We will comprehensively promote the improvement of latrines in rural areas, the treatment of domestic sewage and garbage, and promote the creation of beautiful and livable villages. This year, 20 cities and counties that have achieved remarkable results will be supervised and encouraged. The construction of cold storage and fresh-keeping facilities in the production area was accelerated. The central government allocated 5billion yuan to build a number of cold storage and fresh-keeping facilities in major circulation nodes, major agricultural production areas and advantageous areas of characteristic agricultural products. Reform in key rural areas was further advanced. After the expiration of the second round of land contracting, the pilot project of extending it for another 30 years was carried out in an orderly manner, the pilot project of homestead reform was steadily pushed forward, the reform of the collective property right system continued to deepen, and new agricultural business entities developed and expanded. At present, there are more than 6.1 million farmers’ cooperatives and family farms in China, and more than 955000 agricultural socialized service organizations.
 
Seventh, agricultural and rural investment has increased steadily, and the rural consumer market has gradually recovered. Expand investment channels in agriculture and rural areas. We will carefully implement a package of policies and measures to stabilize the economy, and make every effort to promote the implementation of major policies and the commencement of major engineering projects. In the first half of the year, the fixed asset investment in the primary industry was 682.7 billion yuan, an increase of 4%year-on-year. Rural consumption continued to recover. The retail sales of rural consumer goods reached 2.77 trillion yuan, basically unchanged from last year, and recovered to 98%in 2019. The import and export of agricultural products maintained a growth momentum. The total import and export volume reached 161.68 billion US dollars, an increase of 10.4%year-on-year.
 
In general, the agricultural and rural economy maintained a good momentum of development in the first half of the year, providing solid support for stabilizing prices, ensuring people’s livelihood and stabilizing the overall economic market. However, it should be noted that the agricultural and rural economic development is also facing many challenges, such as the increased threat of disasters, the increased pressure on Farmers’ employment and income, and the slowdown in the growth rate of agricultural and rural investment, which need to be paid great attention to and taken effective measures to solve. Next, the Ministry of agriculture and rural affairs will, in accordance with the decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, and in accordance with the requirements of”epidemic prevention, economic stability, and safe development”, go all out to achieve a good harvest of grain, do everything possible to promote the increase of farmers’ income, continue to promote rural revitalization, and take practical actions to meet the victory of the 20th CPC National Congress.
 
Thank you!
 
  2022-07-20 10:10:20
 
 Xinghuina:
 
Thank you. Now you are welcome to ask questions. Please inform your news organization before asking questions.
 
  2022-07-20 10:14:16
 
 Xinhua News Agency reporter:
 
In May this year, the State Council issued a package of policies to stabilize the economy, and local departments have also intensively introduced implementation measures. How is the implementation of the agricultural and rural areas? What are your next steps? thank you.
 
  2022-07-20 10:26:18
 
 Zeng Yande:
 
Thank you for your question. A solid package of economic policies is a major measure to effectively coordinate epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, and maintain economic operation within a reasonable range. The Ministry of agriculture and rural areas has resolutely implemented the decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, and has refined and promoted various measures related to the agricultural and rural sectors one by one. At present, they have been fully implemented, providing a solid support for ensuring supply, stabilizing prices, preventing inflation, and stabilizing the overall economic situation.
 
In the next step, the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas should thoroughly implement the deployment of the central government. In accordance with the requirements that the epidemic should be prevented, the economy should be stabilized, and development should be safe, the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas should strengthen its efforts, keep a close eye on it, and vigorously promote it, so as to ensure that all measures are effective. In terms of work, there are mainly three aspects:
 
First, make every effort to stabilize production and ensure supply. This is the basis for stabilizing the economic market, preventing inflation and ensuring people’s livelihood, and it is also the primary task of our agricultural and rural work. In this regard, we should focus on two things:one is to achieve a bumper harvest of grain throughout the year. Now, the summer grain harvest has been achieved, and the early rice is being harvested in a large area. It is necessary to carefully organize the machine harvest to ensure that the early rice grains are stored in the warehouse. However, the bulk of grain production throughout the year is autumn grain, accounting for 3/4. If autumn grain is stabilized, grain production throughout the year will be stabilized. We are guiding all localities to do a good job in the field management of autumn grain, especially in agricultural disaster prevention and mitigation, and strive to achieve a good harvest of autumn grain to ensure that the annual grain output remains above 1.3 trillion Jin. Another is to ensure the supply of”vegetable basket” products. The focus is to strengthen the production of facility vegetables, implement the responsibility of regulating the production capacity of pigs at different levels, make an overall plan for the production of cattle, sheep, poultry, aquatic products, etc., strengthen the connection between production and marketing and emergency supply guarantee, compact the mayor responsibility system of local”vegetable basket”, stabilize the market supply and stabilize the market price.
 
Second, we should make every effort to promote the employment and income of farmers, which is another key task of our agricultural and rural work this year. Mainly through the development of industries to promote the employment and income of farmers, the focus is to guide all regions to base on the county and characteristic advantageous resources, rely on modern agricultural industrial parks, advantageous and characteristic industrial clusters, strong towns of agricultural industry and other platforms, including the high-standard agricultural field construction projects we are vigorously promoting, accelerate the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries, and form a pattern of one industry group, one county, one park, one town, one special, and one village, one product, So that farmers can be employed locally and nearby. At the same time, we should improve the mechanism of linking agriculture with agriculture, let farmers share more value-added benefits of the industrial chain, and ensure that industrial development is focused on Promoting Farmers’ employment, increasing income and becoming rich.
 
Third, we should make every effort to expand investment in agriculture and rural areas. In this regard, the focus is on two aspects:on the one hand, we should tie up实有序推进乡村建设。目前,乡村建设行动实施方案已经印发,“1本规划+8项硬件改造+3项软件提升”的建设任务已明确。下一步关键是怎么建。要健全责任落实机制,细化部门专项推进方案,明确具体任务和进度安排。要健全项目管理机制,优先实施群众需求强烈、短板突出、兼顾改善生产生活条件的项目。要健全主体参与机制,指导地方编制农民参与乡村建设指南,引导农民干好自己的事情。健全运行管护机制,把设施谁来管、哪个环节谁负责分清楚。另一个方面,加快实施农业农村建设项目。目前,农业农村领域中央预算内投资已经全部下达,规模比上年小幅增长。下一步要推动优化审批服务,强化跟踪调度,加快高标准农田、仓储保鲜冷链物流设施、农村人居环境整治等重大项目建设,尽快形成实物量。同时要抓住扩大投资的有利时机,抓紧启动“十四五”规划安排的重大工程行动计划,积极推动智慧农业、农业科技创新、产业融合等新型基础设施建设,加快补齐农业农村现代化短板。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:26:35
 
  中央广播电视总台央广记者:
 
  我的问题是,今年以来受国际形势和疫情影响,全球粮食市场剧烈波动,不稳定、不确定因素明显增多。请问,今年我国粮食生产情况怎么样,接下来将采取哪些措施保障全年粮食产量,端牢“中国饭碗”?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:37:16
 
  农业农村部种植业管理司负责人刘莉华:
 
  谢谢您的提问。粮食问题一直是社会关注的热点。今年的粮食生产遭遇了去年罕见的秋汛、农资价格持续高涨、新冠肺炎疫情多点散发、国际农产品市场大幅波动等特殊的困难。党中央、国务院高度重视,格外关心,出台了一系列高含金量的政策,采取了一系列超常超强的措施抓粮食生产。在中央政策支持和各地工作的推动下,从目前情况看,今年粮食生产形势总体还是不错的。夏粮早稻秋粮三季粮食,夏粮已经丰收到手,增产28.7亿斤,早稻收获过六成,产量有望保持稳定。为全年粮食丰收打下了基础,为稳物价稳预期增信心、稳定经济大盘提供了支撑。全年粮食生产的大头在秋粮,秋粮占75%,能否实现全年粮食丰收关键还得看秋粮。从我们目前掌握的情况看,今年秋粮丰收还是有一定基础的,主要是有两点判断:
 
  一个判断是,面积增加。大家都知道,面积是产量的基础。目前,除部分双季晚稻和晚秋粮作物外,秋粮面积大头已落地。初步预计,今年秋粮面积有望超过13亿亩,比上年有所增加。面积主要增在三个方面:一是各地层层压实责任,整治撂荒地、清理“非粮化”、发展间套种,努力种足种满;二是春夏播期间气象条件总体比较有利,土壤墒情比较好,比如去年华南因旱种不下去的今年也都种下去了;三是粮食价格比较好,农民种粮的积极性比较高。
 
  另一个判断是,长势总体正常。秋粮的大头在东北,东北粮食占了秋粮的1/3以上,今年东北大部雨水好、墒情足,除了局部地区强降雨造成农田内涝、部分玉米受灾外,大部地区的作物长势都好于常年。南方水稻长势也总体正常,黄淮海、西北地区主要是玉米大豆,长势也不错。
 
  现在距秋粮收获还有两个多月的时间,7、8、9三个月既是秋粮生长发育和产量形成的关键时期,也是旱涝、台风等灾害多发重发的时期,还是病虫危害最严重的时候,夺取秋粮丰收还要过多个关口,任务还十分艰巨。下一步,我们将按照中央的决策部署,一环不松、一招不落,全力抓好秋粮生产,确保全年粮食产量保持在1.3万亿斤以上。重点是抓好三件事:
 
  一是抓好面积的落实。关键是要确保晚稻和晚秋作物应种尽种,种在适播期,特别是指导“两季不足 一季有余”的地区努力发展再生稻,能增一亩是一亩,能增一季是一季。
 
  二是抓好秋粮田间管理。分作物、分区域制定完善秋粮田间管理技术意见,继续组织我们部里包省包片工作组和科技小分队深入生产一线,指导农民搞好秋粮的肥水管理,落实关键措施,确保安全成熟、促进单产提高。
 
  三是抓好防灾减灾。重点是要做好洪涝、夏伏旱、高温热害、台风、早霜、寒露风等灾害的防范,实现“龙口夺粮”。加强草地贪夜蛾“三区四带”的布防、水稻“两迁”害虫等重大病虫害的防治,实现“虫口夺粮”。
 
  谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:37:44
 
  北京广播电视台记者:
 
  肉蛋奶是菜篮子产品的重要品种,请问上半年我国肉蛋奶的总体生产情况如何?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:39:34
 
  农业农村部畜牧兽医局负责人陈光华:
 
  谢谢提问。上半年,畜牧业生产稳定发展,生猪产能高位回调,牛羊存栏处于近年高位,家禽生产稳定增长,畜禽产品供应总体充足。据国家统计局数据,上半年猪牛羊禽肉产量4519万吨,同比增长5.3%。其中猪肉、牛肉、羊肉产量分别增长8.2%、3.8%、0.7%。禽肉产量下降0.8%,牛奶产量增长8.4%,禽蛋产量增长3.5%。
 
  畜禽产品价格总体平稳。根据对全国500个县集贸市场和采集点的监测,6月份,猪肉价格每公斤26.55元,同比下降1.7%;牛肉价格每公斤86.74元,同比增长1.5%;羊肉价格每公斤81.18元,同比下降3.6%;鸡肉价格每公斤23.18元,同比增长5.8%;鸡蛋价格每公斤11.16元,同比增长11.2%;生鲜乳价格每公斤4.13元,同比下降3.3%。据统计局数据,6月份,畜肉类价格同比下降4.7%,影响CPI下降大约0.16个百分点。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:39:45
 
  中央广播电视总台央视记者:
 
  当前国内经济下行压力较大,老百姓对物价走势十分关注。我想请问,上半年国内农产品市场的形势怎么样?后期走势如何?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:40:05
 
  农业农村部市场与信息化司负责人刘涵:
 
  感谢您的提问。俗话说,民以食为天,粮稳天下安。农业农村部在抓好粮食和重要农产品稳产保供的同时,持续加强农产品市场跟踪分析。从监测调度来看,上半年,我国“米袋子”、“菜篮子”重点品种供应充足,价格总体波动幅度不大,为应对新冠肺炎疫情冲击、保持物价基本稳定提供了重要的支撑。据我部监测,1-6月份,“农产品批发价格200指数”为127.96,同比高2.49个点,据国家统计局公布数据,今年上半年食品价格同比下降0.4%,影响CPI下降约0.08个百分点。分品种来看:
 
  三大主粮价格稳中有涨,6月份稻谷、小麦、玉米三种粮食集贸市场月均价每百斤135元,比1月份涨4.6%,同比高4.5%。其中,稻谷、玉米价格基本稳定,小麦受生产成本上涨推动和国际市场传导影响,价格恢复性上涨,但涨幅远低于国际市场的涨幅。6月份,郑州粮食批发市场普通小麦每斤1.54元,比1月份涨8.5%,同比高22%,涨幅比国际小麦价格分别低约11个百分点和54个百分点。
 
  大豆和食用植物油价格走势偏强,受国际大豆供给偏紧、乌克兰葵花籽油出口受阻、投机资本炒作等因素的影响,今年国际油脂油料的价格高位上涨,也拉动了国内价格走强。6月份,山东进口大豆到岸税后价每斤2.75元,同比高14.7%,豆油、菜籽油出厂价同比涨30%以上。但由于我国油脂油料储备足、调控能力强,加之油菜籽增产,国内食用植物油市场供给有保障,价格涨幅低于国际市场。
 
  猪肉价格触底回升,“菜篮子”产品季节性波动。3月底以来,猪肉价格持续回升。6月份,猪肉月均批发价每公斤21.57元,环比涨4.3%,同比低8.2%。蔬菜、水果、鸡蛋等重点品种供应充足,由于成本上涨以及持续高温天气影响,当前价格水平高于去年同期,但波动基本符合常年规律。
 
  上半年,尽管面临诸多的内外部风险挑战,但我国农产品有望继续保持量足价稳的态势,从生产来看,夏粮再获丰收,秋粮面积稳中有增、长势良好,大豆油料扩种任务落地,能繁母猪存栏处于合理区间,肉蛋奶产能稳定,蔬菜在田面积和产量均有所增加,稳产保供的基础牢固。从库存来看,稻谷、小麦全社会库存处于历史较高水平,能够满足一年以上的口粮消费需求,玉米库存也有所增加。从进口看,1-6月累计进口粮食7978万吨,同比小幅下降,随着国际粮价下跌,预计粮食进口将稳中有增。从消费来看,食用植物油、食糖、畜产品、水产品等重要农产品消费将有所恢复,但总体保持平稳,对价格拉动有限。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:43:51
 
  中国农村杂志社记者:
 
  现在是小麦购销的旺季,农民群众最关心的是丰收后粮食能否卖出好价钱?请问小麦今年的购销形势如何?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:44:44
 
  刘涵:
 
  谢谢您的提问。今年小麦实现丰收增产,各方反响积极,市场购销两旺。据我部调度分析,今年新麦上市以来,市场运行主要有两大特点:一方面,价格行情历史最好。由于新麦的质量明显好于去年,籽粒饱满、容重高,市场需求旺盛,收购均价稳定在每斤1.5元左右,比去年同期高约3毛钱,是近年来最好的市场行情。另一方面,收购进度正常偏快。粮食加工、贸易、储备等企业收购意愿较强,入市积极、购销活跃,市场收购平稳有序,进度略快于上年。据国家粮食和物资储备局统计,截至7月15日,主产区累计收购新麦3731万吨,同比增加169万吨。据对主产区调度,由于小麦单产高、价格好,再加上中央财政两次向实际种粮农民发放一次性补贴,缓解农资价格上涨带来的种粮增支影响,农民今年的种粮收益普遍好于上年,实现了丰产又增收。
 
  从后期走势来看,小麦产需平衡有余,收购价格将小幅波动。考虑到夏季高温多雨,粮食保存难度比较大,建议农民朋友们把握好售粮的时机和节奏,防范坏粮风险和市场风险,获得更好的收益。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:49:04
 
  中宏网记者:
 
  今年以来,受新冠肺炎疫情影响,一些地方出现农民工返乡。请问,返乡农民工目前的就业情况如何?下一步,将采取哪些措施促进返乡农民工就地就近就业?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:51:19
 
 Zeng Yande:
 
  谢谢您的提问。农民外出务工就业是农民增收的一个重要途径。正如你所说,今年以来,受新冠肺炎疫情散发、国内经济下行等多重因素影响,城市部分行业特别是接触性服务业用工需求下降,一些农民工返乡就业。针对这一情况,农业农村部门大力发展乡村产业,落实就业帮扶政策,促进返乡农民工就地就近就业。从监测情况看,截至6月底,返乡农民工就地就近就业达到90.7%,这是一个不错的成绩。下一步,农业农村部重点从四个方面来促进返乡农民工就业:
 
  第一,发展富民产业稳岗。这是促进返乡农民工就地就近就业的关键。我们的工作着重是“两个”。一个是发展农产品加工流通业。通过促进农产品初加工、精深加工业提档升级。发展农产品仓储保鲜冷链物流,打造从“农田到餐桌”的农业全产业链,把就业机会尽可能留在农村、留给农民。另一个是发展新产业新业态。立足乡村资源,拓展农业多种功能,发掘乡村多元价值,促进乡村休闲旅游和直播带货、农村电商等新业态,创造更多的就业机会。
 
  第二,支持农村创业增岗。返乡农民工有较强的市场意识和较高的技能水平,返乡创业有优势。我们要深入实施农村创业创新带头人培育行动,落实创业扶持政策,建设一批返乡入乡创业园、农村创业孵化实训基地,推进创业服务“一站式”办理,以创业带动就业。大体上是一个返乡农民工创业能带动6-7个稳定就业,带动15-20个灵活就业。
 
  第三,加快项目建设拓岗。近期国务院有关部门制定了专门的政策措施,要求重大工程建设、以工代赈项目优先吸纳农村劳动力。农业农村部将在组织实施高标准农田建设、重大水利设施建设、农村人居环境整治、农业面源污染治理等项目,按照“应用尽用、能用尽用”的原则,吸纳更多返乡农民工参与建设,让他们在家门口就业增收。
 
  第四,壮大县域经济扩岗。县域是农民就地就近就业的蓄水池,目前有55%左右的农民工在县域内就业。要在县域大力发展家政服务、物流配送、养老托育等,引导具备条件的中心镇发展小微企业集聚区,培育形成带动力强、就业容量大的产业,为返乡农民工创造更多的就业机会。
 
  谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 10:51:33
 
  路透社记者:
 
  国家适应气候变化战略2035中说到气候变化会导致植被带分布北移,国家需要开展农业气候资源动态评估和精细区划,今年温度和降雨量都比较极端。请问,今年气候变化是否已对农业生产产生了影响?
 
  2022-07-20 10:51:59
 
  刘莉华:
 
  谢谢您的提问。正如您所说,中国也是全球气候变化影响显著的区域,农业气候资源在发生着改变。比如,我国降水量平均每10年就增加5.1毫米,呈现出一种“降雨带北扩”的趋势,西北地区“暖湿化”比较明显,北方冬小麦的种植界限在向北、向西扩张。气候变化也导致我国极端气象灾害的事件增多,灾害异常性和不可预见性越来越大,给农业生产带来的挑战也越来越大。
 
  比如,黄淮海常年多发生旱灾,去年秋天就遭遇了极端罕见的洪涝灾害,9月、10月降雨量比常年同期偏多1-4倍,是1961年以来同期最多。有的地方一个月下了一年的降雨量,导致土壤过湿、机器不能下地,我们国家有1/3的冬小麦晚播,我们千方百计才稳住了冬小麦的面积。
 
  今年春播以来,农业气象条件总体还是比较有利,主要气象灾害是华南洪涝、长江中下游局部地区的阴雨寡照,黄淮海、西北、内蒙中西部阶段性干旱,近期东北、西北局部的一些地方的洪涝,这些灾害发生的区域都是局部的,过程也是阶段性的,影响程度总体偏轻。特别是对粮食和农业生产影响最大的旱灾,今年没有大面积发生。整体来说,目前整个秋粮生产的基础还是比较好的。
 
  据中国气象局预测,汛期我国气候状况总体偏差,极端天气事件偏多,旱涝灾害较重,呈现出“两头涝、中间旱”的态势,东北和黄淮海常年抗旱的地方可能要抗涝,长江中下游常年防汛的地方可能要应对高温干旱,抗灾夺丰收任务依然十分艰巨。
 
  我们将牢固树立“防灾就是增产、减损就是增粮”的理念,立足防大汛、抢大险、救大灾,环环紧扣、一招不落,细化实化工作措施,努力做到重灾区少减产、轻灾区保稳产、无灾区多增产,千方百计夺取粮食和农业好收成。重点是三个方面:
 
  一是加强灾情的监测预警。分区域、分灾种完善灾害的应对预警措施和预案,做好救灾物资储备和技术准备。与气象、应急等部门密切沟通,及时发布预警信息,提前落实防灾措施。
 
  二是加强科学抗灾指导。继续组织专家指导组、科技小分队等专业力量深入灾区开展技术指导服务,落实防灾抗灾关键措施,特别是集成落实秋粮“一喷多促”防灾减灾稳产增产技术措施,加快作物的生育进程,确保安全成熟。
 
  三是加强病虫防控。重点是加强草地贪夜蛾、水稻“两迁”害虫等重大病虫的监测预警,组织好统防统治、应急防治,最大限度减轻病虫危害。
 
  谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 11:04:12
 
  海报新闻记者:
 
  6月底和7月初,生猪价格上涨幅度较大,近期振荡趋稳。请问,猪价上涨的主要原因是什么?农业农村部门在生猪稳产保供方面采取了哪些应对措施?下半年如何稳产保供?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 11:09:51
 
  陈光华:
 
  谢谢您的提问。猪价和肉价一头连着养殖户,一头连着消费者,大家都比较关注。从6月下旬开始,猪价经历了一波上涨,近期已经有所回落。目前,猪价每公斤22.8元左右,比近期的价格高点降了1.1元左右。从过去的价格走势看,多数年份猪价都是从7月份开始季节性上涨,我们年初对猪价回升就有了预判,也发布过预警信息。针对6月下旬以来,生猪价格一度上行较快的情况,我们加强监测调度,密集开展形势会商,在河北沧州召开生猪生产座谈会,并派出调查组深入山东、广西等生猪主产省份调研,对价格上涨原因和走势进行分析。总的看,这轮猪价上涨主要是恢复性、季节性上涨,叠加一些特殊因素的作用,但生产是充足的,后期猪价不具备持续大幅上涨的动力。
 
  从养殖效益看,今年上半年猪价总体低迷,大部分养殖场(户)是亏损的,价格适当上涨有利于生猪产业持续发展。根据我们的监测,除了1月份和6月份养猪略有盈利之外,2月份到5月份都是亏损的,上半年出栏一头肥猪平均亏损98元,真正扭亏为盈也就是最近半个多月。另外,从养殖成本来看,玉米、豆粕等价格持续上涨,一公斤肥猪比去年同期增加大约1块钱的成本,这对猪价上涨也有一定的推动作用。
 
  另外,猪价较快上涨还有一些特殊因素。前一段时间,随着学校、工厂复课复工,社会餐饮逐步放开,猪肉消费明显增加,拉动猪价快速上涨。同时,养殖场(户)压栏和二次育肥增加,猪肉进口量减少等因素也造成了猪肉供应阶段性减少,助推猪价上涨。
 
  目前,生猪产能处于正常合理水平,预计下半年生猪出栏量与去年同期相当。业内常说“有母不愁小,有小不愁大”,也就是说,有能繁母猪就不愁没有仔猪,有了仔猪就不愁没有大肥猪。从能繁母猪的数量来看,今年以来,存栏量一直处于产能调控的绿色合理区域,目前已连续两个月回升。从新生仔猪数量看,上半年新生仔猪数量与去年同期相当,预示下半年生猪上市量不会比去年少。从中大猪数量来看,6月份规模猪场5月龄以上的中大猪存栏量同比增长8%,7、8月份生猪供应和猪肉产量将稳定增加。上述数据都表明,下半年肥猪供应有保障。
 
  下一步,农业农村部将重点做好三个方面的工作:一是加强监测预警,紧盯能繁母猪存栏量等关键指标,根据月度变化情况,适时采取针对性调节措施,保持生猪产能稳定在合理区间。强化信息发布,引导养殖场(户)合理安排生产,顺势出栏肥猪,避免过度压栏。二是压实属地责任。开展生猪产能调控工作考核,督促地方落实生猪稳产保供省负总责要求和“菜篮子”市长负责制,稳定并落实长效性支持政策,给行业一个稳定的政策预期。三是防好生猪疫病。持续抓好非洲猪瘟常态化防控,统筹抓好猪流行性腹泻等常见病防治,不断提高养猪场生物安全管理水平,确保疫情形势平稳不反弹。
 
  最后建议广大养殖场(户)合理安排生产,在生猪体重合适的时候及时出栏,能赚的钱先赚到手,落袋为安。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 11:10:10
 
  南华早报记者:
 
  我有两个问题。第一,国家级转基因大豆玉米品种审定标准在上月初印发。请问,这是否意味着政府正在加快推进转基因大豆玉米的商业化种植?有分析认为,转基因玉米、大豆品种的上市销售有望在2023年前后落地。对此,农业农村部如何评论?另外,当前对于全球粮食危机的讨论正在升温,美国设置了全球粮食安全事务特使。请问,中国是否会参考类似做法,设置相似职位?中美农业部门在应对全球粮食危机方面会如何合作?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 11:44:29
 
 Zeng Yande:
 
  谢谢您的提问。我先回答第一个问题。转基因技术作为一种新技术,世界各国都在加快创新,我国也建立了相应的研发体系和评价体系,培育了一批有自主知识产权的品种。我想说明一点,我们在推进农业转基因技术的研发过程中,按照中央要求,尊重科学、严格监管,有序推进生物育种产业化应用。主要是以下三点:
 
  第一,依法依规。我们按照种子法和农作物转基因生物管理规定,制定了转基因安全评价、品种审定、种子生产经营、植物品种命名等规章制度。
 
  第二,严格监管。刚才你说到,国家农作物品种审定委员会制定了国家级转基因大豆、玉米品种审定标准,并在6月份发布实施。这个标准主要是在相应的非转基因品种审定标准基础上做加法,丰产性、抗病性等基本条件是一致的,只是增加了转基因品种的抗虫、耐除草剂等目标性状的规定。同时,对研发试验、种子生产经营等关键节点的监管都是很严格的,对违法违规行为,发现一起,严查一起。执法是严格的,效果是好的。
 
  第三,转基因产业化应用试点在有序推进。对于获得生产应用安全性证书的转基因玉米、大豆品种,我们开展一定的试种试验,目前正在有序推进。从去年的试点效果看,效果是不错的,今年是第二年,我们仍然严格按照规定和要求有序开展试点。
 
  第二个问题,粮食安全是全球共同关注的问题,粮食安全也是构建人类命运共同体最重要的物质基础,这也是当前全球最关注的问题之一。当前看,新冠肺炎疫情和地缘冲突对全球农业生产和农产品供给造成了影响,全球农业贸易体系存在的结构性问题也更加突出。我们也注意到,疫情发生以来,有一些国家采取了粮食和农产品限制出口措施,对区域和全球粮食安全造成了影响。中国政府有力应对,采取了有效措施,从工作看,主要有以下三个方面:
 
  第一,全力抓好国内粮食稳产保供。我们注重粮食生产能力提升,抓住种子耕地两个要害,加强高标准农田建设,加快育种创新,提升粮食产能。现在看,我们这点做得很好。去年我国人均粮食占有量达到483公斤,远高于世界公认的安全标准。中国立足于自身资源,成功解决了占全球1/5人口的吃饭问题,这本身就是对保障全球粮食安全的重要贡献。这一点是大家有目共睹的,也是世界认可的。
 
  第二,积极推进农业国际合作。中国积极履行国际责任,通过农业南南合作、多边双边粮食援助等,积极帮助广大发展中国家提高农业生产和粮食安全水平。中国是向联合国粮农组织南南合作捐资最多、派出专家最多的国家。这是我们多年坚持的。
 
  第三,加强中美合作。中美都是农业大国,应在共同维护全球粮食安全方面发挥积极作用。去年以来,中美两国农业部门的互动良好,双方在工作层面就加强粮食安全开展合作沟通,未来还在相关政策协调、技术合作、人员交流等方面形成了一些有积极进展的项目意向。这将为全球粮食安全体系和农产品市场注入更多确定性,也有利于维护全球的粮食安全。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 12:00:04
 
  农民日报记者:
 
  社会都比较关注脱贫人口的增收情况。请问,今年上半年脱贫地区脱贫人口收入情况怎么样?下一步有哪些措施守住不发生规模性返贫的底线?谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 12:06:09
 
 Zeng Yande:
 
  谢谢你的提问。脱贫攻坚成果的巩固一个重要的标志是脱贫人口的持续增收。今年以来,各地各部门积极应对新冠肺炎疫情、包括经济下行压力的影响,持续开展防止返贫动态监测,强化产业帮扶和稳岗就业,多措并举促进脱贫人口增收。现在我们预计上半年脱贫县农村居民人均可支配收入增速继续高于全国平均水平,这也是今年上半年一个不错的成绩。
 
  下一步,农业农村部将会同国家乡村振兴局认真贯彻落实党中央、国务院的决策部署,更多用发展的办法巩固脱贫攻坚成果、衔接推进乡村振兴,守住不发生规模性返贫的底线。
 
  第一,发展特色产业增收。这也是脱贫人口稳定增收的一个重要途径。通过深入实施脱贫地区特色种养业提升行动,推动将中央财政衔接资金用于产业发展比重提高到55%,支持脱贫地区建设标准化生产基地、农产品加工和仓储保鲜冷链物流设施,加快发展就业容量大、联农带农效果好的特色优势产业,吸纳农民就近就业增收。
 
  第二,稳定务工就业收入。这一块在脱贫地区农民收入中占较大比重,去年占到66%。我们当前要确保脱贫人口务工就业规模稳定在3000万以上,这是今年一个明确的任务。落实这项措施重点是两方面:一是稳住转移就业。组织实施“雨露计划+”就业促进行动,加大东西部劳务协作力度,引导农民有序外出务工。二是拓展本地就业。解决好就业帮扶车间面临的实际困难,扩大以工代赈规模,适当增加乡村公益性岗位,让脱贫劳动力在家门口有活干、有钱赚。
 
  第三,推进产销衔接增收。下半年,脱贫地区特色农产品将集中上市,我们要多渠道推进产销衔接,依托大型农产品电商平台,利用中国农民丰收节、中国国际农产品交易会等节庆展会,举办国内线上线下产销对接活动,组织东部地区、中央定点帮扶单位加大脱贫地区农产品采购力度,让优质农产品卖得顺畅、卖上好价钱。
 
  第四,落实扶持政策增收。目前,中央确定的主要衔接政策全部出台,实现了平稳过渡。要进一步健全防返贫机制,将有返贫致贫风险的农户全部纳入监测对象,及时落实产业就业、社会救助、医疗保障等针对性帮扶措施,做到“应纳尽纳”“应帮尽帮”。同时,规范公益性资产后续管理,强化经营性资产运营管理,加大到户类资产指导帮扶,释放更多的政策红利。谢谢。
 
  2022-07-20 12:06:32
 
  邢慧娜:
 
  今天的发布会就到这儿。感谢几位发布人,也感谢各位媒体朋友!
 
  2022-07-20 12:07:11