In order to strengthen the comprehensive prevention and control of wheat stripe rust nationwide, promote the sustainable control of wheat stripe rust, and ensure national food security, combined with the implementation of the”Research on the disaster mechanism and sustainable prevention and control technology of wheat stripe rust” project of the national key research and development plan of the”14th five year plan”, the National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center and the national agricultural technology integration and Innovation Center organized and formulated the”cross regional and full cycle green prevention and control technology plan of wheat stripe rust”. All localities are requested to refine technical measures and guide the prevention and control work in combination with the actual situation.
July 20, 2022
Cross regional and full cycle green prevention and control technology scheme of Wheat Stripe Rust
National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center
National agricultural technology integration and Innovation Center
Wheat stripe rust is the most serious regional epidemic disease affecting the yield of wheat in China. In recent years, due to climate change and the change of planting structure, the epidemic frequency of stripe rust has increased, and the damage and loss have increased, posing a great threat to wheat production. This plan is formulated to promote the sustainable control of wheat stripe rust, effectively control the epidemic of the disease, reduce damage and losses, and ensure national food security.
I. prevention and control strategies and objectives
(I) prevention and control strategies. Implement the plant protection policy of”prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control”, adhere to the strategy of”combination of long and short, treatment of both symptoms and root causes, zoning management, and comprehensive prevention and control”, focus on the management of over summering areas, take the control of over wintering areas and winter breeding areas as the key, and take the prevention of spring epidemic areas as the guarantee, integrate and innovate the cross regional full cycle prevention and control technology system, establish a continuous control mechanism of wheat stripe rust, plan as a whole, and promote it in an all-round way.
(II) prevention and control objectives. By the end of the”14th five year plan”, the epidemic frequency and intensity of wheat stripe rust in China had significantly decreased. The occurrence area in general years was controlled below 30million mu, and the average damage loss rate in the occurrence area was controlled below 5%. The coverage rate of green prevention and control of stripe rust is more than 50%, and the dominance rate of professional unified prevention and control is more than 60%, so as to achieve the sustainable control goals of reducing output losses, reducing prevention and control investment, alleviating environmental pressure, and increasing grain income, so as to ensure national food security.
II. Key technologies
(I) accurate monitoring and prediction technology. Make full use of remote sensing technology, spore capture technology and big data technology to establish an automated monitoring system for stripe rust, establish a monitoring and early warning network in the epidemic area of stripe rust, and monitor the source of stripe rust and the incidence in the field in real time. Develop and apply early diagnosis and prediction technology, release the forecast in time, and guide the prevention and control work.
(II) monitoring technology of toxic variation of stripe rust pathogen. Berberis, as an important host of stripe rust, is an important place for stripe rust to reproduce and mutate sexually. Winter spores are the main form of stripe rust from wheat to Berberis. By covering the stack of wheat straw in the key summer and winter areas in the northwest, eradicating Berberis around the wheat field in spring and summer, or spraying pesticides on infected Berberis, we can block the sexual reproduction of stripe rust, reduce the mutation probability of stripe rust, slow down or prevent the production of new toxic races, so as to reduce the pressure on disease resistant varieties and prolong the service life of disease resistant varieties.
(III) reduce the number of bacterial sources and reduce transmission technology. The number of bacteria plays an important role in the spread of epidemic. By adjusting the planting structure in the over summer area, increasing the proportion of autumn sowing with chemicals, eradicating or ploughing and reducing the number of self growing wheat seedlings, the initial amount of bacterial sources that spread outward can be reduced. Overwintering areas and winter breeding areas, by strengthening early diagnosis and monitoring, discover and control the incoming bacterial sources in time, carry out”drug detection” in autumn, winter and early spring, prevent and control one piece at a time, and carry out drug prevention and control in key areas to reduce the local incidence area and reduce the number of external bacterial sources.
(IV) reasonable distribution technology of different types of disease resistant varieties. In each epidemic area of stripe rust, according to the characteristics of different ecological areas and the epidemic transmission route of stripe rust, different varieties of disease resistance genes should be reasonably used, and the layout should be carried out in different areas to establish a biological barrier to prevent the cross regional transmission of the pathogen. Disease resistant varieties in the whole growth period should be planted in overwintering areas and winter breeding areas; Disease resistant varieties at adult stage can be planted in spring epidemic areas.
(V) cross regional emergency prevention and control technology. According to the epidemic characteristics of wheat stripe rust in large areas, emergency prevention and control should be carried out in areas where stripe rust is prevalent rapidly and severely damaged. In combination with the application of”one spray and three prevention” measures at the ear stage of wheat, targeted fungicides, pesticides and leaf fertilizer are used to comprehensively prevent and control stripe rust and other pests, improve the control effect and ensure the safety of wheat production.
III. zoning technical scheme
(I) over summer area. It mainly includes Southeast Gansu, central Gansu, South Ningxia, Northwest Sichuan and Haidong of Qinghai in Northwest and southwest regions, as well as high-altitude winter wheat areas such as Yunnan and Guizhou. It is the source base of wheat stripe rust and the key area of variation. The core of its management is to reduce the source of wheat stripe rust, prevent variation and prevent the outward spread of the source of wheat stripe rust. Technical points:
1. Adjust crop planting structure. Using biodiversity technology, we will implement structural adjustment in the key areas of summering in the northwest and southwest, planting rape, beans, potatoes, traditional Chinese medicine, vegetables, highland barley, etc., which will not only increase economic income, but also reduce the planting area of wheat in the summering area to a certain extent, and directly reduce the bacterial source base.
2. Suppressor stripe rust has sexual variation. In the key over summer area in Northwest China, where Berberis grow densely around the wheat field, measures such as covering the stack of wheat straw, eradicating Berberis around the wheat field or spraying pesticides on infected Berberis are taken to block the sexual reproduction of stripe rust, reduce the mutation probability of stripe rust, slow down the production rate of new toxic races of stripe rust, and extend the service life of disease resistant varieties.
3. Eradicate summer and autumn autogenous wheat seedlings. For the key over summer wheat fields and the surrounding self-growing wheat seedlings, deep ploughing, mechanical eradication or herbicide killing techniques are adopted from July to September in summer and autumn to reduce or cut off the host of stripe rust, reduce the incidence of local autumn seedlings, reduce the sources of autumn and winter bacteria in over summer areas, and reduce the number of externally transmitted sources.
4. Optimize the distribution of disease resistant varieties. Combine the quality requirements of local growers for wheat, make full use of variety resistance, and promote the planting of disease resistant varieties in the whole growth period. Strengthen the layout planning of disease resistant varieties, adopt the layout of multi resistant varieties, and pay attention to the selection of wheat varieties with large differences in genetic background from other wheat areas, so as to slow down the variation of pathogens.
5. Promote seed dressing with autumn sowing chemicals. In key over summer areas, implement full coverage of seed dressing with wheat autumn sowing chemicals to prevent white seeds from being planted. Wheat seed coating or seed dressing was carried out with high-efficiency and low toxicity fungicide with internal absorption conductivity. At the same time, we should promote late sowing at appropriate time according to local conditions, reduce the infection rate of autumn seedlings, reduce early bacterial sources, control the area and degree of occurrence, and effectively reduce the amount of external bacterial sources.
6. Implement prevention and control in autumn seedling period. Strengthen the dynamic monitoring and early warning and prediction of stripe rust, detect it as soon as possible, carry out the prevention and control of autumn seedlings in the over summer area in time, reduce the base number of bacterial sources and reduce the number of externally transmitted bacterial sources. Strengthen the sharing of disease information and guide the prevention and control of winter breeding areas.
7. Implement unified disease control in the later stage. After returning to green in spring, according to the occurrence of the disease in the field, when the disease reaches the control index, chemical agents should be used in time to carry out unified control and control to control the epidemic harm of the disease.
(II) overwintering area and winter breeding area. It mainly includes the southwest basin, Yunnan Guizhou low mountain valley, Shaanxi Hubei Henan Han River Basin and other wheat areas, as well as Shaanxi Guanzhong irrigation area and Weibei Dry Source wheat area. These two regions are important sources of wheat stripe rust in spring in the local area and the vast winter wheat area of Huang Huai, and are also key control areas to reduce the intensity of large-scale epidemic. The core of its governance is to reduce the number of bacterial sources, prevent the spread of bacterial sources, and control the epidemic in the later stage. The technical points are:
1. Rational utilization of disease resistant varieties. Strengthen the distribution of varieties with multiple resistance sources, increase the genetic diversity of disease resistance of varieties, and prevent the simplification of disease resistance genes. Plant varieties with different resistance sources from summer and spring epidemic areas, and try to plant disease resistant varieties in the whole growth period when conditions permit. Promote intercropping or interplanting of wheat with barley, broad beans, vegetables, corn, potatoes and other crops in winter breeding areas to increase species diversity.
2. Seed dressing with wheat autumn sowing chemicals. For the varieties that are not resistant to disease at seedling stage, combined with the prevention and control of soil borne diseases and underground pests of wheat, select high-efficiency internal absorption conductive fungicides or seed coating agents for wheat seed treatment, and implement full coverage of coating or seed dressing. At the same time, according to the climatic conditions of the year, late sowing at the appropriate time avoids or shortens the infection period of bacteria, postpones the onset time in autumn, and reduces the base number of winter propagation sources.
3. Autumn seedling monitoring and prevention. Strengthen the investigation of the disease in the field, grasp the dynamics of the disease, timely select high-efficiency and low toxicity triazole and other fungicides when the disease is found, carry out”drug detection, dot and protect the face” prevention and control, reduce the damage to the local autumn seedlings, and reduce the number of bacterial sources before spring.
4. Emergency prevention and control in spring. In early spring, prevention and control should be carried out as soon as possible according to the occurrence of field diseases, so as to achieve”early prevention and small prevention”. Do a good job in emergency prevention and control and disease source interception in key areas, so as to reduce the late disease epidemic and external bacterial sources; In the middle and late stage of wheat, when the disease condition of stripe rust in the field reaches the control index, general control should be carried out in an all-round way.
(III) spring epidemic areas. It mainly includes most wheat areas such as the Huang Huai Hai Plain, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the Hetao spring wheat area, which is the focus of wheat stripe rust prevention and control in spring. The core of its management is:early detection, early prevention and control, and strict prevention of large-scale epidemic of diseases. Technical points:
1. Promote disease resistant varieties. On the basis of taking into account the yield and quality of wheat, varieties with strong disease resistance at the adult stage should be planted as much as possible, and disease resistant varieties with different resistance sources from summer areas, key winter areas and winter breeding areas should be promoted.
2. Strengthen early monitoring. Adopt advanced monitoring means such as early diagnosis and real-time monitoring, give full play to the role of information sharing mechanism, master the disease dynamics of cross regional summer, winter and winter breeding areas, strengthen monitoring in this area, and early detection and early warning.
3. Carry out scientific prevention and control. In the wheat area near the winter breeding area in the southern part of the Huang Huai River, measures such as”reconnaissance with drugs, management and surface protection” were taken at the seedling stage to control the early occurrence of stripe rust and prevent the rapid spread of the disease in a large area. When the disease reaches the control index in the middle and late stage of wheat growth, unified control and emergency control should be carried out in time to control the large-scale epidemic of wheat stripe rust.
IV. promotion mechanism
(I) strengthen organizational leadership. We should actively seek the support of the local government, integrate the control of wheat stripe rust into the local agricultural and rural economic development planning, formulate the prevention and control plan and emergency plan of wheat stripe rust, incorporate the prevention and control funds into the government budget, and implement the prevention and control materials and technical forces; The responsibility for prevention and control should be compacted, and the prevention and control of wheat stripe rust should be included in the performance evaluation indicators of the local administrative directors at all levels above the township level, so as to improve the guarantee ability of technology promotion.
(II) strengthen the monitoring ability. Make full use of infrastructure construction projects such as the animal and plant protection capacity improvement project, improve the monitoring and prevention system of wheat stripe rust, establish systematic investigation fields and fixed-point observation nurseries of wheat stripe rust in key occurrence areas, improve the accuracy and timeliness of disease prediction, and provide technical support for the implementation of sustainable management of wheat stripe rust.
(III) strengthen technology demonstration. Establish a cross regional and whole week system for stripe rust in the areas with frequent and repeated diseases期绿色防控示范基地。开展当地主栽品种抗病性的监测与评价，制定当地品种引进与淘汰以及种植布局规划；集成推广条锈病跨区域全周期绿色防控技术模式，形成适合当地防控技术方案，指导所在区域防控工作。