In recent years, agricultural informatization plays an increasingly strong supporting role in modern agriculture, especially the application of digital technology, which plays an increasingly prominent role in accelerating the construction of modern agriculture, transforming the mode of agricultural development, improving the comprehensive agricultural production capacity, ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products and increasing farmers’ income. Fruit industry is a traditional advantageous and characteristic industry in Shandong Province, which has high added value and good benefits, and plays an important role in the development of agricultural and rural economy in the province. At present, the development of fruit industry in Shandong Province has entered a critical stage of transformation and upgrading. The development of modern fruit industry has become an important starting point to promote the revitalization of rural industry, and the application of digital technology is an important symbol of modern fruit industry. This paper clarifies the connotation of digital orchards, around the development status and application forms of digital orchards in Shandong Province, deeply analyzes the constraints of the high-quality development of digital orchards in Shandong Province, and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to promote the high-quality development of digital orchards in Shandong Province.
Basic situation of digital orchard development in Shandong Province
Connotation of digital orchard
Digital orchard can be understood as a modern orchard that takes information as a factor of fruit production and uses technical means such as the Internet of things to visually express, digitally design and manage the information in the whole production process. Its main purpose is to realize the digitization, networking and automation of fruit production. The advanced stage of development is smart orchard. The purpose of the application of orchard digital technology is to reduce production costs, improve resource utilization and improve production efficiency on the premise of improving the output and quality of fruits.
Development status of digital orchard in Shandong Province
In 2021, the orchard area of Shandong Province reached 610600 Hm2, and the output was 19.139 million tons. The average yield per unit area was nearly twice that of the country, and the area and output had been in the forefront of the country for many years. Driven by the demonstration of the provincial modern agricultural development fund (efficient and characteristic agricultural development platform) fruit industry project, the province has developed more than 40000 hm2 of modern dwarf rootstock intensive and efficient cultivation mode orchards, focusing on the promotion of Apple modern dwarf rootstock intensive cultivation mode and supporting technologies such as the Internet of things, integration of water and fertilizer, and green prevention and control of diseases and pests. Among them, the application demonstration garden of Internet of things technology accounts for more than 8.3%, playing a good demonstration and leading role, It can be said that the province has the industrial foundation and advantages to develop digital orchards.
In 2013, Shandong Provincial Department of agriculture and Shandong Provincial Department of Finance issued the implementation opinions on the construction of Shandong Agricultural Internet of things technology application demonstration project. At present, an agricultural Internet of things pattern based on the application of digital technology has been established, which vertically covers agricultural departments and production units at all levels in the province, and horizontally includes planting, animal husbandry, agricultural machinery, circulation, processing, quality and safety of agricultural products. In the field of fruit production, 10 digital and intelligent management demonstration counties such as Qixia, Penglai and Rongcheng have been built. The area of orchards with the application of digital technology is more than 3000hm2. Through the digital Internet of things technology, the environmental conditions of orchards, the growth status of fruit trees and the occurrence of pests and diseases are monitored in real time, and the corresponding management measures are taken in time by using the expert management system to realize automatic and intelligent control.
The digital application of orchards across the province is different. The overall situation is that the eastern traditional fruit production areas are stronger than the central and western regions. The main fruit production areas in Jiaodong have a large number of orchards using digital technology, and the regional digital technology R & D and application services are relatively mature. According to the statistics of the business department, the proportion of orchards using physical sensor equipment such as growth environment and soil physics and chemistry in apple production in Yantai and Weihai is 5%- 7%, and the proportion of orchards using water and fertilizer integration technology is about 20%; Facility orchards are more commonly used in agricultural environment monitoring system, production management control system and video monitoring system.
Main application forms of digital orchard in Shandong Province
IOT production monitoring
The monitoring objects of orchard IOT are mainly meteorological environment, soil moisture and fruit tree growth. On the one hand, meteorological environment monitoring can realize real-time monitoring of orchard lighting, air temperature and humidity, rainfall, wind speed and other data. By setting early warning values, the production indicators can be accurately controlled after the alarm; On the other hand, the system can connect with satellite data to carry out weather forecast in the next 24 hours or 72 hours, give early warning of extreme weather such as late spring cold, hail and heavy rainfall, and remind producers and operators to prepare for disaster prevention and mitigation. In terms of soil moisture, it mainly monitors the soil pH value, dissolved oxygen, water level, temperature and humidity and other data. By setting the early warning value, the system will automatically send out early warning information, so as to achieve the precise control of orchard fertilizer and water. Monitoring the growth of fruit trees, by erecting 720 ° high-definition camera at the appropriate position in the park, we can check the growth of fruit trees in real time, and can automatically turn to emergency video for emergencies. The Yinzi company of Shandong land group has built a 50hm2 high standard modern dwarf rootstock intensive cultivation orchard in Rongcheng City. The base is fully equipped with the Internet of things monitoring system, and has cooperated with Tsinghua Tongfang to develop an intelligent inspection robot system, which realizes the digital monitoring and automatic management of the environmental changes in the whole park and the growth of fruit trees, greatly saving labor costs and improving the utilization rate of resources.
Green prevention and control and pest monitoring
The pest monitoring and trapping system can realize the remote control of the orchard pest situation and nuisance free trapping and killing. The equipment can automatically identify and count the types of pests, and automatically trap and kill pollution-free insects. Producers observe pest images through high-definition cameras and formulate prevention and control measures in time. Weihai Cuihong Fruit Co., Ltd. has a modern apple planting base of more than 260 hm2 and various seedling bases of more than 30 hm2. In recent years, it has vigorously promoted the development of”Internet + Apple” and introduced advanced intelligent plant protection monitoring and electrostatic plant protection equipment, saving pesticides by more than 70%every year and improving production efficiency by more than 60%.
Integrated management and control of water and fertilizer
According to the monitored soil moisture data, combined with the water and fertilizer demand law of fruit trees, a scientific and accurate fertilizer and water control plan is formulated. Through the water and fertilizer integration facilities and equipment, according to the established formula, automatically control the irrigation period, irrigation volume, fertilizer concentration and other important parameters, and automatically complete the quantitative and timing control of fertilizer and water (also through remote manual control such as mobile phones and desktop computers), so as to realize the precise management of fertilizer and water, improve the utilization rate of fertilizer and water, improve the soil environment, and improve the fruit quality. Yiyuan Zhongyi fruit industry modern agricultural science and technology demonstration park has a modern apple planting base of more than 60 Hm2, all of which adopt intelligent integrated water and fertilizer management system to realize digital and information management such as intelligent water and fertilizer control, safety and early warning, flow direction and information inquiry, and realize the comprehensive perception and interconnection of people, things and information in the park, saving fertilizer by 80%, water by 45%, labor by 70%, and the rate of excellent fruit by more than 20%, Cost saving and efficiency increase of more than 2500 yuan per mu.
Intelligent greenhouse (greenhouse) control
Through desktop or mobile app, you can remotely and manually control the facilities and equipment of multiple greenhouses, including rolling shutters, heating lamps, sprinkler drip irrigation, fans, etc. It can also set rules according to time, weather, soil and other data, and the system will automatically carry out irrigation, ventilation, opening and closing skylights and other operations.
Blockchain fruit traceability
Through the application of Internet of things technology, automatic collection of production links (fertilization, irrigation, weeding and other agricultural operation records, production environment data, full growth cycle HD, traceability of production links), processing links (product detection, processing, packaging, whole process tracking records), transportation links (docking vehicle monitoring equipment, collection of logistics data, traceability of distribution and transportation) The relevant data of the sales link (anti-counterfeiting and authentication one by one, counting the number of people scanning each fruit code, geographical distribution, and monitoring the sales market in real time), establishing”ID cards” for agricultural products, achieving full traceability, building high-end fruit brands, helping enterprises to control the dynamics of the fruit market in real time and adjust the market sales direction and strategy in time. In terms of quality control, the Quality Traceability Technology of agricultural products is used to access apple production, testing, processing, packaging and other data to the information platform. Consumers can understand the enterprise information, brand information and the tracking records of the whole process of apple with a gentle sweep of their mobile phones.
Orchard UAV Remote Sensing Monitoring
The ground to air monitoring network is constructed by using the multi rotor UAV remote sensing platform and the ground in-situ observation spectral sensor. The UAV is fully automatic and intelligent control, equipped with high-definition digital and multispectral cameras to obtain a wide range of orchard environmental status, terrain, fruit tree nutrient status, leaf area and other information, and at the same time, combined with the ground fruit tree canopy spectral sensor to realize the monitoring system of space matching; Cooperate with data acquisition and server-side data management software to realize real-time analysis of leaf area, coverage, chlorophyll, recommended fertilization and other information.
High quality digital orchard in Shandong Province
Constraints on Development
At this stage, the research and application of digital orchards in the province are gradually deepening. The government and large-scale business entities have realized the great benefits of the application of digital technology for improving the fine management of orchards, improving the quality of fruits and marketing management level, and began to invest human, material and financial resources in the construction of digital orchards. However, compared with developed countries such as Europe and the United States, it is still an emerging field and still faces many problems.
The production concept lags behind, and the understanding needs to be improved
Although some large-scale business entities have recognized the development opportunities of digital orchards, the vast majority of fruit farmers who plant small-scale orchards still have insufficient understanding and lagging concepts. They believe that only the input of agricultural materials such as pesticides and fertilizers can bring output and benefits. The automation and intelligent mode of fruit production is still far away from themselves. The input of equipment such as the Internet of things is a waste, and they generally lack a correct understanding of the development of smart orchards.
Lack of technical talents and backward management level
The scientific and cultural quality of fruit farmers is uneven, the overall level is not high, the management ability is low, the ability to accept high-tech is weak, and the understanding and application of information technology is less, which affects the promotion of digital orchard technology. The lack of high-quality technical talents has become the biggest obstacle to the development of smart orchards.
Imperfect infrastructure and low modernization
The infrastructure construction of orchards in the province is still dominated by traditional water, roads, ditches, etc. there are few carrier and platform infrastructure based on the use of integrated application computer and network, Internet of things technology, mobile terminal technology, 3S (remote sensing technology, geographic information technology, global positioning system) technology, and there is a lack of modern facilities and equipment in the construction of orchards.
Data acquisition is difficult, and the degree of sharing is not enough
There are many factors affecting fruit production, and there are various types of orchard data. The data sources involve many fields, such as meteorology, soil, diseases and pests, growth and outcome, etc. at the same time, affected by collection facilities and equipment, it is difficult to obtain massive data. At present, the collection volume of big data of orchards in the province is still very limited, the collection cost is high, and the sharing level of stock data is low, which is difficult to guide production and operation from the macro level.
The data uniformity is poor, and the accuracy needs to be improved
The data collected by orchard using digital technology includes multiple structural categories such as numerical value, graphics and text, video, etc. there is no consistent data structure, and the uniformity is poor. The process of collecting data is easily affected by the changes of facilities and natural environment, as well as the subjectivity of producers’ business model and planting experience容影响，导致采集数据的精准度不高。果园物联网技术仍处于应用推广阶段，采集数据的方式、方法有待规范，数据精准度有待提高。