Research on the current situation and Countermeasures of digital orchard development in Shandong Province
By: Date: 2022-07-14 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
In recent years, agricultural informatization plays an increasingly strong supporting role in modern agriculture, especially the application of digital technology, which plays an increasingly prominent role in accelerating the construction of modern agriculture, transforming the mode of agricultural development, improving the comprehensive agricultural production capacity, ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products and increasing farmers’ income. Fruit industry is a traditional advantageous and characteristic industry in Shandong Province, which has high added value and good benefits, and plays an important role in the development of agricultural and rural economy in the province. At present, the development of fruit industry in Shandong Province has entered a critical stage of transformation and upgrading. The development of modern fruit industry has become an important starting point to promote the revitalization of rural industry, and the application of digital technology is an important symbol of modern fruit industry. This paper clarifies the connotation of digital orchards, around the development status and application forms of digital orchards in Shandong Province, deeply analyzes the constraints of the high-quality development of digital orchards in Shandong Province, and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to promote the high-quality development of digital orchards in Shandong Province.
 
Basic situation of digital orchard development in Shandong Province

Connotation of digital orchard
 
Digital orchard can be understood as a modern orchard that takes information as a factor of fruit production and uses technical means such as the Internet of things to visually express, digitally design and manage the information in the whole production process. Its main purpose is to realize the digitization, networking and automation of fruit production. The advanced stage of development is smart orchard. The purpose of the application of orchard digital technology is to reduce production costs, improve resource utilization and improve production efficiency on the premise of improving the output and quality of fruits.
 
Development status of digital orchard in Shandong Province
 
In 2021, the orchard area of Shandong Province reached 610600 Hm2, and the output was 19.139 million tons. The average yield per unit area was nearly twice that of the country, and the area and output had been in the forefront of the country for many years. Driven by the demonstration of the provincial modern agricultural development fund (efficient and characteristic agricultural development platform) fruit industry project, the province has developed more than 40000 hm2 of modern dwarf rootstock intensive and efficient cultivation mode orchards, focusing on the promotion of Apple modern dwarf rootstock intensive cultivation mode and supporting technologies such as the Internet of things, integration of water and fertilizer, and green prevention and control of diseases and pests. Among them, the application demonstration garden of Internet of things technology accounts for more than 8.3%, playing a good demonstration and leading role, It can be said that the province has the industrial foundation and advantages to develop digital orchards.
 
In 2013, Shandong Provincial Department of agriculture and Shandong Provincial Department of Finance issued the implementation opinions on the construction of Shandong Agricultural Internet of things technology application demonstration project. At present, an agricultural Internet of things pattern based on the application of digital technology has been established, which vertically covers agricultural departments and production units at all levels in the province, and horizontally includes planting, animal husbandry, agricultural machinery, circulation, processing, quality and safety of agricultural products. In the field of fruit production, 10 digital and intelligent management demonstration counties such as Qixia, Penglai and Rongcheng have been built. The area of orchards with the application of digital technology is more than 3000hm2. Through the digital Internet of things technology, the environmental conditions of orchards, the growth status of fruit trees and the occurrence of pests and diseases are monitored in real time, and the corresponding management measures are taken in time by using the expert management system to realize automatic and intelligent control.
 
The digital application of orchards across the province is different. The overall situation is that the eastern traditional fruit production areas are stronger than the central and western regions. The main fruit production areas in Jiaodong have a large number of orchards using digital technology, and the regional digital technology R & D and application services are relatively mature. According to the statistics of the business department, the proportion of orchards using physical sensor equipment such as growth environment and soil physics and chemistry in apple production in Yantai and Weihai is 5%- 7%, and the proportion of orchards using water and fertilizer integration technology is about 20%; Facility orchards are more commonly used in agricultural environment monitoring system, production management control system and video monitoring system.
 
Main application forms of digital orchard in Shandong Province

IOT production monitoring
 
The monitoring objects of orchard IOT are mainly meteorological environment, soil moisture and fruit tree growth. On the one hand, meteorological environment monitoring can realize real-time monitoring of orchard lighting, air temperature and humidity, rainfall, wind speed and other data. By setting early warning values, the production indicators can be accurately controlled after the alarm; On the other hand, the system can connect with satellite data to carry out weather forecast in the next 24 hours or 72 hours, give early warning of extreme weather such as late spring cold, hail and heavy rainfall, and remind producers and operators to prepare for disaster prevention and mitigation. In terms of soil moisture, it mainly monitors the soil pH value, dissolved oxygen, water level, temperature and humidity and other data. By setting the early warning value, the system will automatically send out early warning information, so as to achieve the precise control of orchard fertilizer and water. Monitoring the growth of fruit trees, by erecting 720 ° high-definition camera at the appropriate position in the park, we can check the growth of fruit trees in real time, and can automatically turn to emergency video for emergencies. The Yinzi company of Shandong land group has built a 50hm2 high standard modern dwarf rootstock intensive cultivation orchard in Rongcheng City. The base is fully equipped with the Internet of things monitoring system, and has cooperated with Tsinghua Tongfang to develop an intelligent inspection robot system, which realizes the digital monitoring and automatic management of the environmental changes in the whole park and the growth of fruit trees, greatly saving labor costs and improving the utilization rate of resources.
 
Green prevention and control and pest monitoring
 
The pest monitoring and trapping system can realize the remote control of the orchard pest situation and nuisance free trapping and killing. The equipment can automatically identify and count the types of pests, and automatically trap and kill pollution-free insects. Producers observe pest images through high-definition cameras and formulate prevention and control measures in time. Weihai Cuihong Fruit Co., Ltd. has a modern apple planting base of more than 260 hm2 and various seedling bases of more than 30 hm2. In recent years, it has vigorously promoted the development of”Internet + Apple” and introduced advanced intelligent plant protection monitoring and electrostatic plant protection equipment, saving pesticides by more than 70%every year and improving production efficiency by more than 60%.
 
  Integrated management and control of water and fertilizer
 
According to the monitored soil moisture data, combined with the water and fertilizer demand law of fruit trees, a scientific and accurate fertilizer and water control plan is formulated. Through the water and fertilizer integration facilities and equipment, according to the established formula, automatically control the irrigation period, irrigation volume, fertilizer concentration and other important parameters, and automatically complete the quantitative and timing control of fertilizer and water (also through remote manual control such as mobile phones and desktop computers), so as to realize the precise management of fertilizer and water, improve the utilization rate of fertilizer and water, improve the soil environment, and improve the fruit quality. Yiyuan Zhongyi fruit industry modern agricultural science and technology demonstration park has a modern apple planting base of more than 60 Hm2, all of which adopt intelligent integrated water and fertilizer management system to realize digital and information management such as intelligent water and fertilizer control, safety and early warning, flow direction and information inquiry, and realize the comprehensive perception and interconnection of people, things and information in the park, saving fertilizer by 80%, water by 45%, labor by 70%, and the rate of excellent fruit by more than 20%, Cost saving and efficiency increase of more than 2500 yuan per mu.
 
 Intelligent greenhouse (greenhouse) control
 
Through desktop or mobile app, you can remotely and manually control the facilities and equipment of multiple greenhouses, including rolling shutters, heating lamps, sprinkler drip irrigation, fans, etc. It can also set rules according to time, weather, soil and other data, and the system will automatically carry out irrigation, ventilation, opening and closing skylights and other operations.
 
Blockchain fruit traceability
 
Through the application of Internet of things technology, automatic collection of production links (fertilization, irrigation, weeding and other agricultural operation records, production environment data, full growth cycle HD, traceability of production links), processing links (product detection, processing, packaging, whole process tracking records), transportation links (docking vehicle monitoring equipment, collection of logistics data, traceability of distribution and transportation) The relevant data of the sales link (anti-counterfeiting and authentication one by one, counting the number of people scanning each fruit code, geographical distribution, and monitoring the sales market in real time), establishing”ID cards” for agricultural products, achieving full traceability, building high-end fruit brands, helping enterprises to control the dynamics of the fruit market in real time and adjust the market sales direction and strategy in time. In terms of quality control, the Quality Traceability Technology of agricultural products is used to access apple production, testing, processing, packaging and other data to the information platform. Consumers can understand the enterprise information, brand information and the tracking records of the whole process of apple with a gentle sweep of their mobile phones.
 
Orchard UAV Remote Sensing Monitoring
 
The ground to air monitoring network is constructed by using the multi rotor UAV remote sensing platform and the ground in-situ observation spectral sensor. The UAV is fully automatic and intelligent control, equipped with high-definition digital and multispectral cameras to obtain a wide range of orchard environmental status, terrain, fruit tree nutrient status, leaf area and other information, and at the same time, combined with the ground fruit tree canopy spectral sensor to realize the monitoring system of space matching; Cooperate with data acquisition and server-side data management software to realize real-time analysis of leaf area, coverage, chlorophyll, recommended fertilization and other information.
 
High quality digital orchard in Shandong Province

Constraints on Development
 
At this stage, the research and application of digital orchards in the province are gradually deepening. The government and large-scale business entities have realized the great benefits of the application of digital technology for improving the fine management of orchards, improving the quality of fruits and marketing management level, and began to invest human, material and financial resources in the construction of digital orchards. However, compared with developed countries such as Europe and the United States, it is still an emerging field and still faces many problems.
 
The production concept lags behind, and the understanding needs to be improved
 
Although some large-scale business entities have recognized the development opportunities of digital orchards, the vast majority of fruit farmers who plant small-scale orchards still have insufficient understanding and lagging concepts. They believe that only the input of agricultural materials such as pesticides and fertilizers can bring output and benefits. The automation and intelligent mode of fruit production is still far away from themselves. The input of equipment such as the Internet of things is a waste, and they generally lack a correct understanding of the development of smart orchards.
 
Lack of technical talents and backward management level
 
The scientific and cultural quality of fruit farmers is uneven, the overall level is not high, the management ability is low, the ability to accept high-tech is weak, and the understanding and application of information technology is less, which affects the promotion of digital orchard technology. The lack of high-quality technical talents has become the biggest obstacle to the development of smart orchards.
 
 Imperfect infrastructure and low modernization
 
The infrastructure construction of orchards in the province is still dominated by traditional water, roads, ditches, etc. there are few carrier and platform infrastructure based on the use of integrated application computer and network, Internet of things technology, mobile terminal technology, 3S (remote sensing technology, geographic information technology, global positioning system) technology, and there is a lack of modern facilities and equipment in the construction of orchards.
 
Data acquisition is difficult, and the degree of sharing is not enough
 
There are many factors affecting fruit production, and there are various types of orchard data. The data sources involve many fields, such as meteorology, soil, diseases and pests, growth and outcome, etc. at the same time, affected by collection facilities and equipment, it is difficult to obtain massive data. At present, the collection volume of big data of orchards in the province is still very limited, the collection cost is high, and the sharing level of stock data is low, which is difficult to guide production and operation from the macro level.
 
The data uniformity is poor, and the accuracy needs to be improved
 
The data collected by orchard using digital technology includes multiple structural categories such as numerical value, graphics and text, video, etc. there is no consistent data structure, and the uniformity is poor. The process of collecting data is easily affected by the changes of facilities and natural environment, as well as the subjectivity of producers’ business model and planting experience容影响,导致采集数据的精准度不高。果园物联网技术仍处于应用推广阶段,采集数据的方式、方法有待规范,数据精准度有待提高。

  数据分析主观性强,利用率待提高
 
  果园采集的数值性数据仅占30%,多媒体数据较多,需要生产者或技术人员解释分析,主观性较强。果园大数据存储较为分散,采集的标准不尽相同,很难进行综合性分析利用,数据利用价值有待进一步挖掘。
 
  山东省推进数字化果园

  高质量发展的对策建议

  健全体制机制,科学制定规划
 
  数字果业发展是一个系统工程,不仅要靠体制机制推动,还要制定科学规划,有序推进数字化果园建设进程。当前,山东省数字果业的发展应关键做到2个方面:一是大力发展全省果业信息网络建设,这是开展数字果业建设的基础,也是智慧农业发展的要求;二是加快开展数字果业方面的科学研究,为数字化果业发展提供科技支撑。对此,山东省要完善体制机制创新,强化数字果业建设领导组织,改变目前由一个或几个部门、几个科技人员单打独斗的局面,达到系统性促进果业数字化发展的目的,同时集中省内科研力量,大力引进国内外科研人才,采取专家项目责任制,集中力量突破现有难题。
 
  加强政策扶持,强化示范引领
 
  现代化果园是数字化技术应用的前提。山东省应在实施高效特色农业发展平台水果产业项目基础上,加大政策扶持力度,通过项目示范引领,大力推广现代矮砧集约高效栽培模式及配套关键技术,建设适应数字化管理的标准化果园,强化生产过程中农机农艺融合,引导果园数字化技术应用。适时组织生产主体参观运营成熟的数字化果园,借鉴成功经验,扩大数字化果园的吸引力、辐射力和影响力,让发展数字化果园成为行动自觉。
 
  开展技能培训,更新生产观念
 
  数字农业时代已经到来,果品生产智慧化发展潮流势不可挡。山东省应把数字化果园建设作为打造乡村振兴齐鲁样板的亮点工程来推进。一是广泛开展技能培训,多渠道培育新型职业果农,加强农业科技人才推荐培养,实施高素质农民培育计划,大力培育新型职业果农,提升新型职业果农发展质量,为数字化果园发展提供源源不断的人才支撑,以满足智慧果园发展需求。二是通过电视、广播、微信公众号等多种方式在农业农村领域广泛宣传智慧果业,引导生产主体正确认识数字化生产技术和智慧果园发展趋势,通过示范推广、亲身体验等形式,让生产主体从思想上迅速适应时代发展潮流,适时做好由传统果园向数字化果园的升级改造,切实提升生产效益。
 
  完善基础设施,提高支撑水平
 
  果园数字化管理系统建设是现代化果园基础设施建设的重要内容。当前,人工智能、物联网、大数据等信息技术飞速发展,精准作业装备、先进传感技术等技术创新日趋完备,且广泛应用于果树生产领域,为数字化果园提供了坚实的技术支撑。生产中,山东省应完善基础设施建设,提升机械化水平,开展农机农艺融合技术应用,尽可能多地应用数字化技术,提高果品生产现代化水平。
 
  构建数据平台,提升利用效率
 
  果园数字化技术推广应与果品生产领域的科学研究相结合,目的是提高生产效率,增加生产效益。山东省应在项目引导基础上,统一对接省内各产区、各园区数据,构建省市县高效特色农业大数据管理信息系统(平台),实现全省果园数据资源的融合、交换与应用,在指导精准生产、预警预测、辅助决策等领域切实发挥作用,提升数据利用效率,引导全省果业智慧化发展。
 
  声  明:本文摘编自《中国果树》2022年第7期“山东省数字化果园发展现状与对策研究”(高群,李明丽,武装,李国栋,王小非,高文胜)。