RCEP column – Guide to RCEP technical trade measures (export fruits and vegetables, Part 1)
By: Date: 2022-07-29 Categories: Internationalfood Tags: ,
In January 2022, the regional comprehensive economic partnership agreement (RCEP) officially entered into force. The first batch of countries to enter into force include six ASEAN member countries, including Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, and four non ASEAN member countries, including China, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. RCEP came into force for South Korea on February 1, Malaysia on March 18, and Myanmar on May 1. The 15 member countries have a total population of 2.27 billion, accounting for nearly 30%of the global population, a GDP of 26 trillion US dollars, and a total export volume of 5.2 trillion US dollars, all accounting for about 30%of the global total.
 
In 2021, China’s export of fruits and vegetables to RCEP member countries was 69.55 billion yuan, accounting for 58.5%of China’s total export value of fruits and vegetables. According to a single country, among the top ten export markets of fruits and vegetables in China, RCEP member countries account for seven, namely Vietnam, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea and the Philippines, with exports of 19.43 billion yuan, 12.46 billion yuan, 8.69 billion yuan, 7.71 billion yuan, 6.35 billion yuan and 4.56 billion yuan respectively, as follows:
RCEP column – Guide to RCEP technical trade measures (export fruits and vegetables, Part 1)image
In order to better implement the requirements of the guiding opinions of the Ministry of Commerce and other six departments on the high-quality implementation of the regional comprehensive economic partnership agreement (RCEP), such as”paying more attention to and studying the technical trade measures of RCEP member countries”, we are now collecting and sorting out the technical trade measures of RCEP fruits and vegetables, in order to provide guidance for fruit and vegetable export enterprises to develop RCEP market.

Vietnam

  01

Regulatory bodies
 
Vietnam进口水果蔬菜安全监管的主要部门有农业和农村发展部(MARD)、贸工部(MOIT)、卫生部(MOH)、科学技术部(MOST)和越南海关总署。
 
  02

Technical regulations and standards
 
Vietnam进口水果蔬菜产品安全监管依据的技术法规主要有《食品安全法》1《海关法》2《植物保护和检疫法》3《农林水产进出口指南(04/2015/TT-BNNPTNT)》4等。
 
Vietnam《限制食品中植物保护药物残留 (50/2016/TT-BYT)》5对水果蔬菜农药的最大残留限量(MRL)进行了规范。《食品添加剂的管理和使用(24/2019/TT-BYT )》6规定了可用的食品添加剂清单及使用限量。《国家食品中微真菌毒素污染限度技术法规(QCVN8-1:2012/BYT)》7《食品重金属污染限度技术法规(QCVN8-2:2011/BYT)》8《国家食品微生物污染技术法规(QCVN8-3:2012/BYT)》9分别规定了微真菌毒素、重金属和微生物等污染物要求。

  03

Conformity assessment procedure
 
1. Label requirements. Fruits and vegetables imported from Vietnam should be labeled in accordance with the regulation on good labeling (43/2017/nd-cp) 10 and its amendment 111/2021/nd-cp11. The label content includes product name, origin, net content, production date, shelf life, composition or component, information or warning, etc. The label of genetically modified prepackaged fruits and vegetables must comply with the label of prepackaged genetically modified food 45/2015/ttlt-bnnptnt-bkhcn 12.
 
2. Packaging requirements. If the imported fruits and vegetables are pre packaged, the packaging must comply with the relevant provisions of the national health and safety technical regulations on food direct contact packaging and tools (34/2011/tt-byt) 13.
 
3. Requirements for certification and Accreditation of agricultural products. Vietnam implements a series of certification requirements for imported fruits and vegetables, including free sale certification (CFS) 14, analysis license certification (coa-c/a), processing plant product license, quarantine import license of plants and plant products, etc.
 
4. Plant quarantine. Export enterprises must submit an application for import plant quarantine registration to the plant quarantine authority by mail or through the national one-stop mechanism (online) 15, and carry out plant quarantine in accordance with the relevant provisions of the plant quarantine procedures (33/2014/tt-bnnptnt) 16. The process includes declaration, inspection and quarantine, certificate issuance and release, etc. In addition, enterprises also need to pay attention to the catalogue of plant quarantine items (30/2014/tt-bnnptnt) 17 requirements for imported plant quarantine organisms (15/2020/tt-bnnptnt) 18, which stipulates the list of plant quarantine items and the list of plant quarantine pests that Vietnam focuses on, including 114 quarantine pests such as Agriotes lineatus and Anastrepha fraterculus.
 
  04

Import procedure
 
Vietnam水果蔬菜进口程序遵循财政部第38/2015/TT-BTC号19、第39/2018/TT-BTC号通知20,包括原产地、检验监管、税收等海关手续。海关申报须使用越南海关数据处理系统 (VNACCS) 在线进行,需要提供的材料包括申报表、发票、提单、货值申报表和商品证明等。在申报登记获得批准后,VNACCS将授予申报编号,并确定清关所需的检查内容(包括无检查、书面检查和货物检验三个级别)。

Japan

  01

Regulatory bodies
 
Japan进口水果蔬菜安全监管的主要部门有内阁办公室下设的食品安全委员会(FSC)、农林水产省(MAFF)、厚生劳动省(MHLW)和日本海关及关税局。
 
  02

Technical regulations and standards
 
Japan进口水果蔬菜安全监管技术法规主要有《食品卫生法》21《植物保护法》22《食品安全基本法》23《食品标签法》24等。
 
According to the food hygiene law, Japan implements a positive list system for agricultural chemicals imported from fruits and vegetables. The residue limits of agricultural chemicals involved in Japan’s positive list system include five types:the original limit standard without re formulating the provisional limit standard, the provisional standard, prohibited substances, exempted substances and uniform standards. Up to now, there are 74 exempted substances 26 and 21 prohibited substances 27. In addition, the positive list system adopts a uniform standard for agricultural chemicals that do not have a limit standard, that is, the maximum residue limit of agricultural chemicals in food shall not exceed 0.01ppm.
 
  03

Conformity assessment procedure

1. Strict import inspection system
 
In terms of import inspection, Japan focuses on safety and health indicators such as pesticide residues, radioactive residues and heavy metal content, and takes four import management inspection measures, including independent inspection, monitoring inspection, order inspection and administrative inspection (except monitoring inspection). Among them, independent inspection is the most relaxed, and the inspection proportion is less than 1%of the total goods. Importers are required to take samples independently, and the inspection fee is paid by the importer; The proportion of monitoring and inspection is generally 10%. If violations are found in the monitoring and inspection, they will be transformed into enhanced monitoring and inspection, the proportion of sampling inspection will be increased, and the inspection cost will be borne by the Japanese government; The order inspection is the most strict, with the sampling proportion reaching 100%. After two different exporters in the same country violate the specific limit standards twice, all affected goods imported from the country will be ordered to be inspected, and the inspection costs will be borne by the enterprise. The Ministry of health, labor and welfare requires that 300 compliance tests be conducted on the products of the exporting country within one year or that no further violations occur in the exporting country within two years before the order inspection decision can be cancelled. In addition, there are administrative inspections other than monitoring and inspection, which are mainly on-site inspections carried out for the first time imports, food imports where the exporting country has special important requirements in terms of health management, and special events during transportation. The capital of the Ministry of health, labor and welfare regularly publishes the list of violations of imported products and the monitoring and inspection plan, which can be queried on the website of the Ministry of health, labor and welfare of japan.28.
 
 2. JAS certification 29
 
Any agricultural and forestry products and their processed products (including food) sold in the Japanese market must be subject to the supervision of the JAS certification system and comply with the management regulations of the JAS certification system. JAS certification mainly focuses on two aspects:management system and product performance. JAS certification marks must be issued by JAS certification institutions recognized by the Japanese government. Enterprises that meet the standard requirements can affix JAS marks on products according to the quality grade label format and method in JAS certification standards.
 
3. Plant quarantine
 
According to the plant protection law, Japan has stipulated the inspection, treatment, disinfection and other contents of imported fruits and vegetables, and listed the list of prohibited plants, quarantine pests and restricted plants.
 
List of the imPort protected plants) 30:plants or plant products from some regions listed in the directory are easy to carry certain quarantine pests with high risk, but they are prohibited from entering Japan due to the lack of effective treatment measures. The Chinese plants covered in the list (last updated on March 23, 2022) include:the living roots, leaves and fresh fruits of Cucurbitaceae plants that are easy to carry Bactrocera cucurbitae; The living vines, leaves, massive roots, underground stems, roots and underground parts of Calystegia sp., Ipomoea sp., and Pharbitis sp., which are easy to carry sweet potato formicarius, and Manihot esculenta; Apple fruits and apricot fruits that are easy to carry Cydia pomolla.
 
Quarantine pest list 31:according to the discovery of pests, Japan has revised this list almost every year. Up to now (the latest update was March 23, 2022), there are 1023 species (genera) of quarantine pests, of which more than 100 kinds of pests have been found in China, including the newly added tomato mottle mosaic virus (tommv). When fruits and vegetables enter the country, if they carry the above quarantine pests, Japan will take strict measures to prevent the entry of pests.
 
The list of plants that need to implement specific plant quarantine measures in the exporting country, the list of plants that need to be inspected in the planting land of the exporting country, and the list of plants that need to be cultivated in China when carried can be queried through the relevant system 32.

  04

Import procedure
 
When exporting fruits and vegetables to Japan, the materials that enterprises need to provide include”import notice”,”certification materials about raw materials, added ingredients and manufacturing methods”,”health quarantine certificate”,”inspection certificate”, etc. The specific import procedure flow 33 is shown in the figure below.
RCEP column – Guide to RCEP technical trade measures (export fruits and vegetables, Part 1)image(1)
Thailand

  01

Regulatory bodies
 
Thailand进口水果蔬菜安全监管的主要部门是农业与合作部(MOAC),具体执行部门为其下设的农业局(DOA)和国家农业商品和食品标准局(ACFS)。另外,还包括公共卫生部下设的食品药品局(TFDA)、商务部外贸司、财务部下设的海关。
 
  02

Technical regulations and standards
 
Thailand进口水果蔬菜安全监管技术法规主要有《食品法》34《植物检疫法》35等。泰国水果蔬菜等农食产品禁限用物质标准一般以部门通知的形式发布。
 
  1. Pesticide residues
 
The pesticide residue limit is included in the Ministry of health’s No. 387 be 2560 (2017) Notice 36, which stipulates the maximum residue limit (MRL) and re residue limit (EMRL) of pesticides in agricultural and food products in Thailand. The notice also stipulates that Thailand will refer to CAC standards for agricultural and food products without pesticide residue limits, and set a default limit of 0.01ppm.
 
  2. Heavy metals and污染物
 
  自2020年11月16日起,卫生部公告第414号BE 2563(2020)37通知“含有污染物的食品标准”适用以下标准:1.卫生部公告第414号(2020年)公告附表1中规定的食品重金属、霉毒和其他污染物(如氯乙烯单体),所含放射性物质不得超过规定值。2.食品、饲料中的污染物和毒素不得超过CODEX STAN193-1995规定值。3.除1和2以外的其他污染物,销售食品制造商或进口商应确保污染物量不得超过世界粮农组织、世界卫生组织联合食品法典委员会的规定值。

  3.病原微生物和其他化学污染物
 
  病原微生物限量收录在卫生部第416号公告(2020年)38“食品中致病微生物的质量标准、原则条件和分析方法”中。未检测到的其他化学污染标准收录在卫生部第269号公告(2003年)39和卫生部第299号公告(2006年)40中。
 
  4.食品添加剂
 
  食品添加剂限量收录在卫生部第418号 BE 2563 (2020)通知附件I和II41中,如需使用未列在该规定中的食品添加剂,须经TFDA批准。
 
  03

Conformity assessment procedure

  1.进口许可证
 
  根据《食品法》,泰国食品分为特殊控制食品、质量标准控制食品、标签控制食品和一般食品四类。一般来说,水果蔬菜归属于一般食品,进口商在进口食品时必须获得食品进口许可证,进口许可证有效期为三年。办理食品进口许可证需要提交的文件包括申请表、进口设施或储存设施照片、保证书等8项内容,具体规定详见泰国食品进口许可证制度42。
 
  2.标签要求
 
  预包装水果和蔬菜的标签要求:泰国进口果蔬标签遵循卫生部第386号公告(2017年)43,使用泰语进行标识,涵盖进口商名称、食品注册号、生产厂家、国家/地区和生产批次(如生产日期、条形码、二维码和生产编号)等。
 
  3.包装要求
 
  水果应使用干净和未使用过的材料进行包装,并储存在集装箱或冷藏集装箱中以供运输或转运。包装箱应标注:水果名称、产地、果园和包装厂的名称或注册登记号。
 
  4.植物检疫
 
  根据《植物检疫法》对进口水果蔬菜进行植物检疫,按照经济重要性及原产地检疫性有害生物流行程度划分为禁止进口、限制进口、无禁止进口三大类,所有出口到泰国的水果蔬菜均需提供出口国的植物检疫证书,植物检疫证书格式详见参考资料44。此外,泰国植物检疫规定对包装内有无受检害虫附着、包装标识、包装内有无土、枝叶、植物残渣等较为关注。
 
  04

Import procedure
 
Thailand进口水果蔬菜在到达进境口岸前,进口商或代理方需在泰国电子海关系统提交相应的入境文件供泰国海关检查。进口清关所需材料包括进口申报表、发票、提单、进口许可证、GMP制造标准符合性证书等13项内容,详见参考资料45。在执行检验检疫程序时,一般是由泰国海关、农业局、食品药品局等相关部门一同进行农食产品检验检疫……
 
  本文所列技术性贸易措施资料通过国内外政府机构和相关专业网站整理而成,仅供参考,如有动态调整请以相关主管机构官方解释、发布为准。
 
  相关规定具体要求可通过以下链接查询。

  1. 越南《食品安全法》

  https://vanban.chinhphu.vn/default.aspx?pageid=27160&docid=96032

  2. 越南《海关法》

  http://vbpl.vn/botaichinh/Pages/vbpq-van-ban-goc.aspx?ItemID=128827

  3. 越南《植物保护和检疫法》

  ttps://www.ippc.int/static/media/files/reportingobligation/2015/09/01/PQ_LAW_41_QH_13.pdf

  4. 越南《农林水产进出口指南(04/2015/TT-BNNPTNT)》

  http://vbpl.vn/bonongnghiep/Pages/vbpq-van-ban-goc.aspx?ItemID=55063

  5. 《进口植物检疫类物质要求(15/2020/TT-BNNPTNT)》https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Linh-vuc-khac/Thong-tu-15-2020-TT-BNNPTNT-Quy-chuan-ve-yeu-cau-vat-the-thuoc-dien-kiem-dich-thuc-vat-nhap-khau-460605.aspx

  6. 越南《限制食品中植物保护药物残留 (50/2016/TT-BYT)》

  http://www.fsi.org.vn/van-ban-phap-ly/1003_6079/thong-tu-242019tt-byt-quy-dinh-ve-quan-ly-va-su-dung-phu-gia-thuc-pham.html

  7.越南《国家食品中微真菌毒素污染限度技术法规(QCVN8-1:2012/BYT)》http://www.fsi.org.vn/van-ban-phap-ly/1025_3026/qcvn-8-12011byt-quy-chuan-ky-thuat-quoc-gia-doi-voi-gioi-han-o-nhiem-doc-to-vi-nam-trong-thuc-pham.html

  8. 越南《食品重金属污染限度技术法规(QCVN8-2:2011/BYT)》http://fsi.org.vn/van-ban-phap-ly/1025_3028/qcvn-8-22011byt-quy-chuan-ky-thuat-quoc-gia-doi-voi-gioi-han-o-nhiem-kim-loai-nang-trong-thuc-pham.html

  9.越南《国家食品微生物污染技术法规(QCVN8-3:2012/BYT)》http://fsi.org.vn/van-ban-phap-ly/1025_3002/qcvn-8-32012byt-quy-chuan-ky-thuat-quoc-gia-doi-voi-o-nhiem-vi-sinh-vat-trong-thuc-pham.html

  10.越南《关于良好标签(43/2017/ND-CP)》https://vanbanphapluat.co/decree-43-2017-nd-cp-on-good-labels

  11.越南《关于良好标签修订案(111/2021/ND-CP)》https://vanbanphapluat.co/nghi-dinh-111-2021-nd-cp-sua-doi-nghi-dinh-43-2017-nd-cp-nhan-hang-hoa

  12.越南《预包装转基因食品标识45/2015/TTLT-BNNPTNT-BKHCN》 https://vanbanphapluat.co/thong-tu-lien-tich-45-2015-ttlt-bnnptnt-bkhcn-ghi-nhan-thuc-pham-bien-doi-gen-bao-goi-san

  13.越南《食品直接接触包装和工具国家卫生安全技术条例(34/2011/TT-BYT)》http://www.fsi.org.vn/van-ban-phap-ly/1027_3005/thong-tu-so-342011tt-byt-ngay-3082011-cua-bo-y-te-ban-hanh-cac-quy-chuan-ky-thuat-quoc-gia-ve-an-toan-ve-sinh-doi-voi-bao-bi-dung-cu-tiep-xuc-truc-tiep-voi-thuc-pham.html

  14.越南关于自由销售证书的规定https://www.vietnam-briefing.com/news/regulations-certificates-free-sale.html/

  15.越南国家一站式机制

  https://vnsw.gov.vn/

  16.越南《植物检疫程序33/2014/TT-BNNPTNT》https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Thuong-mai/Thong-tu-33-2014-TT-BNNPTNT-thu-tuc-kiem-dich-thuc-vat-nhap-xuat-khau-qua-canh-256401.aspx

  17.越南《30/2014/TT-BNNPTNT植物检疫目录》https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Xuat-nhap-khau/Thong-tu-30-2014-TT-BNNPTNT-Danh-muc-kiem-dich-thuc-vat-phan-tich-nguy-co-dich-hai-truoc-khi-nhap-khau-248694.aspx

  18.越南《进口植物检疫类生物要求(15/2020/TT-BNNPTNT)》https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Linh-vuc-khac/Thong-tu-15-2020-TT-BNNPTNT-Quy-chuan-ve-yeu-cau-vat-the-thuoc-dien-kiem-dich-thuc-vat-nhap-khau-460605.aspx

  19.越南财务部第38/2015/TT-BTC号通知https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Xuat-nhap-khau/Thong-tu-38-2015-TT-BTC-thu-tuc-hai-quan-thue-xuat-khau-nhap-khau-quan-ly-thue-hang-xuat-nhap-khau-269789.aspx

  20.越南财务部第39/2018/TT-BTC号通知https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Xuat-nhap-khau/Thong-tu-39-2018-TT-BTC-sua-doi-Thong-tu-38-2015-TT-BTC-kiem-tra-giam-sat-hai-quan-342345.aspx

  21. 日本《食品卫生法》http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail_main?id=12&vm=2&re

  22.日本《植物保护法》https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=325AC0000000151

  23.日本《食品安全基本法》https://www.fsc.go.jp/english/basic_act/fs_basic_act.pdf

  24.日本《食品标签法》http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail/?

  25.日本农用化学品残留查询系统http://db.ffcr.or.jp/front/

  26.日本农用化学品残留豁免物质清单https://www.ffcr.or.jp/en/positive-list-system—exempted-substances.html

  27.日本农用化学品残留禁用物质清单https://www.ffcr.or.jp/en/zanryu/the-japanese-positive/positive-list-system—not-detected.html

  28.日本厚生劳动省进口产品违规清单及监控检查计划https://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/topics/importedfoods/index.html

  29.日本JAS认证

  https://www.maff.go.jp/j/jas/jas_kikaku/

  30.日本禁止进境的植物名录https://www.maff.go.jp/pps/j/law/houki/shorei/E_Annexed_Table2_from_20210428.html

  31.日本检疫性有害生物名录https://www.maff.go.jp/pps/j/law/houki/shorei/E_Annexed_Table1_from_20210428.html

  32.日本相关植物限制名录http://www.pps.go.jp/eximlist/Pages/exp/condition.xhtml

  33.日本水果蔬菜进口程序https://www.mhlw.go.jp/content/000523308.gif

  34.泰国《食品法》http://food.fda.moph.go.th/law/data/act/E_FoodAct2522.pdf

  35.泰国《植物检疫法》https://assets.ippc.int/static/media/files/reportingobligation/2015/04/10/1309964158_G_SPS_N_THA_168_ENG_2013042321-18En.pdf

  36.泰国卫生部第387号BE 2560(2017)通知http://food.fda.moph.go.th/law/data/announ_moph/V.English/No.387.pdf

  37.泰国卫生部公告第414号(2020年)

  http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2563/E/118/T_0017.PDF

  38.泰国卫生部第416号公告(2020年)

  http://food.fda.moph.go.th/law/data/announ_moph/P416.PDF

  39.泰国卫生部第269号公告(2003年)

  http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/00123207.PDF

  40. 泰国卫生部第299号公告(2006年)

  41. 泰国卫生部第418号 BE 2563 (2020)通知http://food.fda.moph.go.th/law/data/announ_moph/V.English/P418_E.pdf

  42.泰国食品进口许可证制度https://www.fda.moph.go.th/sites/food/FileNews/61_VeggiesAndFruits.pdf

  43.泰国卫生部第386号公告(2017年)

  http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2560/E/211/20.PDF

  44.泰国植物检疫证书https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/thailand/reportingobligation/2022/01/new-format-of-thai-phytosanitary-certificate/

  45.泰国进口程序http://www.customs.go.th/data_files/6cce8614e90f1dbe4956f08f95369653.pdf
 


供稿单位:海关总署国际合作司、海关总署国际检验检疫标准与技术法规研究中心(暨中华人民共和国WTO/TBT-SPS国家通报咨询中心)、汕头海关、广州海关