Recently, the General Office of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs recommended and released the main agricultural technology in 2021, and the Vegetable and Flower Research Institute”Facilities of high-quality raw fruits and vegetables ecological substrate soilless cultivation technology” was selected.
With the improvement of living standards, how to transform from quantity to quality in facilities has gradually become the primary concern of various local agricultural management departments and agricultural enterprises. At present, there are often various varieties that can satisfy high-quality raw fruits and vegetables. Problems (poor disease resistance, weak growth, avoiding continuous cropping, etc.), traditional soil cultivation methods are not easy to stabilize the quality, and it is difficult to form an effective market supply and brand. This technology takes high-quality vegetables as the starting point, high-efficiency as the driving force, and substrate cultivation and precise intelligent and efficient management of water and fertilizer as the carrier. In a true sense, it achieves high-efficiency vegetable soilless cultivation and fundamentally promotes substrate cultivation and precise, intelligent and efficient water and fertilizer. The application of management technology in the production of facility vegetables will further increase the utilization rate of water and fertilizer, reduce the use of pesticides, and promote the transformation and upgrading of the agricultural industry.
According to the production area, this technology can choose the following 2 modes:bag culture mode, suitable for nematode-damaged plots; underground trough culture mode, suitable for wireless pests-damaged plots. The raw materials of the soilless culture substrate use cheap and easily available crop straws and other agricultural wastes as the soilless culture substrate, which reduces the cost of the substrate by 35%compared with the traditional peat substrate; high-quality varieties based on organic fertilizers are dedicated to simple nutrition Compared with the traditional full-quantity chemical nutrient solution formula, the liquid formula reduces the amount of large and medium element fertilizers by 20-47%, and the amount of trace element fertilizers is reduced by more than 90%. The cost is reduced by more than 40%compared with the traditional nutrient solution, and vegetable products are greatly improved. Quality and stability; based on the Beijing Wisteria connection water and fertilizer integrated precision control system, compared with soil drip irrigation, it saves more than 10%of water, more than 50%of fertilizer, and more than 50%of labor.
After being applied in the agriculture of Baoding Runya, Hebei Province, this technology is used to grow high-quality tomatoes, equivalent to pure nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, with a total input of N=60.50kg, P=8.34kg, K=89.88kg, and a soil control shed with a total input of N=124.90kg P=46.38kg, K=84.03kg. Except that the dosage of K was 6.96%higher than that of the control shed, the dosage of N was reduced by 51.56%and the dosage of P was reduced by 82.02%. The yield of high-quality tomato substrate shed reached 3674kg/mu, which was 7.11%higher than that of the soil shed. The soluble solid content of each harvest in the substrate shed exceeded 9.0, and the three times were 17.07%, 3.96%and 14.81%higher than the control shed. The water consumption of the substrate shed was 182.1 cubic meters, and the water consumption of drip irrigation in the control shed was 211.3 cubic meters, which saved 13.82%of water. Calculated on the basis of pure N 5 yuan/kg, P 9 yuan/kg, K 8 yuan/kg, tomatoes 25 yuan/kg, the average price of high-quality tomatoes is 6 yuan/kg higher, and water 3.5 yuan/cubic, the savings and efficiency increase per mu is 27,399.75 yuan .