As one of the world’s major pear producers, my country ranks first in the world in terms of cultivation area and yield. In 2018, my country’s pear cultivation area reached 943,400 ha, accounting for 7.94%of the national fruit planting area; in 2018, the national pear production reached 16.078 million tons, accounting for 6.26%of the national total fruit output. Since the reform and opening up, my country’s pear cultivation area and yield have undergone major changes, and its development can basically be divided into two stages (Figure 1). 1978-1996 was the stage of rapid expansion of pear cultivation area in my country, but the yield fluctuation was relatively small. In 1978, the cultivated area and output of pears nationwide were 279,900 hm2 and 1.5175 million tons, respectively. By 1996, the cultivated area and output of pears reached 931,900 hm2 and 5.866 million tons, respectively. During this period, especially from 1992 to 1996, the average annual growth rate of pear cultivation area and yield reached 15.80%and 19.61%, respectively. 1996 has been the stage of stable development of pear cultivation area in my country, and the output has increased rapidly year by year. In 2018, the cultivation area and output of pear were 1.01 times and 2.77 times that of 1996, respectively.
Note:The data comes from the website of the National Bureau of Statistics.
Figure 1 my country’s pear cultivation area and yield changes from 1978 to 2018
As an important fruit tree in our country, pears are widely planted in our country. Except for Hainan Province, Hong Kong and Macao, all other provinces (cities, autonomous regions) in my country have pear cultivation. Due to differences in pear production environment, technology, cost, policy and other aspects, the pattern of pear production in my country is also changing. So far, four major pear producing areas have been formed in the country. However, a complete industrial belt has not yet been formed in each production area. Therefore, analyzing the changes in my country’s pear production layout and its reasons is of great significance to optimizing the pear production layout, and can also provide a theoretical reference for the formulation of industrial policies in my country’s pear production and trade. In the past 40 years of reform and opening up, my country’s pear production has undergone major changes, but there is a lack of long-term analysis of changes in the distribution of production areas. Therefore, based on the existing research, this article analyzes the changes in the distribution of pear production in my country with the help of indicators such as the concentration of pear production, the concentration coefficient of the production area, and the comparative advantage index of scale, and explains the reasons for the changes in the production layout of pears.
Production layout changes
Analysis of changes in major producing provinces
Pear production concentration refers to the proportion of pear output in a certain region to the total national pear output in the same period. This article lists the top 10 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) from 1978 to 2018 according to the concentration of pear production from high to low (Table 1).
Note:Sichuan Province included Chongqing City in 1978 and 1988.
It can be seen from Table 1 that the top 10 provinces (cities, autonomous regions) in the concentration of pear production from 1978 to 2018 have undergone major changes, but Hebei, Shandong, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Anhui and Sichuan have always been in the top 10 people. The output of Hebei pears always ranks first in the country in all periods, and the production concentration is between 20.51%and 33.99%. From 1978 to 2008, Shandong and Liaoning’s pear production ranked second and third in the country respectively, but in 2018 Liaoning’s pear output surpassed Shandong and became the second largest pear-producing province in the country. Jiangsu’s pear production dropped from No. 4 in 1978 and 1988 to No. 9 in 2018. The concentration of pear production in Anhui shows a fluctuating trend. In 2018, the production of pears ranked fourth in the country. Since 1978, the concentration of pear production in Sichuan has been relatively stable, ranking 6th to 9th in the country. The ranking of Henan’s pear production concentration has changed greatly. In 1988, it ranked 13th in the country, and then the ranking rose rapidly. In 2018, the concentration of pear production ranked third in the country. In the past 20 years, the concentration of pear production in Yunnan, Beijing, Hubei and Gansu has declined to varying degrees. The concentration of pear production in Shaanxi and Xinjiang is increasing. In 2018, the concentration of production reached 6.20%and 7.23%, respectively. In general, Hebei, Liaoning, Henan, Anhui, Shandong, Sichuan and Jiangsu are still the main traditional pear-producing provinces in my country, and Shaanxi and Xinjiang have become the new main pear-producing provinces in China.
Analysis of production area changes
It can be seen from Figure 2 that since 1978, the cultivation area and the area ratio of pears in the Bohai Rim production area are larger than those of the other three production areas. The western production area is second only to the Bohai Rim production area, and the Yellow River old road production area and There is little difference in the production areas of the Yangtze River Basin. From 1978 to 1986, the cultivation area and the proportion of the cultivation area of pears in the four major producing areas remained stable. From 1987 to 1996, the cultivation area of pears in the four major production areas increased rapidly, the proportion of pear cultivation areas in the Bohai Sea production areas and the old Yellow River production areas decreased, and the proportion of pear cultivation areas in the western production areas and the Yangtze River valley production areas increased. In 1996, the area of pear cultivation in the Bohai-Rim, Western, Yellow River, and Yangtze River Valley production areas was 1.73, 3.28, 1.48, and 2.49 times that of 1987, and the area percentages were 0.82, 1.55, and 0.82 in 1987. 0.70, 1.18 times. From 1997 to 2018, the area of pear cultivation and the proportion of the area in the Bohai Rim production areas showed an overall downward trend year by year, the western production areas and the old Yellow River production areas showed a slow growth trend, and the production areas of the Yangtze River Basin showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. In 2018, the cultivation area of pears in the Bohai Rim, the Western Region, the Old Yellow River and the Yangtze River Basin reached 25.83, 19.63, 14.33, and 114,100 ha, respectively, and the area accounted for 27.38%, 20.81%, 15.19%, respectively. 12.10%.
Note:The data in the figure is calculated based on the official website of the National Bureau of Statistics.
Figure 2 Changes in pear cultivation area in the four major pear producing areas across the country from 1978 to 2018
It can be seen from Figure 3 that the changes in the production of pears in the four major producing areas from 1978 to 2018 showed an overall trend of increasing year by year, and the production of pears in the Bohai Rim region was always higher than that of the other three production regions, but the production of pears in the Bohai Rim region accounted for The ratio is decreasing year by year. From 1978 to 1990, the output of pears in the four major producing areas increased slowly. In 1990, the output of the Bohai Rim, Western, Yellow River, and Yangtze River basins was 1.36, 2.55, 1.65, and 1.97 times that of 1978, respectively. From 1991 to 1998, the production of pears in the four major producing areas increased rapidly, and the average annual growth rate of pear production was 15.24%-22.74%. Although the output of pears in the four major production areas fluctuated from 1999 to 2018, the overall trend of pear production continued to increase; the proportion of pear output in the Bohai Rim production areas showed a trend of declining year by year.
Note:The data in the figure is calculated based on the official website of the National Bureau of Statistics.
Figure 3 Changes in pear production in the four major pear producing areas in China from 1978 to 2018
Producing area concentration analysis
The higher the concentration coefficient of pear production area, it means that pear cultivation is mainly concentrated in a few provinces (cities, autonomous regions), that is, the higher the concentration of pear production. According to the above calculation method, this paper calculates the concentration coefficient of pear production area in my country from 1978 to 2018. It can be seen from Figure 4 that the concentration of pear production areas in my country from 1978 to 2018 showed a fluctuating downward trend. In 1978, the concentration coefficient of pear production area in my country was 0.5622, and it continued to increase in the following 10 years. In 1987, it reached a record high of 0.5973. From 1988 to 1993, the concentration coefficient of pear production area continued to decrease, and it was only 0.5325 in 1993. 1994-1996 There was a short-term increase in the concentration coefficient of pear production area, and then it continued to decrease. In 2002, it reached a record low of only 0.4374. This shows that my country’s pear production is shifting from centralized to decentralized. From 2003 to 2005, my country’s pear production area concentration coefficient has a short-term increase, and then gradually stabilized, indicating that my country’s pear production area has gradually stabilized.
Figure 4 Trend of concentration coefficient of pear production area in my country from 1978 to 2018
Analysis of comparative advantage regions of pear production scale
Table 2 shows the provinces (cities, autonomous regions) with comparative advantages in the scale of pear production in my country every 10 years from 1978 to 2018. It can be seen from this that Hebei, Liaoning and Beijing have significant and stable scale comparative advantages in pear production. The scale of comparative advantage index has always been greater than 2. In 1988, Shanxi’s pear production scale advantage index broke through 2. In 1998, 2008, and 2018, they were 1.28, 1.35, and 1.94, respectively, indicating that Shanxi’s pear production scale has maintained a large development. In 1998, the Gansu pear production scale advantage index was 2.56, while it was reduced to 0.92 and 0.93 in 2008 and 2018, indicating that pear production is a scale disadvantage. The Xinjiang pear production scale advantage index reached 2.89 in 2008, 1.33, 1.32, and 1.98 in 1988, 1998, and 2018, respectively, indicating that Xinjiang pear production is in an area of advantage of scale. In the past 30 years, the production scale of Tianjin and Shaanxi pears has continued to expand. In 2018, the production scale advantage index reached 2.14 and 2.00 respectively. From 1998 to 2018, the production scale advantage index of Yunnan, Fujian, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Chongqing also continued to increase. The pear production scale advantage index of Heilongjiang, Guangdong, Ningxia and Tibet has always been less than 0.5, indicating that the pear production in these regions has been at a relatively disadvantaged scale.
Dynamic analysis of production layout
Natural environmental conditions are the main constraints
Plants have a strong dependence on climate, soil and other natural environments during their growth and development. Changes in the natural environment will affect the distribution of plants. Pears are perennial fruit trees. Natural environments such as annual average temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours will affect the growth and distribution of pears. The study found that precipitation can promote the increase of pear production in various regions; the increase in temperature can promote the increase of pear production in the Bohai Sea and Northwest regions, and inhibit the increase in pear production in the Yangtze River Basin; the increase in sunshine hours will inhibit the production of pears in the Bohai Sea and Northwest regions. The growth of pear production in the Yangtze River Basin promotes the growth of pear production. There are a wide range of pear cultivation provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in my country, and the impact of climate on pear growth varies from place to place. Hebei, Liaoning, Beijing, and Shandong are the production areas around the Bohai Sea. The temperature and precipitation in the growing season are suitable in these areas, and the sunshine hours are abundant, which is beneficial to the growth of pears. In recent years, in the western regions represented by Xinjiang and Shaanxi, the annual average temperature has not fluctuated much, the precipitation has also remained within the range required for pear growth and sufficient sunlight has promoted the expansion of the pear cultivation area in the western region. In addition, there are pear-producing areas in the old course of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River Basin. These areas rely on superior natural environmental conditions to support suitable pear varieties, which has enabled the pear industry to flourish.
variety structure is a restriction
The main pears planted in the world include the four major systems of Qiuzi pear, white pear, sand pear and Western pear. Among them, the white pear, sand pear and Qiuzi pear system are all native to my country. The varieties of the four major pear systems are all planted in my country, and there are about 100 varieties that are planted in large numbers. The former Ministry of Agriculture issued the”National Pear Regional Development Plan (2009-2015)”, which divided my country’s pears into four major production areas, including Qiuzi pear, white pear and sand pear, which laid the foundation for the intensive and standardized production of pears in my country A good foundation. In addition, my country also has some special pear varieties, such as Hebei Yali Pear, Anhui Dangshan Pear, Shandong Laiyang Pear, Liaoning Nanguo Pear, Xinjiang Korla Pear, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Red Pear, etc. In recent years, my country’s self-breeding varieties such as Yuluxiang, Xinli No. 7 and Cuiguan have gradually been promoted in production.
Western pear is one of the two major cultivated species in the world. It is widely planted in European and American countries and has a history of more than 100 years in my country. Due to climatic conditions, only the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula, the Jiaodong Peninsula and the old course of the Yellow River in my country are suitable for planting Western pears. Since the 1990s, my country has successively introduced red western pear varieties, such as red eggplant, red pear, and early red comes. At present, my country’s western pears are mainly cultivated in Yantai, Qingdao, Shandong, and other provinces. Appropriate development of Western pears is of great significance for accelerating the adjustment of the structure of pear varieties in my country, enhancing the international competitiveness of pears and promoting the development of the fruit industry.
Production cost is an objective reason
Total production cost includes production cost and land cost. Production cost includes labor cost and material and service cost. Material and service costs account for about 45%of the total cost of pear production, and the percentage of fluctuations between the years is small. The pear industry is a labor-intensive industry, and labor costs (labor costs) directly affect the development of the pear industry. Lack of labor resources, rising labor prices, aging and other issues are a major problem affecting the growth of pears. In recent years, labor prices have continued to rise, making the production cost of pears increase year by year, leading to rising prices of pears. The change in labor costs will affect the changes in the layout of pear production areas. my country’s pear production shifts from the Bohai Rim to the Northwest and Yangtze River regions where labor costs are lower, which is consistent with the changes in the pear production area.
Policy is an external reason
my country is the world’s largest pear producer. The sustainable development of the pear industry has important practical significance for the increase of farmers’ income in the main producing areas and the development of the rural economy. Policy guidance and incentives are of guiding significance for the healthy development of the pear industry. During the”Eleventh Five-Year Plan” period, the Ministry of Agriculture issued the”National Pear Regional Development Plan (2009-2015)”, which pointed out the direction for the development of my country’s pear industry policy in the future. In addition, local governments have also formulated important policies to promote the development of the pear industry. In 2004, the”Opinions of the Hebei Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China on Several Important Issues Concerning Promoting the Construction of a Well-off Society in Rural Areas” regarded the fruit industry as one of the two leading industries for accelerating development, and abolished the tax on special agricultural products; in 2012,”The People’s Government of Hebei Province Regarding Accelerating Construction Opinions of a strong province in the fruit industry”, which determined the overall requirements for a strong province in the fruit industry, greatly promoted the development of the pear industry. Anhui Province has formulated the”Eleventh Five-Year Plan” for the development of the fruit industry, focusing on the promotion of Dangshan Su pear, and has set up a special provincial financial project to effectively promote the development of the Dangshan Su pear industry. In order to protect the production of pears with characteristics of origin in my country, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China implemented the protection of the origin (geographical indication products) of Nanguo pears, Korla fragrant pears, and Dangshan crisp pears. These measures have provided good development conditions for the development of my country’s pear industry.
Since 1978, my country’s main pear-producing provinces (cities, autonomous regions) have undergone major changes in pear production, but Hebei, Shandong, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Anhui and Sichuan’s pear production concentration has remained in the top 10 in the country . Hebei’s pear production has always ranked first in the country. After 40 years of development, the cultivation area of pears in the Bohai Rim region showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, but it was always higher than the other three regions. The production of pears in the four major pear producing areas has been increasing year by year, but the proportion of pear production in the Bohai Rim production areas has shown a decreasing trend year by year. The concentration coefficient of my country’s pear production area is declining in a wave-like manner. It may be that my country’s pears are in a stage of continuous adjustment of the industrial structure, which has led to continuous changes in the concentration of pear production.
Through the calculation of the comparative advantage index of scale, the study found that the Bohai Rim production area is still the dominant production area for pear production in my country; the pear production capacity in the western production area has grown rapidly and has become a dominant area for pear production in my country; the old course of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River Basin pear Production maintains steady development.
Sounding:This article is excerpted from”Analysis of Changes in my country’s Pear Production Distribution”, Issue 4, 2021 of China Fruit Tree (Zhou Jiangtao, Zhao Deying, Chen Yanhui, Kang Guodong, Cheng Cungang).