Wang Yancai:The history of scientific and technological progress in the wine industry is worth engraving forever
By: Date: 2021-04-11 Categories: chinesefood Tags: ,
  At the 2021 China International Wine Industry Development Forum held on April 9, Wang Yancai, Honorary Chairman of the China Wine Industry Association, combed through the history of scientific and technological progress in the wine industry since the founding of New China. The following is the main content of the speech:
   Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the development of baijiu technology has been greatly transformed and promoted. It can be said that the real driving force for the development of Chinese liquor is the progress of science and technology. Looking back at this magnificent history of technological progress, these moments and events are worth engraving forever.

  China’s liquor industry was developed in pilot work
  The Yantai pilot is known as the master of the pilot; the”stable, accurate and fine-cleaning” experience summarized by the Zhuoxian pilot has improved the output and quality of liquor; the Yongchuan pilot proposed the Sichuan wine Xiaoqu operation method; the Fenjiu pilot summarized and promoted the fragrant liquor Production technology has played an important role; the Moutai pilot has revealed many years of mystery through verification and in-depth research on Maotai-flavor liquor… In addition, the Lingchuan pilot, the Zhoukou pilot, the Baotou pilot, and the Yuquan pilot are very important to my country. The development of the liquor industry also played a role.
   Among these, the Moutai pilot and the Fenjiu pilot are particularly worth talking about:
  Moutai pilot project:The two phases of the Moutai pilot project from 1964 to 1966 were led by Zhou Henggang, a senior engineer from the Food Bureau of the Ministry of Light Industry, and technical personnel from various provinces were selected to participate. Through scientific experimentation and summary, the classification of Kweichow Moutai’s sauce-flavor, mellow-sweetness, and pit bottom was established, the quality inspection was strictly enforced, and the traditional operating procedures such as koji making and accumulation were fundamentally affirmed. The Moutai pilot has made many new breakthroughs for the national liquor industry, especially the discovery of ethyl caproate and the cultivation of hexyl ester bacteria, which provided a scientific basis for confirming the main aroma components of Luzhou-flavor liquor.
   Fenjiu pilot project:From March 1964 to May 1965, the Ministry of Light Industry and Shanxi Provincial Department of Light Industry organized engineering and technical personnel to conduct pilot projects in Fenjiu Factory. In the pilot, a systematic and scientific summary of the Daqu, winemaking and finished products of Fenjiu was conducted. More than 200 projects were studied, more than 3,000 tests were conducted, more than 20,000 scientific data were obtained, and more than 600,000 words of technology were written. data. These results still have their guiding significance and application value.

   Microbial Research on Brewing
   Brewing microorganisms are the driving force of saccharification and fermentation in the wine production process. The biological activity of the strains directly affects the yield and quality of the wine. Therefore, the selection of excellent strains for liquor brewing has always been the technical work of the industry Focus.
   From the early 1960s to the 1980s, industry experts have made breakthroughs time and time again through unremitting efforts, which led to the progress of the entire liquor industry.
   Including the research of artificial fermentation pit mud, caproic acid bacteria and methane bacteria, revealing the mystery of”old pit mud”; the research of esterification enzyme producing bacteria shortens the fermentation cycle and improves the product quality; The research on yeast provides commercial yeast for simplifying the production process and improving the quality of liquor.
   In addition, the screening, mutagenesis and application of Aspergillus and the stability of yeast strains have been applied to the production of various high-quality liquors, and remarkable results have been achieved in improving the quality of liquors. Some of the research results have reached Has reached the international advanced level.

Analysis of the aroma components of    liquor
  From the late 1960s to the 1990s, with the advancement of analysis technology, the analysis and research of the aroma components of liquor made great progress, which played a huge role in promoting the progress and development of liquor production technology:
  In the 1960s, paper chromatography and column chromatography were used to first characterize dozens of aroma components in wine; in the 1970s, a scientific research team composed of Shen Yifang, Jin Peizhang, and Zeng Zuxun tried to apply gas chromatography technology In the analysis of liquor components, the qualitative components of the aroma components were increased to more than one hundred, and the code of the aroma components of liquor was cracked for the first time;
   In the 1980s, capillary chromatography combined with color and mass spectrometry, analyzed 108 kinds of quantitative aroma components in wine, and determined that the ratio of aroma components is the basis for the formation of wine body characteristics;
   In the early 1990s, using bonded capillary columns with good separation performance and advanced instruments and equipment, we further analyzed and clarified the similarities and differences of liquor components and the important role of the relationship between the amount and ratio, and made the analysis of the characteristic components of certain flavor liquors. It made positive contributions and provided a scientific basis for the establishment of new-flavored wines.

   Baijiu flavor development
  The 3rd National Liquor Appraisal Conference Liquor Appraisal is divided into five categories according to the flavor, production technology and saccharification starter. According to the flavor, it is divided into five categories:Luzhou-flavor, sauce-flavor, light-flavor, rice-flavor and other flavors. Created a precedent for the flavor of liquor.
  The knowledge of the flavor type of baijiu and the evaluation of the flavor type are undoubtedly a leap in the knowledge of baijiu.
   Since then, baijiu has developed from the original five flavors to a variety of flavors today, which greatly promoted the technological progress of baijiu:
   From 1980 to 1992, the characteristics of the phoenix-flavor wine were initially clarified, and in 1992 it was officially recognized as the phoenix-flavor type by the national competent authority; in 1981, the soy-flavor type was separated from the rice-flavor type and became an independent flavor type. ; From 1990 to 1994, the special flavor, sesame flavor and mixed flavor were confirmed.

Technology Progress of    Famous Liquor
  The great development of Chinese liquor can be said to be represented by the progress of famous liquor. Since the early 1960s, there have been new breakthroughs and developments in the analysis of trace components of famous and high-quality liquors, the summary of traditional techniques, and the adoption of new techniques and new equipment.
   These achievements not only expanded the production of famous and fine wines, but also increased the value of famous and fine wines.”Technology is the primary productive force” has been fully embodied in the development of famous wines.

Establishment of    Taste Evaluation System
   Various provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country have organized a series of training courses, trained a large number of evaluation professionals at all levels, and continuously improved the evaluation methods, and conducted five national liquor evaluation activities.
   makes the whole industry realize that tasting is an indispensable means of inspecting and controlling the quality of liquor. The strict inspection by the national, provincial and municipal and corporate full-time appraisal committees has ensured the stable improvement of the quality of Chinese liquor. The China Liquor Industry Association has developed a computer tasting system and began to use it in wine tasting activities.

Mechanized application of    winemaking
  Mechanization is the only way to modernize liquor production:
   In 1963, the research of mechanically ventilated bran koji was successful. In order to reform the koji-making process, reduce the heavy physical labor intensity of workers, and improve production conditions, significant results have been achieved;
   In 1976, the first rotary bottle distillation device; in 1985, the research on the new technology of rack cultivation of Daqu was successful; in 1984, the research on the digital combination of basic wine and the electronic computer blending was successful, thus combining the traditional The combination of craftsmanship and high technology has initially got rid of the heavy labor that has always been based on experience only;
   In 1989, the research on the rack-type Daqu fermentation microcomputer control system and the koji-making process was successful; in addition, various ventilation air? ? The equipment has also effectively improved working conditions.
   It is worth explaining that with the progress of the times, the process of mechanization of liquor is also constantly improving, showing features such as automation, ecology, information, and intelligence.

   low alcohol liquor
  One of the key technologies for low-alcohol liquor is the problem of turbidity removal. Numerous universities and scientific research units have conducted extensive research on this.
  The results have been applied to the production plant including freezing method, adsorption method of various adsorbents, membrane treatment method, ion exchange method, molecular sieve treatment method, etc. In addition, in improving the quality of the original wine, increasing the flavor components, reducing the loss of flavor in the process of removing impurities, and carefully blending, all regions have created a good process operation method, which basically solved the problem of low-alcohol white wine taste.

  Establishing a talent team for liquor technology
  The development of Chinese liquor, in the final analysis, is the advancement of science and technology, and it is also the physical and intellectual dedication of many liquor science and technology workers. In the development of Chinese liquor, generations of scientific and technological talents have used their wisdom and hands to promote the inheritance and innovation of the industry. They are a precious asset of the Chinese liquor industry.