Technical Guidance Opinions on Soybean Spring Sowing in Northeast China in 2021
By: Date: 2021-04-14 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
   Soybean Expert Steering Group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
  National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center
  The soybean planting period is about to enter the Northeast region. According to forecasts by the Meteorological Department, the temperature in the northeast of this year’s spring planting season is lower than last year, with slightly more precipitation and uneven temporal and spatial distribution. There are phased droughts in the western region, and spring floods are prone to occur in the east. Low temperature and spring floods may occur in some areas. In view of the current climate characteristics and the production situation of spring sowing soybeans, the soybean expert steering group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, together with the National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, put forward technical guidance on soybean spring sowing in Northeast China in 2021.
   One is to prepare the ground at the right time to maintain moisture and increase temperature and promote early onset. In autumn ridged plots, depending on the weather and soil moisture conditions, suppress them in a timely manner to maintain moisture and increase temperature; turn rake and unridged plots, and when the soil reaches the depth of ridging, when the soil is frozen to the ridged depth, ridges and ridges are suppressed in time to maintain moisture and increase temperature; deep turn and stand up On the plot, the top slurry preparation, raking, ridging, and suppression continuous operations. For plots that have not undergone land preparation in autumn, stubble shall be removed at the right time in early spring, and soil moisture may be adjusted to increase temperature or no-tillage shall be sowed. For low-lying land with poor drainage and plots with thick snow, catch the warm-up period by raking the snow to loosen the moisture and draining the live snow.
   The second is scientific selection and seed treatment. According to the local accumulated temperature and water and fertilizer conditions, select soybean varieties with appropriate maturity, high quality, stress resistance, and high yield, and eliminate”cross-region” planting. For plots that cannot be dispersed in time, suitable early-maturing varieties can be selected according to the postponed sowing date. Before sowing, do a good job of seed screening and germination test to ensure that the purity and clarity of the seeds are greater than 98%, the moisture content is less than 13.5%, and the germination rate is greater than 85%. According to the occurrence of diseases and insects in the previous plot, the seed coating agent is selected to standardize the coating.
   The third is suitable for seeding to ensure the quality of emergence. When the ground temperature of 5 cm of the cultivated layer is stable and exceeds 7 ℃, it is suitable for seeding. For plots with suitable soil moisture content, suppress it 2-3 hours after sowing; for plots with poor soil moisture content and high ground temperature, increase the planting depth to ensure that the seeds are planted on wet soil, increase the thickness of the soil, and press with the planting; soil moisture For large (moisture content> 25%) plots, the ground temperature is low, so the seeding depth can be reduced, and the thickness of the cover soil can be reduced. After sowing, when a 2 cm dry soil layer appears on the surface, suppress it to ensure that the seedlings are complete, uniform and uniform. , Miao Zhuang.
  Fourth is to adapt measures to local conditions and choose a high-yield model. The cultivation mode is selected according to the selected varieties, ecological conditions, soil conditions and agricultural machinery conditions. In the central and southern parts of the northeast, you can choose the cultivation mode of”double-row precision seeding on the ridge”; in the northeast of the northeast, you can choose the mode of”wide and large ridges, uniform density and high-yield cultivation techniques” on the basis of the”three ridges” mode;”Or drip irrigation under the mulch mode, use early spring”reflow water” to grab moisture sowing, and suppress it in time after sowing; for land that has not been prepared, the original stubble no-tillage planting is recommended.
  Fifth, rational fertilization and promotion of reduction and efficiency enhancement. Widely use soil testing and formula fertilization, actively promote the return of straw to the field, encourage more farmyard manure, and reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer in multiple ways. Increase the fertilizer utilization rate by layering in the side depth. It is recommended that 70%of the fertilizer be used as the base fertilizer, the depth of fertilization should be 10-15 cm under the plant, and 30%of the fertilizer should be applied as the seed fertilizer, and the fertilization depth should be under the plant. 4-5 cm.
   Sixth, precise application of pesticides to strengthen weed prevention and control. According to the local weed species, scientifically and reasonably select safe, efficient and low-toxic chemical herbicides. For plots with better moisture content, weeding should be carried out before emergence after sowing; when soil moisture is poor, or the effect of closed weeding is not good, weeding of stems and leaves can be carried out at the 2-3 leaf stage of soybean after seedling. In order to facilitate crop rotation, it is recommended not to use long-residual herbicides. Strictly spray according to the dosage requirements during operation, avoid respray and miss spray, reduce the risk of phytotoxicity, and reduce the impact on the next crop.