sweet potato has the characteristics of nutrition and health, low investment, quick results, high land yield, high resource utilization and strong adaptability. It is to promote farmers to get rid of poverty and become rich. An important starting point for promoting rural revitalization. China is the world’s major sweet potato producer, consumer and exporter, and its output accounts for more than 60%of the world’s total output. The research team of Shandong Agricultural University conducted research and analysis on the development of my country’s sweet potato industry in the past five years. As a characteristic and advantageous agricultural product in my country, sweet potato has played an important role in agricultural efficiency, farmers’ income, and industrial poverty alleviation. From 2014 to 2018, the annual output of sweetpotatoes showed a steady growth trend and remained above 70 million tons; the consumption structure of sweetpotatoes continued to develop toward a trend of decreasing feed share and increasing fresh food and processing share. Among the various types, the demand for fresh food is increasing. The demand for starch is basically stable, and the total consumption demand is steadily increasing. In particular, the consumption of healthy supplementary food represented by sweet potato is increasing year by year; the price of sweet potato is generally stable and the price The risk of volatility is low, and the market is stable. In the past five years, China’s sweet potato export trade volume has been increasing year by year. In 2019, the export volume has declined slightly, but the export scale is still in the forefront of the world. The research and development of new products focusing on the consumption of sweet potato products will bring new opportunities to the development of the sweet potato industry.
1. Development status of sweet potato industry
my country’s sweet potato plants are widely distributed, the main producing areas are relatively concentrated, the total planting area is relatively stable, and the planting area and output have always been ranked first in the world.
(1) Planting scale and global status
1. The planting scale is relatively stable, and the main producing areas are relatively concentrated. my country is the world’s largest sweet potato producer. The changes in sweet potato planting area and output from 1961 to 2017 are shown in Figure 1. In the past five years, the planting scale has remained above 50 million mu. With the improvement of varieties and the improvement of planting level, the total area has shown a downward trend, but the total output has basically remained stable.
——Area (thousand hectares) ···· ···· Output (10,000 tons)
Figure 1 China’s sweet potato planting area and yield
Data source:FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
my country’s sweet potato cultivation is mainly concentrated in the Huaihai Plain, the Yangtze River Basin and the southeast coast. The larger planting areas are Sichuan, Guangxi, Henan, Shandong, Chongqing, and Guangdong. , Anhui and other provinces (municipalities directly under the Central Government). Considering climatic conditions, ecology, administrative divisions, cultivation area, planting habits, etc., sweet potato planting areas are generally divided into three areas, namely the northern potato area, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the southern potato area.
2. The output is relatively stable and has always ranked first in the world. From 2015 to 2019, my country’s sweet potato production is generally stable at around 71 million tons. According to FAO statistics, my country is the country with the largest sweet potato production in the world. In 2017, 36.7%of the world’s sweet potato planting area contributed 63.8%of the production. The overall planting scale and output level rank first in the world, and the yield per unit is the world average. 1.7 times.
3. Sweet potato varieties are mainly divided into starch type and fresh food type. In actual planting and production, the mainstream sweet potato varieties are relatively concentrated. The top 5 varieties are Shangshu 19 (starch type), Guangshu 87 (fresh food type), Long 9 (fresh food type), Sushu 8 (fresh food type) ), Xiangfu No. 1 (fresh food type), the variety concentration reached 46.8%. The top 9 main sweet potato varieties are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Main sweet potato varieties
Data source:Investigation report on the development of sweet potato planting industry in my country (2017)
In addition to a small number of companies or park-scale planting, most of my country’s sweet potatoes are grown by small and scattered farmers. The production organization model is based on farmers’ self-production and self-sales, supplemented by other business models.
(2) Consumption Status Quo Analysis
According to the National Sweet Potato Industrial Technology System Industrial Economic Fixed Observation Point Survey in 2017, the planting area ratio of fresh food, starch and purple sweet potatoes in my country is about 48 :47:5. There are obvious differences in the types of sweet potatoes in various regions. The southern potato areas are dominated by fresh food types. Fresh food types and purple potato types account for about 68%and 21%, and starch types account for only about 10%; while the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the starch type The proportion is more than 50%; starch type and fresh food type account for roughly the same proportion in northern potato areas. The structure of sweet potato varieties in the three major potato regions is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 The structure of sweet potato varieties in the three major potato regions
Data source:Survey report on the development of sweet potato planting industry in my country (2017) author:Lu Jianzhen Wang Xiang,
(3) Analysis of the status quo of processing and circulation
1. The planting area and output rank first in the world, and the development of the processing industry is relatively slow. Most of the sweet potato processing is used for traditional processing such as sweet potatoes, potato chips and roasted sweet potatoes. At present, new processing methods such as fermentation and enzymatic methods have emerged, and the types and quantities of products have been increasing. In addition to being used as feed, sweet potato stems and leaves also have medicinal value.
2. Distribution channels and methods
(1) Potato farmers-processing enterprises. This type of method is mainly based on starch-based sweet potatoes, and potato farmers directly sell sweet potatoes to processing companies after harvesting, accounting for more than 95%of starch-based varieties.
(2) Potato farmers-brokers-processing enterprises. Potato farmers sell the produced sweet potatoes to enterprises for processing through sweet potato brokers. This form is more common in main sweet potato producing areas, especially in concentrated processing areas.
(3) Potato farmers-online retailers-consumers. Online retailers refer to online shopping malls and large e-commerce companies. Farmers sell sweet potatoes to online retailers, and retailers process sweet potatoes into products and supply them to consumers through retailers or other channels.
(4) Analysis of Import and Export Status Quo
The main import sources of Chinese sweet potatoes are Indonesia and the United States, and a small amount of imports come from South Korea, Thailand, Canada, etc. From 2010 to 2014, the proportion of imports from Indonesia alone remained above 70%. In the past two years, the US’s sweet potato exports to China have increased significantly. According to FAO data, the top 10 countries in the world for sweet potato imports in 2017 were the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, France, Belgium, Japan, the United States, Thailand, and Singapore; the top 10 countries in terms of export volume were the United States, the Netherlands, and China , Spain, Vietnam, Canada, Egypt, Britain, Brazil, Indonesia, etc. Chinese sweet potatoes are mainly exported to Hong Kong, Vietnam, Japan and other Asian countries and regions, as well as European and American countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, and Canada. Among them, my country’s exports of sweet potatoes (including dried sweet potatoes, cold or frozen sweet potatoes, fresh sweet potatoes, etc.) totaled 39.718 million kilograms in 2019, and imports were about 400,000 kilograms (Figure 3). The top 10 countries and regions of my country’s sweet potato exports are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 The top 10 Chinese sweet potato exports in 2017 Main countries and regions
Data source:Chinese sweet potato and its processed products import and export Analysis of current trade situation (Lu Jianzhen)
Figure 3 2011-2019 China’s sweet potato export volume and Export amount statistics
Data source:China Customs span>
(5) Analysis of market price changes
The conclusions of investigations on wholesale retailers show that the price of starch-based varieties is relatively stable, generally at 0.3-0.5 yuan per catty. Fresh-food types are priced due to differences in varieties and production areas. Generally between 0.5-2.0 yuan per catty. From the perspective of the annual cycle change, the price of sweet potato is generally low during the concentrated harvest period, and most of the prices will increase after storage. The price was the lowest at the end of October. After New Year’s Day, the price was about twice that of October. The highest during the Spring Festival. It began to decline until June of the following year, and fell to the lowest in the whole year at the end of October (see Tables 3 and 4).
Table 3 The purchase price of some sweet potato varieties from June to October (yuan/jin)
Table 4 Wholesale sales prices of different varieties of sweet potatoes (yuan/jin)
Data comes from Yimutian (http://hangqing.ymt.com/chandi/)
(6) Analysis of the status quo of cost and benefit
investigated the main sweet potato producing areas such as Henan, Shandong, and Chongqing, and obtained the following cost-benefit calculations:the cost of sweet potato per mu is about 1,500 yuan, of which fertilizer is about 220 yuan. Pesticide is about 60 yuan, machinery is about 120 yuan, labor is about 400 yuan, potato seedlings are about 400 yuan, irrigation, mulching, etc. are about 300 yuan. According to the survey data of the fixed observation point of the industrial economy of the national sweet potato industry technology system, the yield of fresh sweet potatoes per mu in 2016 is generally more than 3,400 catties, and they are purchased at a land price of 1 yuan per catty, and the average income per acre is about 1,800 yuan, which is about the whole country. Three times the net income of rice planting.
2. Prospects for the development of sweet potato industry
(1) The planting area is relatively stable, and the price will be further increased. The planting area of fresh-eating sweet potato varieties increased slightly, while that of starch-based varieties declined slightly, and the overall planting area was relatively stable. Affected by the national food supplement policy, market price and consumer demand, it is expected that the sweet potato planting area will remain stable in the short term. With the increasing awareness of health care and consumer demand, as well as the diversification of new sweet potato varieties and processed categories, the price of sweet potato is expected to increase further.
(2) The proportion of fresh food processing continues to expand, and the deep processing industry begins to take shape. In my country’s sweet potato consumption structure, deep-processed products account for more than 50%of the total consumption, and it is rising steadily, especially the proportion of refined starch and snack food processing will further increase.
(3) Industrial regional layout is gradually taking shape, and regional industrial advantages are further highlighted. At present, the sweet potato industry is gradually developing into a superior area of starch and fresh edible sweet potatoes in the north, a superior area of processing and fresh edible sweet potatoes in the southwest, a superior area of food processing and fresh edible sweet potatoes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and sweet potatoes for fresh edible and food processing in the south Advantage area.
(4) The scale of production and the degree of organization will be significantly improved. With the development of large planters, professional cooperatives and production enterprises, the scale of sweet potato production, processing and sales will be further expanded, and the structure and degree of organization of the sweet potato industry will also be significantly improved.
3. Development of characteristic industries in poor areas
(1) Overall situation
sweet potato is widely distributed because of its developed root system, strong drought tolerance, and low requirements for soil fertility. Among the 592 national-level poverty-stricken counties in China, 426 counties have planting records, and sweet potato has become an important income-increasing crop for many mountainous and hilly farmers.
(2) Main experience and practice
1. Yuanxi Village, Shuanggou Town, Suining County, Jiangsu Province, aimed at pioneer crops in the structural adjustment of sweet potato industry, and signed a deal with Xuzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences in April 2017. The agreement for the expansion and propagation of the original virus of the original species, the large-scale planting and production of sweet potato virus-free seed potato seedlings, while developing the sweet potato industry, has also promoted the cultivation and industrialization of fresh sweet potato in Suining Shuanggou, Liji, Weiji and other places Development is expected to increase the income of local growers by about 800 yuan per mu.
2. Chongqing Pengshui has insisted on implementing precision poverty alleviation in recent years, with the goal of increasing farmers’ income, with characteristic benefits as the core, processing and production, and company Farmers use marketing to drive the market, based on resource advantages, and extend the industrial chain. The average field yield is 1966.5 kg, and the average yield per mu in the core demonstration area is 3,137.6 kg, an increase of 986 kg over the control. The rate of commercial potatoes is more than 90%, and the income increase is significant.
4. Problems and risks in industrial development
There is blindness in the current sweet potato industry, and production and operation risks are high. The level of deep processing of sweet potatoes is generally low, and the added value of the products needs to be improved, especially the slow update of varieties and insufficient research and development of new products.
(1) Main issues
1. Pests and diseases have become an important factor restricting sweet potato production. In recent years, black spot, scab, root rot and potato blast have spread, causing great harm and lack of effective treatment methods. Pests and diseases have become an important factor restricting production.
2. Variety update is slow, restricting the development of processing industry. Although my country has cultivated some new sweet potato varieties suitable for different processing purposes, the promotion speed is slow. There are few fresh-eat sweet potato varieties and poor quality that can be used for different processing purposes, which restricts the development of the processing industry.
3. Insufficient research and development of new products and weak corporate brand awareness. Sweet potato processing is mainly based on starch processing and traditional foods such as vermicelli and noodles. It has low technical content, many primary processed products and few deep processed products. The brand awareness of enterprises is weak, and the industrial chain needs to be further optimized.
(2) Risk Analysis
1. Continuous cropping of sweet potatoes has high yield and quality risks. The main production areas of sweet potato in my country are relatively concentrated, the continuous cropping area and continuous cropping time are increasing day by day, the output of sweet potato is unstable, the quality is declining, and the yield and quality risks continue to increase.
2. The quality of seedling breeding is uneven and there are too many weak seedlings. Potato farmers self-propagated and raised seedlings, which led to a decline in quality, and there were problems such as degeneration of varieties, serious virus infections, backward breeding techniques, and weak potato seedlings.
5. Suggestions on policies and measures
Based on the analysis of the problems and risks faced by the sweet potato industry, in order to protect the interests of potato farmers and promote the healthy, efficient and sustainable development of the sweet potato industry, the following policy recommendations are proposed:< /span>
(1) Strengthen sweet potato breeding and enrich sweet potato technology and personnel training. Strengthen the research of modern biological breeding technology, actively select and breed new sweet potato varieties suitable for localities, promote variety diversification, and advance the breeding process. Enrich grass-roots agricultural technicians, improve technical training, and improve farmers’ planting management capabilities and benefits.
(2) Strengthen the research and development of equipment and promote the deep processing of products. Through the research and development of processing and storage fresh-keeping technology and related equipment, improve the technological content of existing products and reverse the backwardness of sweet potato deep processing technology as soon as possible.
(3) is included in the category of subsidies for improved varieties to promote the healthy development of the sweet potato industry. The economic benefits of sweet potato planting by Chinese farmers are higher than conventional crops. Sweet potato is mostly distributed in hilly and mountainous areas. It does not compete for land with grain. It is a good way to get rid of poverty and become rich. At the same time, it is a health food that consumers love. It is recommended to be included in the category of good seed subsidies.
(4) Establish an efficient big data monitoring and early warning mechanism for the sweet potato industry. Through the establishment of an effective big data operation mechanism and an efficient big data service model, the regular release of industrial information such as sweet potato prices, market supply and demand, import and export trade, etc., improves the industrial information service capabilities and ensures the healthy, efficient and sustainable development of the sweet potato industry.
article source丨Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs website