Investigation and Analysis Report on my country’s Highland Barley Market and Industry
By: Date: 2021-04-03 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
  Highland barley has the characteristics of drought tolerance, barren tolerance, easy cultivation, short growth period, strong adaptability, and stable yield. As a characteristic and advantageous agricultural product in my country, highland barley is mainly distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is the main food ration of the local Tibetans. The sustained and stable development of the highland barley industry has played an important role in ensuring food security in Tibetan areas, maintaining stability in border areas, and promoting regional economic development effect. In order to fully understand the production and market conditions of highland barley in my country, and put forward suggestions for the development of highland barley industry, the Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences was commissioned to set up a special research group. A comprehensive investigation and analysis of the highland barley industry was carried out. In recent years, my country’s barley planting area and output have been expanded; the production areas are concentrated, the industry concentration is high, and the variety is large, mainly small-scale farming by farmers; the production cost continues to rise, and the net profit tends to decline. Consumption is mainly for food, and consumption is increasing steadily. The circulation area is concentrated and the circulation mode is diverse; the price is rising steadily; the processing uses are diverse, and the processing consumption is low. Completely domestic production, domestic consumption, no import and export trade. It is expected that in 2020, the barley planting area will steadily decrease, and the output will increase steadily with the increase in unit yield; direct edible consumption will tend to decline, processing consumption will increase steadily, and prices will rise slightly.

  1. Development status of the highland barley industry

   (1) production

   1. The planting area and output have been expanded. According to research, from 2014 to 2018, the national highland barley planting area increased from 5.27 million mu to 5.79 million mu, an increase of 9.8%; the output of highland barley increased from 1.2 million tons to 1.39 million tons, an increase of 15.1%; the average yield of highland barley increased from 228 kg per mu Increase to 239 kg, an increase of 4.9%.

  2. Strong adaptability and diverse varieties. Highland barley is drought-tolerant, barren-tolerant, easy to cultivate, short growth period, strong adaptability, and stable yield. At present, the main planted varieties in each production area are Tibetan blue series, wintergreen series, Himala series, Kunlun series, Chaiqing series, Beiqing series, Ganqing series, Diqing series, Kangqing series, etc.

  3. The production areas are concentrated. The highland barley producing areas are mainly located in Tibet, Qinghai, Gannan Prefecture of Gansu, Ganzi Prefecture and Aba Prefecture of Sichuan and Diqing Prefecture of Yunnan on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They are characteristic food crops with a long history of cultivation in the local area, and a small amount of crops are also cultivated in Xinjiang, Jiangsu and Hubei. According to the different planting seasons, it can be divided into spring barley (sown from mid-March to early April, harvest from late August to late September, mainly located in mountainous areas above 2500 meters above sea level) and winter barley (sow from early October to late November, It is harvested from early April to mid-May, mainly in valley areas below 2500 meters above sea level).

   4. High industry concentration. According to research, in 2018, the main producing provinces with a barley planting area of ​​more than 200,000 mu were Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan, and the total planting area accounted for 98.4%of the country; the main producing provinces with a barley output of more than 50,000 tons It is Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan, which together account for 98.2%of the country’s output. Tibet is the largest barley producing area. In 2018, the planted area and output accounted for 53.2%and 58.1%of the country’s total.

   5. Focus on small-scale planting by farmers. At present, the main cultivation of highland barley is still dominated by small-scale farmers. In Qamdo, Tibet, there are nearly 5,000 farmers with a planting area of ​​more than 50 acres, and nearly 80,000 households with a planting area of ​​more than 10 acres; in Haibei, Qinghai, nearly 30,000 farmers plant highland barley, and only about 450 households have a planting area of ​​more than 45 acres; in Sichuan In Ganzi, nearly 120,000 farmers plant highland barley, but most of the planting area is less than 10 mu.

  (2) Consumption

  1. Various consumer uses, mainly for food. Highland barley is rich in β-glucan, dietary fiber, trace elements and other ingredients. Edible is the main purpose of highland barley. It is used as food for the Tibetan people, including making tsampa and processing into food, highland barley wine, etc. In recent years, highland barley edible consumption accounts for about 80%of total consumption, of which direct consumption accounts for about 70%and indirect consumption accounts for about 10%; highland barley grains and straws are also the main feed for animal husbandry, and feed consumption accounts for about 5%; the remaining 15%is used For seed and reserve grain.

  2. Consumption increased steadily. The total consumption of highland barley expressed in terms of apparent consumption [1] was 1.2 million tons, 1.24 million tons, 1.36 million tons, 1.36 million tons, and 1.39 million tons in 2014-2018, which were mainly increased. With the development of modern technology and the rise of tourism on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the processing of traditional highland barley liquor and other beverages has rapidly expanded; the changes in the dietary structure of residents have also promoted the rapid development of the highland barley food processing industry with natural and health characteristics.

  (3) Processing and circulation< /div>


  1. The processing uses are diverse and the dosage is relatively low. Highland barley processing has various uses:one is to brew highland barley liquor, highland barley red wine, barley beer, barley juice, highland barley dew and other drinks; the other is to make highland barley noodles, highland barley nutrition powder, highland barley buns, highland barley cereals, highland barley biscuits, highland barley shaqima, etc. Processed food; third, processed into high value-added nutritional and health products such as Tibetan barley red and barley seedling wheat green. In recent years, the processing consumption of highland barley accounts for about 10%of the output.

   2. The circulation area is concentrated, and the circulation is mainly within the area. Highland barley is mainly grown in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and consumed by the Tibetan people. Most of its supply and demand occurs in this area. Domestic production, domestic consumption, and no foreign trade. The relationship between supply and demand depends entirely on the production of highland barley in the region. Circulation is mainly carried out between the highland barley producing areas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to adjust the surplus and shortage of supply and demand in each producing area.

  3. Various circulation modes.”Farmers + market” is the most common circulation model with the largest market share, accounting for 50%, 85%, and 30%of production in Tibet, Sichuan, and Qinghai, respectively. Other circulation modes include”farmers + middlemen (retailers or wholesalers) + markets” (approximately 30%and 10%in Tibet and Sichuan), and”farmers + planting bases + processing enterprises” (in Tibet and Qinghai, respectively) (Approximately 10%and 20%),”farmers + cooperatives + processing enterprises” (approximately 5%in Tibet, Qinghai, and Sichuan).

  (4) Market price< /div>


   From 2014 to 2018, the market price of highland barley rose steadily, from 3.2 yuan per kilogram to 3.3 yuan, an increase of 3.1%. On the one hand, the demand for highland barley has grown rapidly in recent years; on the other hand, factors such as increased efforts in ecological protection and limited arable land have led to a slower growth in the supply of highland barley.

  (5) cost benefit< /div>


   1. The continuous increase in costs has led to a decline in net profit. From 2014 to 2018, the cost per mu of highland barley continued to increase from 710 yuan to 827 yuan, an increase of 16.3%; labor costs, mechanical operation costs, and land lease fees were among the top three, accounting for 41.6%, 18.5%, and 15.1%respectively in 2018 ; Fertilizer fees, pesticide fees, and irrigation fees rank among the top three, with 29.1%, 24.6%, and 22.8%respectively. With the steady growth of prices and output, the output value of highland barley per mu is mainly increased, an increase of 9.6%. The growth rate of the cost of barley was higher than the output value, and the net profit per mu dropped by 31.1%.

  2. The cost and output value of barley are lower than wheat. Wheat is the main competitive crop for highland barley. From 2014 to 2018, the average cost per mu of highland barley was 22.7%of that of wheat; the average output value of highland barley per acre was 10.8%of that of wheat. Although the yield of highland barley is significantly lower than that of wheat (34.7%lower on average), its price is higher. In recent years, the net profit of highland barley has been higher than that of wheat.

  2. Prospects for the development of the highland barley industry

   (1) The planting area will decrease steadily, and the output will increase steadily. With increasing efforts to protect the ecological environment in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the total amount of arable land in the region is limited, the planting area is expected to decline steadily in 2020; with the research and promotion of highland barley breeding and supporting cultivation management techniques, the yield per unit of highland barley will increase Continue to improve, and production is expected to increase slightly in 2020.

   (2) Direct food consumption will tend to decline. Highland barley is a highly regional, self-sufficient, characteristic food crop, and the Tibetan people on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are the main consumers of it. With the continuous adjustment and improvement of the dietary structure of the Tibetan people, it is expected that the direct consumption of highland barley will decrease, the consumption of rice will increase, and the proportion of direct highland barley consumption in the total consumption will tend to decline.

   (3) Processing consumption will grow steadily, and prices will rise slightly. With the rapid development of tourism in Tibetan areas, people’s recognition of the health-care function of highland barley, and the development of highland barley processing technology, the highland barley processing industry has developed rapidly. It is expected that the processing volume of highland barley and its proportion in total consumption will increase steadily in 2020, which will drive the price of highland barley to rise slightly.

   3. Development of the barley industry in poor areas

   In recent years, during the development of the highland barley industry on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a variety of development models have been formed, which has played a good role in poverty alleviation and income increase of local farmers.

   (1)”Scientific research + enterprise + base + farmer” model. The Agricultural Research Institute of Diqing Prefecture, Yunnan Province, relying on scientific and technological projects such as”National Highland Barley Commercial Grain Base Construction”,”National Barley Highland Barley Industrial Technology System” and other scientific and technological projects, build highland barley improved seed breeding demonstration bases and commercial grain demonstration bases, strengthen scientific and technological training for poor households, and provide Good seeds, organic fertilizers and other agricultural materials, and coordinated with enterprises and farmers to sign highland barley breeding and recycling contracts and highland barley commodity grain purchase contracts, and promote counterpart assistance to the national-level poverty-stricken village-the first and second groups of Wajin Street, Xinjian Village, Jinjiang Town, Shangri-La City The poor households will all get out of poverty in 2019.

   (2) Leading enterprise driving model. Tibet Xigaze Bailang County Kangsang Agricultural Products Development Co., Ltd. was established in 2006. It mainly produces highland barley barley, highland barley compressed biscuits, highland barley snow rice cakes, highland barley steamed buns and other foods. In 2017, the company processed 6,000 tons of highland barley and produced 5,000 tons of high-quality tsampa. Actively promote poverty alleviation and income increase of local poor households:Sign orders for highland barley raw materials with farmers and purchase them at a price higher than the market price; actively absorb poor farmers’ employment and increase income; actively respond to the”Hundred Enterprises Helping Hundred Villages” assistance activities, and fund construction for poor households Infrastructure such as housing and flood drainage channels.

  4. Problems and risks in industrial development

   (1) Main issues

   1. The level of planting management technology is relatively backward. Farmers and herdsmen are generally not well-educated and have limited acceptance of modern agricultural technology. Barley planting and daily soil, water and fertilizer management are mostly at a low level. The highland barley field production technology is backward, and the planting areas are mostly rain-fed agricultural areas. The water control depends entirely on precipitation, resulting in low and unstable barley yields.

   2. High-quality resources and varieties are relatively lacking. Through decades of breeding work, great progress has been made in barley breeding. However, due to the late start of the functional understanding of highland barley and modern food processing, the breeding and improvement of excellent special varieties for the functional ingredients and processing characteristics of health medicine has only begun in recent years. At present, relevant high-quality resources and varieties are still lacking.

  3. The development of processing technology and industry is lagging behind. Highland barley processing mainly stays in the primary product processing stage, and there are few high value-added deep-processed products; the main processing body is households, individual workshops and small enterprises, and there are few large leading enterprises. There are few researches on the health function of barley and the raw materials of food and medicine. Highland barley food safety guarantee, processing standards and technical regulations are not yet complete.

   4. The degree of market informatization is not high and the source channel is single. Barley production, circulation, processing, consumption and other industrial chain links are basically carried out in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where the economic development level is relatively backward. The local infrastructure conditions are poor and the market information construction is lagging, resulting in the degree of informationization and commodities of the highland barley market. The degree of chemistry is not high.

  (2) Risk analysis< /div>


  1. The fragile ecological environment and frequent geological disasters restrict the development of highland barley production. The terrain of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is fragmented, the ecosystem is easily damaged, and soil erosion is serious, which directly restricts the development of highland barley production. The land types on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are dominated by high-cold arid land and deserts with low productivity and limited production potential, which is not conducive to the increase of barley yield.

  2. Disaster weather occurs frequently and endangers the development of highland barley production. The climate of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by cold, less rain, more wind, and strong solar radiation. Excessive development of highland barley production can easily lead to the deterioration of the fragile ecological environment and affect industrial development. Hail has a high frequency and a wide range in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It mostly occurs from the heading to yellow maturity stage of the highland barley. Large areas of snowstorms occur frequently in winter and spring, which seriously harm the highland barley.

  3. Regional shortages and backlogs coexist, affecting the stability of supply and demand in the highland barley market. As the country’s efforts to protect the environment have increased, the border areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have continued to implement the policy of returning farmland to forests and pastures. This has resulted in Haibei Prefecture and Haidong City in Qinghai, Gannan Prefecture in Gansu, Aba Prefecture and Ganzi Prefecture in Sichuan, and Diqing Prefecture in Yunnan. The area and output of highland barley planted in the main export or self-sufficient areas decreased. In Tibet, with the increase in national ethnic policy support, highland barley, which is a food ration for the Tibetan people, has also been supported. The planting area and yield have increased significantly, and the output has increased significantly. However, restrictions on traffic conditions and the emphasis on self-sufficiency in production have also led to a large amount of local highland barley. Backlog.

  5. Suggestions on policies and measures

   highland barley is a food ration for the Tibetan people in our country. Ensuring the sustained and stable development of the highland barley industry is important for ensuring food security in Tibetan areas, maintaining stability in border areas, and promoting economic development in ethnic areas Realistic meaning.

   (1) Strengthen the construction of the breeding system, and select new varieties suitable for different production areas. Give full play to the role of the national technology system for the barley barley industry, strengthen the discovery and utilization of new barley germplasm and genetic resources, especially processed germplasm and genetic resources, construction of a barley molecular breeding platform, post-harvest processing and quality testing technology and equipment research and development, etc. Aspects of research. The breeding goals are spring resistance, low temperature tolerance, medium stalk resistance, disease resistance, lodging resistance, large ears and large grains; the focus of breeding is to cultivate highland barley, grain and grass double-high quality varieties, and breed suitable for semi-arid production areas of the Tibetan River Valley and the central and western basins of Qinghai New varieties planted in irrigation production areas, (Qing) Haibei-Gannan grassland arid area, Sichuan-Tibet east desert arid production area, etc., are new varieties with large biomass, strong lodging resistance, good cold tolerance, wide disease resistance, and double high in grain and grass. .

   (2) Strengthen technology promotion and training, and support the development of cooperatives. Mobilize the staff of local agricultural technology departments to vigorously promote existing mature cultivation techniques and high-yield and high-quality varieties, improve the level of farming management techniques for farmers, and lay the foundation for the subsequent promotion of new technologies and varieties. Actively support the development of cooperatives. For cooperatives that are in a good development situation and actively participate in the research and development of breeding and cultivation technology by enterprises, scientific research institutions, etc., provide tax relief, preferential credit and other support, and provide support in cultivation and pest control technology, deep processing technology and market Strengthen guidance on information, support cooperatives to continuously improve production and operation conditions, gradually enhance development capabilities, and better play their role in stimulating and promoting farmers.

   (3) Develop a processing industry development plan to guide the rapid development of the industry. Clarify the development direction of highland barley food processing, and study and formulate mid- and long-term development plans for the highland barley processing industry. Establish and improve the management system, policies and regulations, technical specifications, production procedures, quality and hygiene, and product standards for highland barley raw materials and their processing and production. Support superior highland barley food processing enterprises to become bigger and stronger, and increase support for superior enterprises and characteristic superior products. Select areas with processing foundation and traditional advantages in the main producing areas of highland barley, and establish green food bases and modern highland barley food processing parks. Establish and improve the cross-province and cross-regional highland barley market scheduling work system and start it in a timely manner, make overall plans and take into account the interest relationship between the transfer area and the transfer area, and maintain the stability of market supply and demand.

   (4) Improve circulation efficiency and strengthen market monitoring. Improve and improve the warehousing conditions, logistics technology, facilities and equipment of highland barley, improve the construction of highland barley logistics information system, and enhance the logistics service level of highland barley circulation. Encourage state-owned grain enterprises and large-scale purchasing enterprises to extend their business chains, and develop a business model that integrates barley sales, warehousing, and processing. Regulate the operation of middlemen in the highland barley circulation, and give full play to their advantages in activating the highland barley market and facilitating the sale of grain by main growers. Establish and improve the highland barley sales quality grading standard system and the third-party quality inspection and acceptance system. Strengthen domestic highland barley market information monitoring, analysis, research and judgment, etc., build an authoritative market information release platform and release it in a timely manner.

   (5) Establish industrial alliances as soon as possible to promote the integrated development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. Establish a highland barley industry alliance as soon as possible, and strengthen the construction of a mechanism for industrial interest linkage. Encourage and guide leading enterprises to take advantage of their leading advantages. In the form of”enterprise + cooperative + farmer”,”enterprise + farmer” and other forms, cooperate with cooperatives and farmers to form an agricultural industrialization consortium, demonstrate and guide cooperatives and farmers to engage in standardized production, and implement the integration of production, plus marketing The integrated development of chemical management and the tertiary industry will realize the interlocking of raw material production, product research and development, production processing, packaging and transportation, and marketing. The integration and scientific management of large-scale management will effectively form a barley raw material producing area, food research and development unit, production enterprise, The mutual cooperation between sales entities promotes the sustainable development of the barley industry.

   Article source丨 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs website