Investigation and Analysis Report on my country’s Cyperus edulis Market and Industry
By: Date: 2021-04-08 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
   Cyperus edulis is a new type of oil crop, which is drought-resistant, water-saving, nutrient-rich, and high-oil production. It is suitable for planting in desertified soil. my country’s oil self-sufficiency rate is only 31%. In 2019, a total of 93.31 million tons of oilseeds and 11.53 million tons of edible oil were imported, accounting for nearly 80%of my country’s total imports of agricultural products. my country’s traditional bulk oil has a low output per unit area, and there is an urgent need for alternative oil sources with high output rates and great development potential to ensure the safety of my country’s edible oil supply. In 2016, Cyperus esculentus was included in the”National Planting Industry Structural Adjustment Plan (2016-2020)” of the Ministry of Agriculture. In 2019, Premier Li Keqiang also made important instructions on the development of Cyperus esculentus. In order to fully understand the production and market conditions of S. serrata in my country and put forward suggestions on the development of S. serrata industry, Yangtze University was entrusted to set up a special research group to conduct research on my country’s S. serrata through information review, telephone consultation, enterprise surveys, and production base surveys. The industry conducted a comprehensive investigation and analysis. The survey results show that Cyperus edulis is a new crop with both grain and oil. It is drought-resistant and water-saving, high-yield and stable. It is adapted to the production of my country’s abundant desertified non-grain marginal land. It has played an important role in ecological protection, farmers’ income increase, and industrial poverty alleviation. In recent years, my country has made major breakthroughs in key production technologies such as the selection and breeding of S. edulis varieties and mechanized harvesting, and the conditions for large-scale development have been initially established. Each acre of Cyperus edulis can produce 4 acres of high-quality edible oil for soybeans or 2 acres of rapeseed and 0.6 acres of corn-equivalent feed meal. The production benefits and efficiency are prominent, and the potential for new oil source substitution is initially available, and the development space can reach 50 million acres. It is recommended that the state increase investment, strengthen key technology research, carry out trials and demonstrations of integrated technology of the sage pea, and accelerate the development of the sage pea industry.

  1. Current status of the development of the sago pea industry
   (1) my country’s cedar production is in its infancy. Cyperus edulis is native to the arid areas of African deserts. It is sun-loving, heat-resistant, drought-resistant, and water-logging. Its growth period is about 120 days. Cyperus edulis is harvested from underground tubers, generally yielding 500-600 kg per mu, with an average oil content of 25%, starch 35%, sugar 15%, and crude protein about 5%.
   1. The overall production scale is not large, and the regional distribution is wide. In the 1960s, my country imported Cyperus esculentus from Bulgaria and other countries. Due to the lack of mechanized harvesting technology, the development was slow. In 2018, my country’s oilseed cedar planted area was about 250,000 mu, and the actual yield was 300-400 kg/mu, and the total output was about 87,500 tons. It is mainly distributed in areas with heavy soil sand content in the northeast, northwest, Huanghuai and Yangtze River basins. Among them, Nong’an County in Jilin Province is about 70,000 acres, Daqing in Heilongjiang is about 50,000 acres, Xingtai, Hebei is about 30,000 acres, Changji, Kashgar, Xinjiang is 25,000 acres, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, etc. are about 20,000 acres, the old course of the Yellow River in Henan is about 10,000 acres, and Jianghan, Hubei The plains and Dabie Mountains are about 5,000 mu, and other areas are scattered with 40,000 mu.
  2. Mainly imported varieties from abroad, and self-developed varieties began to be promoted. There are four main varieties of Cyperus edulis widely used in my country. The first is the round-grain beans imported from Bulgaria, which are mainly distributed in Hebei, Henan, Xinjiang, and Inner Mongolia. They account for 50%of the total area, have an oil content of about 25%, and yield 400-500 kilograms per unit. The second is the large round beans imported from Africa, which are mainly distributed in the Northeast, accounting for about 30%of the total area, with an oil content of about 25%, and a yield of 500-600 kg per unit. The third is a long-grain variety, with a planting area of ​​10%. The yield is slightly higher than that of Hebei beans, but it is not easy to harvest. The fourth is the new varieties of the’Zhongyousha’ series bred in my country, which are mainly distributed in Hebei, Hubei and other production areas, occupying about 5%of the total area, with an oil content of 29%-31%, a yield of 600-700 kg/mu, and the highest yield of 1050 kg.
  3. The yield and quality advantages of Cyperus esculentus are outstanding. The oil content of Cyperus edulis is 20%-30%, and the oil yield per mu is more than 120 kg. The oil yield per unit area is 4 times that of soybeans, 2 times that of rapeseed, and 1.5 times that of peanuts. Saussurea soybean oil has high nutritional value. The content of unsaturated fatty acids accounts for more than 80%. It has the characteristics of high oleic acid (68%) and low linoleic acid (12%). The quality is similar to olive oil, which is beneficial to reduce cardiovascular diseases. risk. Cake meal contains 45%starch, 23%sugar, 8%crude protein, which can be equivalent to 0.65 acres of corn output per mu; 500kg of hay per mu, 10%crude protein, is a high-quality forage for herbivores.
   (2) The consumption of Cyperus esculentus is diversified, and the consumption is generally small. The main usable ingredients of Cyperus edulis are oils and carbohydrates. The direct products include Cyperus edulis oil and cakes, and the derivative products include Cyperus edulis beverages, gluten-free flours and snacks, etc. The main consumers are urban and rural residents. Feed processing for cooking and aquaculture. The national consumption of cedar is in its infancy, and the amount of processing and consumption is very small. The annual processing of sago oil is about 10,000 tons, and the selling price is 100-200 yuan/kg. It is mainly used for retail and online sales at the origin, and is used for cooking oil. The annual output of cakes and meal is about 40,000 tons, of which 20,000 tons are used to process the oily sago flavored wine, and the remainder is mainly used for breeding.
   (3) The circulation cost of sago pea is relatively high, and the processing is mainly for oil. The domestic cedar bean industry is in the early stage of development. After harvest, 50%of the cedar bean is used as seeds to expand production. The other 50%is used for oil extraction, producing about 10,000 tons of Saussurea soybean oil and 40,000 tons of cakes every year. With the expansion of the planting area of ​​Cyperus edulis, the proportion of oil use will continue to increase, and the proportion of oil use will reach more than 95%after the scale stabilizes. The construction of the circulation channels of the cedar bean is relatively backward, and there is currently no mature wholesale and retail market in the country. The cedar bean enterprises planted them in areas rich in sandy soils such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Daqing through orders. After the acquisition, they were transported back to North, Northeast, and Central China for processing. The transportation costs are high, and the financial pressure and risks of the enterprise are greater.
   (4) A small amount of Sape pea is imported for seed use. According to data, it is estimated that the global production area of ​​Cyperus esculentus is less than 2 million mu, and the main production countries are Spain, Nigeria, Ghana and so on. Only Spain imports a small amount from Africa for the production of cedar beverages. Some Chinese companies imported a small amount of Cyperus esculentus from Africa and Spain before 2015, mainly for seed use.
  (5) Cost benefit is higher than that of major cash crops. At present, due to the relatively high yield of Cyperus edulis, the domestic planting is generally small, and both the output value and the benefit rank the first among oil crops. In recent years, the purchase price of primary products of Saussurea pea is 5-6 yuan/kg, the external wholesale price is generally 8-12 yuan/kg, and the retail price (Taobao) is 25-40 yuan/kg. The local wholesale price of Saussurea in Ghana is 7-8 yuan/kg, and the price is about 15 yuan/kg at the port of my country. The online selling price of European cedar bean is about 150 yuan/kg. The domestic ex-factory price of small-package oil sago oil is 60-80 yuan/kg, and in Europe it is 450 yuan/kg. Calculated based on the current purchase price, the output value per mu of Sperma serrata reached 1,500 yuan, and the net profit was 700 yuan, surpassing peanuts (630 yuan), corn (110 yuan), and soybeans (184 yuan).
Investigation and Analysis Report on my country’s Cyperus edulis Market and Industryimage
  Second. Prospects for the development of Cyperus esculentus industry
   (1) The country pays more and more attention to the development of the cedar industry. In 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture’s”National Planting Industry Structure Adjustment Plan (2016-2020)” pointed out that”multiple oils should be promoted at the same time… Demonstration and promotion of oil peony and cedar, etc. in suitable areas to increase new oil sources”. In 2017, Minister Han Changfu made the opinion of “selecting regional development in combination with the structural adjustment of the planting industry”. In 2018, a professional committee for planting, processing and equipment technology of Cyperus edulis was established. In 2019, the Ministry of Science and Technology will deploy the scientific and technological innovation task of Saussurea pea in the national key research and development plan. In 2019, Premier Li Keqiang made important instructions on the development of Saussurea pea development proposals, requiring in-depth research and advancement.
   (2) Cyperus edulis is expected to become a strategic product to replace soybeans. my country’s oilseed and edible vegetable oil import dependence is as high as 90%and 70%, respectively, and the national food and edible vegetable oil industry is facing greater hidden dangers. The advantages of wind-proof and water-saving of Cyperus edulis are outstanding. If 2%of desertified land (2.6 billion mu in the country) is used, a production capacity of 50 million mu can be formed in 5-8 years, which can increase the supply of edible oil by 6 million tons per year and replace 19 million tons with corn. , 25 million tons of forage grass can replace 1/3 of imported soybean oil production.
   (3) The production of cedar bean will continue to grow steadily. Before 2010, the country’s area was less than 10,000 mu, and in 2018 it grew to 250,000 mu. The planting scale has developed rapidly, and the promotion of industrialization has begun. Leading companies such as Haoyishou and Xinkechuang have established mature processing and production lines, and order cooperatives have realized large-scale planting, laying a technical foundation for the rapid development of the oil sage bean industry. In the short term, my country’s oilseed cedar production still shows a steady growth trend.
  (4) Consumption will continue to maintain a steady growth trend. It is expected that in the next five years, the consumption groups of sago oil will continue to be mainly consumed by people with higher incomes and gift oils. The development direction is to replace olive oil as high-end cooking oil. Consumption will continue to maintain a steady growth trend, reaching 30,000 to 50,000 tons. In the next 10 years, the consumption target of Cyperus esculentus will shift to middle-income households, and the development direction of Cyperus esculentus oil is rich in oleic acid instead of blended oil as a healthy cooking oil. It will enter a period of rapid growth and consumption will increase to 1 million tons.
   3. The development of characteristic industries in poverty-stricken areas
   (1) Overall situation. The advantageous areas for the development of Cyperus edulis are desertified land in the northwest and northeast, Huanghuai, Hubei Dabie mountainous areas and other water-deficient and arid agricultural areas, as well as key areas such as the”sickle bend” and”funnel area” of agricultural restructuring, with a large number of poor people. In 2019, a total of 6 counties in national-level poverty-stricken counties and economically underdeveloped regions planted Sperma serrata, planting a total of 50,000 mu, with an income of 600-1,000 yuan per mu, and spurring a cumulative increase of 30 million yuan in income for the poor. Due to the immature harvesting equipment of Cyperus esculentus, relatively difficult processing, lack of acquisition market, and greater risk, the production mode is”enterprise + cooperative” order mode production, the order size is 100-1000 mu, and leading companies provide mechanized harvesting services.
   (2) Main experience and practice. The company actively guides farmers to develop”order farming”. Through the business model of”company + cooperative + base + farmer households”, it constitutes an industrial organization form of market-leading enterprises, enterprise-leading bases, and base-connected farmers, realizing the docking of farming cooperatives and super farming. The docking and the docking of agricultural enterprises have not only eliminated the worries of growers, but also promoted the rapid development of the company.
   (3) Typical case analysis. Hubei North Europe Pomeranian is building a full industrial chain of Saussurea pea in Suizhou City. Aubomei Eco-Food Co., Ltd. is a limited liability company established in 2009. It is a new green non-food crops enterprise specializing in breeding, promotion, production and sales of high-quality Semen Sesame seeds. The company signed an agreement with the Oil Crop Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to introduce a new variety of Cyperus esculentus”Zhongyousha No. 1″, and built more than 2,000 acres of national-level Cyperus esculentus seed breeding and planting in Xihe Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province The base, through the”company + cooperative + base + farmer” business model, constitutes an industrial organization form of market leading enterprises, enterprise leading bases, and base connected farming households, realizing the docking of farming cooperatives, super farming and farming enterprises. With an investment of 200 million yuan, it has successfully established a 100,000-ton low-temperature extraction production line, a 1 million-ton oil-shadow soy milk production line and a 300,000-ton oil-shadow bean flour production line, with an annual output value of 1 billion yuan.
  4. Problems and risks in industrial development

   (1) Main problem
   1. Lack of good varieties and standardized production technology system. Cyperus edulis is a non-main crop and has not yet been included in the registered crop list, lacking regional trials and seed standards for Cyperus edulis. The oil content of large-scale popularized varieties is low, and the phenomenon of mixed and degraded varieties is serious, which affects yield and quality. The germplasm resources of Cyperus edulis in my country are scarce, and there is a lack of a complete technical system for breeding of high-quality varieties.
   2. The mechanized production equipment is relatively backward. The tubers of Cyperus edulis are distributed in the soil layer of 10 cm underground. The particle size and shape of the tubers are different. The leaves, roots, beans and soil are difficult to separate, and the harvesting cost is high, which is a major bottleneck restricting the development of Cyperus edulis industry. The existing harvesting equipment has low operating efficiency, large loss rate, poor stability and high price, and needs to be further improved.
  3. The foundation of processing technology and equipment research and development is weak. At present, the production line of Sago pea processing production line is small in scale, low in production efficiency and high in cost. There is an urgent need to strengthen the research and supporting of large-scale industrialized pressing and leaching key technology and equipment for oil production. The deep processing technology and equipment for the auxiliary products that are extended by the industrial chain of sesame bean sugar and flour, beverages, formula foods, snack foods, etc. are in urgent need of research and development, and there is a lack of corresponding in-depth research on feed utilization.
   4. National industrial policy support needs to be strengthened urgently. Cyperus edulis is an emerging industry led by enterprises from all over the world. The cephalocys edulis industry does not yet have the R&D investment and industrial support of national financial funds, especially the new variety breeding, mechanized harvesting equipment, processing and other aspects are still in a financial input gap. The edible oil, flour, cakes and other products of Saussurea edulis have not been included in the food catalog, and the market access still needs further approval from relevant departments. The country’s development policies, development plans, agricultural machinery subsidies, and planting subsidies related to the cedar bean need to be studied and perfected.

   (2) Risk Analysis
   1. Market risk. The world’s supply of cephalospora is small. Only Spain has large-scale mechanized production and needs to be imported. With the increase in the scale of domestic cephalospora cultivation, the increase in supply may bring about the risk of price decline, which will be to a certain extent. Affect the income and planting enthusiasm of planters.
   2. Biological risk. Some experts once believed that Cyperus edulis was an exotic herb and worried that weeds would become invasive alien species. Planting practice found that at a low temperature of minus 5 ℃, the growth point will be frozen to death, and it is difficult for the north to survive the winter. In addition, there are already many herbicides in China that can control Cyperaceae plants, such as”Misaguang” (2-methyl-4-chloro-sodium bensulfuron-methyl),”Samen” (Caopinglong No. 3), etc., the southern cyperus pea It is controllable.
  V. Suggestions on Policy Measures
   (1) Give full play to the strategic role of the oil sago pea industry. As a new oil source crop, Cyperus edulis has high oil, high yield, drought tolerance and stress resistance. It can be planted on sandy land and has the potential to replace soybean oil. It is recommended to use Cyperus esculentus as a strategic new oil source crop to replace soybean imports, conduct in-depth research, strengthen top-level design, compile a national Cyperus esculentus development plan, grasp the development direction, and formulate relevant development policies.
   (2) Increase financial investment and policy support. Cyperus edulis is a high-quality crop of grains and oils. It is recommended to set up a pilot project for the production of Cyperus sphaerocarpa, with a development subsidy of 150 yuan (seeds purchased) per acre of additional area. The cedar harvester was included in the agricultural machinery subsidy catalog to speed up the popularization of mechanization. Actively promote the market access of Sago sago-related products, introduce relevant acquisition support policies, and actively promote the healthy development of the Sago sago industry.
   (3) Strengthen the key technology research of the oil sago industry. Increasing national financial investment, researching integration of production, teaching and research, and forming an internationally leading core and key technology for the entire industrial chain of Saussurea pea. Cultivate a number of new varieties of high-yield and high-quality Cyperus esculentus, supporting agricultural machinery and agronomy, and focus on breaking through the bottleneck of high-efficiency and low-loss harvesting equipment. Research and develop key technologies and equipment for the in-depth comprehensive utilization of the effective ingredients of Cyperus esculentus to improve the efficiency and efficiency of product processing.
   (4) Expedite the promotion and demonstration of new technologies for the production of Sesame pea. Include Cyperus edulis in the construction content and tasks of the agricultural technology extension system, support the construction of 5-10 large-scale sago esperate seed breeding bases, establish 20 green and high-yield demonstration bases, and increase the development of new varieties and mechanized production technologies of Cyperus edulis Demonstrate and establish a green production input model with water-saving irrigation as the core.
  (5) Promote intensive processing and increase the promotion of healthy consumption. Vigorously promote the processing of high oleic healthy nutrient oil sago oil and the development of a series of sophisticated products, extend the industrial chain, promote processing value-added and healthy development, and implement a brand differentiation strategy. Cultivate the leading enterprises of the cedar bean, train professional cooperatives, strengthen the construction of the circulation and sales channels of the cedar bean, publicize the advantages and characteristics of the cedar bean products, and expand market consumption.
  (6) Strengthen international cooperation and expand international supply sources. The countries along the “Belt and Road” are rich in desertified land and severe drought, which has huge development potential of Cyperus edulis. Cooperate with countries along the “Belt and Road” to carry out collection and exploration of germplasm resources, breed cultivation, model demonstrations, industrial standardization and promotion, expand the production of oilseed pea in the “Belt and Road”, expand the source countries of oil imports, and reduce oil imports to American countries. Over-reliance.
   Article source丨 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs website