Investigation and Analysis Report on my country’s Cherry Market and Industry
By: Date: 2021-04-17 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
  Cherry is an important characteristic agricultural product in my country, with high economic value, and its output ranks first in the world. In order to fully understand the development of my country’s cherry industry and put forward development suggestions, the Institute of Science and Technology Information of the Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences was commissioned by the Agricultural Monitoring and Early Warning Branch of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Sciences to set up a special research group, through literature review, telephone consultation, and field investigations in the main producing areas. A comprehensive investigation and analysis of the development of my country’s cherry industry in recent years was carried out. In recent years, cherries have played an important role in agricultural efficiency, farmers’ income, and industrial poverty alleviation. Production and planting area have increased overall; edible consumption has continued to rise; imports have continued to rise; prices have first risen and then fallen, with large fluctuations. In the future, my country’s cherry production and sown area are expected to maintain a momentum of growth; edible consumption continues to rise; imports increase first and then stabilize; market prices remain stable but decline, and fluctuations slow down.

  1. Current status of cherry industry development
  (1) Production
  1. Yield and sown area increased overall. Research data shows that in 2018, my country’s cherry planting area was about 3.1 million mu, with an output of about 1.2 million tons, ranking first in the world. According to estimates, from 2009 to 2018, the total output and sown area of ​​cherries in my country showed an overall upward trend. In 2018, there was a slight decrease. The output increased from 862,000 tons to 1.20 million tons, an average annual increase of 3.7%; the sown area increased from 2.415 million mu Increased to 3.101 million mu, with an average annual growth rate of 2.8%; yields maintained a steady increase after a substantial increase in 2009-2011, with an average annual growth rate of 0.2%.
  2. The advantageous production areas are relatively concentrated. The north is the main cherry growing area, and there is a small amount of development in the southwest highlands. At present, there are 2 advantageous production areas in China:one is the Bohai Bay area, which is dominated by Yantai, Tai’an, Shandong, Dalian, Liaoning, Beijing and Qinhuangdao, Hebei. In 2018, the planting area accounted for about 60.0%of the country; the second is Zhengzhou, Henan, The planting area along the Longhai Railway and northwest production areas, which are the main lines of Xi’an in Shaanxi and Tianshui in Gansu, accounted for about 20.1%of the country in 2018. In recent years, the high-altitude production areas in the southwest have developed rapidly, and Jiangsu and other places along the southeast coast are actively introducing and testing suitable cherry varieties. In 2018, in the southwest high-altitude production areas, the cherry planting area was 100,000 acres in Sichuan, 100,000 acres in Yunnan, 50,000 acres in Chongqing, and 30,000 acres in Guizhou; 20,000 acres each in Jiangsu and Anhui in the southeast coastal areas, and 5,000 acres in Zhejiang.
  3. Shandong Province ranks first in cherry production and sown area. Shandong Province is the province with the largest cherry planting area and the highest output. It mainly includes two dominant sub-producing areas in Shandong Peninsula and central and southern Shandong. The planting area exceeds 40%of the country; the output accounts for about 50%of the country. According to statistics from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Shandong Province, in 2018, the cherry planting area in Shandong Province was 1.316 million mu and the output was 642,000 tons. Among them, Yantai is 384,000 mu and 262,000 tons; Tai’an is 169,000 mu and 98,000 tons, which are the two cities with the highest area and output.
  4. Mainly open field planting, supplemented by facility planting. Cherry production is dominated by open field planting, and facility planting is more in Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei, Shaanxi and other producing areas, with a relatively low area. In 2019, Shandong’s cherry cultivation area was less than 15%of the province’s total area. Statistics from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Shandong Province show that in 2018, the country’s protected cherry cultivation area was about 200,000 mu, of which 80,000 mu in Shandong, mostly elevated greenhouses; and 74,000 mu in Dalian, mostly solar greenhouses.
  (2) Consumption
   1. Food consumption continues to increase. Cherries are mainly consumed for direct consumption, and the consumption for processing is very small. Most of the consumers are urban and rural residents with certain consumption ability. In recent years, the consumption of cherries has been increasing. According to estimates by the research team, from 2016 to 2018, my country’s apparent consumption of cherries was 1.306 million tons, 1.347 million tons, and 1.386 million tons, respectively, showing an increasing trend year by year.
  2. Diversified sales models. my country’s cherry sales models are diverse. In addition to wholesale and retail, and garden picking, online sales models have developed rapidly. According to statistics from the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Yantai City, in 2019, about 30%of Shandong cherries were sold through rural e-commerce channels. Dalian, Liaoning, cooperated with large e-commerce platforms such as JD. In 2018, more than 20 cherry production and distribution companies entered JD. The city’s online sales of cherries exceeded 8,000 tons, and the order volume exceeded 3 million orders. About 50%of the first-class fruits passed Sold online.
   (3) Processing and circulation
  1. The scale of processing industry is limited. At present, most of the cherry products on the market in my country are fresh food, the sales of processed products are few, and the scale of processing industry is limited. According to data from the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Yantai City, deep processing of local cherries is in its infancy and there are few successful cases.
  2. The distance between production and sales areas is long, and the demand for cold chain logistics is high. At present, the production areas of cherries in my country are concentrated, and the production and sales areas are far apart, but the sales in the production areas are relatively low. According to statistics from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Shandong Province, in 2019, more than 60%of Shandong’s products were sold outside the province, and most were sold to the south. Since cherries have poor storage resistance and are prone to loss during long-distance circulation, there is a high demand for cold chain logistics.
  (4) Import and Export Trade
  1. Mainly imported, and the import volume is increasing. Our country’s cherries are mainly imported, and domestically produced cherries are mostly sold domestically, and the export volume is very small. According to China Customs statistics, from 2016 to 2019, my country’s cherry imports increased from 109,000 tons to 194,000 tons. January is the month with the most imports, and its proportion in the whole year has been increasing. From 2016 to 2020, January imports were 47,000 tons, 43,000 tons, 81,000 tons, 117,000 tons, and 133,000 tons. Except for 2020, January imports accounted for 42.9%of total imports for the year. 42.1%, 43.5%, 60.6%.
  2. The main producing countries of America and Oceania are the main sources of imports. my country’s cherry import source countries mainly include Chile, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey, and the main producing countries in the Americas and Oceania. Among them:the summer is mainly imported from northern hemisphere countries such as the United States, Canada and Kyrgyzstan; in winter, it is mainly imported from southern hemisphere countries such as Chile, Australia and New Zealand. Cherries play an important role in the agricultural trade between Chile and China. About 90%of Chilean cherries are exported to my country.
  (5) Market price
  1. The price first rises and then falls. According to the weighted calculation of data from the National Agricultural Product Price Database of the Ministry of Commerce, from 2015 to 2019, the wholesale price of domestic cherries rose first and then fell. After rising from 70.9 yuan per kilogram in 2015 to 84.7 yuan in 2017, it continued to fall in 2018 and 2019. 50.4 yuan per kilogram in 2019. From 2015 to 2019, the wholesale price of cherries fell at an average annual rate of 8.2%.
  2. The price difference of different planting modes and varieties is obvious. From the perspective of planting patterns, the prices of cherries grown in solar greenhouses, elevated greenhouses, and open fields are decreasing successively. The wholesale price of cherries grown in solar greenhouses is more than 100 yuan per kilo; the prices of cherries grown in elevated greenhouses are 40-160 yuan per kilo; and the prices of cherries grown in open fields are 10-50 yuan per kilo. In terms of varieties, the prices of directly introduced or hybridized varieties are generally higher than those of domestic breeding varieties. Among them, the”Jiahong” variety has the highest price, with the highest price of nearly 300 yuan per kilogram, and the average price of more than 50 yuan.
  3. The price fluctuates greatly. According to the weighted calculation of data from the National Agricultural Product Price Database of the Ministry of Commerce, the price of cherries fluctuates greatly due to seasonal factors. From December to March of the following year, the price is high, the highest point is 117.4 yuan per kilogram in March 2016; the price is lower from May to July in summer, and the lowest point is 15.8 yuan in July 2019. The highest price in 2016 was 4 times higher than the lowest price.
   2. Prospects for the development of the cherry industry
   (1) The output keeps increasing. In recent years, the output and sown area of ​​cherries in my country have continued to increase. In the high-altitude areas of southwest, northwest, and southeast coastal areas, cherry introduction and trial planting, cultivation and breeding enthusiasm are high. my country’s new dominant production areas may appear one after another, and the country’s cherry planting area will continue to expand. It is estimated that my country’s cherry output may exceed 1.25 million tons, and the planting area will reach about 3.2 million mu.
   (2) Consumption continues to rise. The process of urbanization is accelerating, and the scale of potential consumers continues to expand. In recent years, domestic apparent consumption has continued to increase. Food consumption is expected to continue to rise in the future, and online consumption will replace part of traditional consumption, and apparent consumption may reach 1.4 million tons. In the long run, the deep processing industry may become a new growth point for the development of the cherry industry, and the consumption of cherry processing is bullish for a long time.
   (3) Imports increase first and then stabilize. Currently, cherry imports still have room for growth. It is estimated that the short-term cherry imports may exceed 200,000 tons. With the continuous increase in domestic cherry production, the gap between supply and demand in the domestic market will gradually narrow. It is expected that the number of imported cherries in the medium and long term may gradually stabilize, and high-quality foreign cherry products may become the main import target.
   (4) The market price is stable but has fallen, and the fluctuations have slowed down. In recent years, the overall market price of cherries in my country has fallen. Affected by the increase in output and the optimization of the variety structure, the number of cherries on the market has increased, and the market period will be further extended. It is expected that the price of cherries in the future may fall to about 50 yuan per kilogram, and the large price fluctuations may be reduced. The market price The trend will be more stable.
  3. The development of cherry industry in poverty-stricken areas
   (1) Overall situation
   my country’s cherry industry is closely integrated with poverty alleviation in parts of Shandong, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan and other provinces. The promotion and development in poverty-stricken areas of the main producing areas is good, and the income of local farmers has increased significantly, and it has the potential for continuous promotion. . Poverty alleviation methods:one is the government-led, through the direct participation of the village party branch and the village cooperative organization; the other is the government playing an intermediary role, and the introduction of social capital through projects.
   (2) Main experience and practice
  1. The government-led”government+” model. The government directly participates in poverty alleviation work in the cherry industry through organizations such as poor villages and village branches, unites farmers in the village to establish cooperatives and other cooperative organizations, and incorporates poor households into cooperative organizations to carry out operations based on the model of”village party branch + cooperative organization + farmer households”. Villagers participate in labor together, and obtain income from land and projects specified in the labor contract or other rights and interests.
  2.”Leisure Agriculture” model led by social capital. The government mainly plays an intermediate role, introducing social capital through poverty alleviation development projects and other channels. Social capital is transferred to local farmers’ land, obtaining land management rights, and establishing an interest linkage mechanism with farmers in the form of contracts and agreements, and the enterprise develops the production and operation of facility cherries. Poor households rely on the agreement signed between corporate social capital and the government to obtain dividends, and those with the ability can participate in production and obtain more benefits.
   (3) Typical Case Analysis
   1. The case of Beinange Village, Jinzhongzi Town, Anqiu City. The village has a total of 135 households with 1,098 mu of land, and more than 20 poor households have been filed. Since 2015, the village branch took the lead in establishing the”Anqiu Boyang Fruit and Vegetable Planting Professional Cooperative” to develop facilities for cherry production. In 2016, the 8 filed and registered poor households in the village achieved poverty alleviation and increased income. As of 2018, the per capita disposable income of villagers was 25,000 yuan, much higher than the average level in Shandong Province.
  2,”Huaxia Manor” in Guanwang Village, Xin’an Street, Anqiu City. This project is a carrier project for the government department to introduce industrial and commercial capital, Kunde’s agricultural operation facility cherry in 2017. The government signs a cooperation agreement with the company, and the company will return 8%of its annual profits in the form of dividends directly to the local filed poor households. More than 500 acres of facility cherry bases have been built through land transfer, which can earn about 30,000 yuan in dividends for each poor household in the surrounding villages who transfer land, and help poor households get rid of poverty.
   (4) Summary of experience
  1. Case experience in Beinange Village. The “village party branch + cooperative organization + farmer households” model of Beinange Village on the one hand fully mobilizes the enthusiasm of farmers and poor households, and the land flows smoothly; on the other hand, it directly gives labor income to farmers and poor households through dividends and collective income distribution. The income of poor households will increase quickly and securely.
  2,”China Manor” case experience. Under the “Social Capital + Farmers” model of Huaxia Manor, the government and enterprises have signed a cooperation agreement to clarify the rights and responsibilities of each party. On the one hand, it effectively solves the problem of obtaining labor resources and stimulating their enthusiasm under the enterprise operation mode; on the other hand, it improves the enterprises and farmers. The closeness of the interest connection between them reduces the difficulty for enterprises to transfer to land, and the income of poor households is guaranteed.

  4. Problems and risks in industrial development
   (1) Main issues
  1. The variety structure needs to be optimized. At present, the planting ratio of early-maturing varieties in my country is too large, there are few famous and high-quality new varieties, and the quality is uneven. Early-maturing varieties in Shandong and other places account for more than 80%. In addition, some of my country’s main varieties have obvious defects in economic traits, and there are fewer famous new varieties with good comprehensive traits such as good yield, large fruit, hard flesh, good taste, and storage and transportation.
  2. The level of standardized production needs to be improved urgently. On the one hand, the promotion area of ​​facility cherries is still at a relatively low level, and the overall construction of orchard infrastructure is lagging behind. More than 80%of the cherry orchards in Shandong lack facilities such as bird protection and frost protection. On the other hand, the degree of production organization is low, the degree of large-scale and standardized production is not high, a complete cherry production technology system has not been formed, and there are phenomena such as early harvesting and direct application of other fruit varieties production technology.
  3. The cost of post-partum circulation is relatively high. On the one hand, domestic cherries lack pre-cooling links after harvesting, storage technology is relatively backward, and cold chain storage costs are relatively high; on the other hand, cold chain logistics is not widely available in county-level and poverty-stricken areas, and logistics costs remain high, which has compressed The income of farmers from producing cherries also reduces the freedom of pricing at the sales end.
  (2) Risk Analysis
  1, blindly follow the trend of planting risks. Benefiting from the high economic value, farmers have high enthusiasm for planting cherries, but sometimes it is impossible to scientifically determine the varieties, planting scale, planting methods, planning arrangements, etc. of cherries based on the meteorological and geographical environmental conditions required for cherry cultivation. There may be blind follow-up behavior.
  2. The risk of local slow sales during the concentrated listing period. At present, a large number of domestic cherries are concentrated on the market from early April to early mid-July each year. The physical distance between the production and marketing areas is relatively long, and the sense of fragmentation is strong. A large number of concentrated cherries may not find a suitable sales channel, and there are local slow-moving sales.
  V. Suggestions on Policy Measures
   (1) Strengthen the promotion of improved varieties and improve the variety structure. Scientifically adjust the proportions of early, middle and late maturing varieties, and appropriately develop late-maturing varieties in production areas with humid climate and slow spring temperature rise, highlighting the advantages of regional characteristics; appropriately developing mid- and late-maturing varieties in areas dominated by early-maturing varieties to extend fruit supply period. Promote the close integration of agriculture, science and education, integrate advantageous scientific and technological resources, strengthen the creation of new cherry varieties, increase the introduction of high-quality rootstocks and new varieties, and promote the replacement of cherry varieties.
   (2) Appropriately promote facility cultivation and promote standardized production. The combination of open field and facility production shall be adopted, and facility cultivation shall be appropriately promoted according to the natural conditions of the location. Establish a national cherry industry development system and technical support system, optimize and integrate standardized production technologies that adapt to modern cultivation patterns, and realize the matching of good varieties and good anvils and good methods. Strengthen the training of agricultural technology extension teams and professional producers, guide fruit farmers to manage the orchard scientifically, and promote the quality and efficiency of the industry.
   (3) Develop a county-level smart logistics system to improve the efficiency of e-commerce. Relying on the county-level smart agriculture development project, strengthen the construction of smart logistics infrastructure, open up cold chain logistics channels in counties, towns and villages, and facilitate the sales of cherry e-commerce. Encourage e-commerce enterprises, agricultural enterprises, and district and county governments to carry out relevant cooperation, establish e-commerce incubation bases, industrial parks and other service institutions, and enhance the commercialization service capabilities of agricultural products.
   (4) Strengthen post-harvest processing and implement brand strategy. Strengthen support for deep processing of cherries, develop deep-processed products such as canned cherries, preserved fruits, and cherry wine, extend the industrial chain and increase its added value. Continue to support cherry regional public brand and corporate product brand building, strengthen publicity and market development, create an internationally influential cherry brand, and achieve brand enhancement of quality, brand influence, and brand benefit.
   Article source丨 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs website