According to customs statistics, in 2020, Guangdong Province imported 435,000 tons of dairy products, a decrease of 4.6%over the same period of the previous year (the same below); the value was 20 billion yuan, a decrease of 3.6%; the average import price was 46,000 yuan per ton. Increased by 1%. Among them, Guangdong imported 40,000 tons of dairy products in December, an increase of 9.7%; the value was 1.41 billion yuan, a decrease of 2%; the average import price was 35,000 yuan per ton, a decrease of 10.7%.
1. Main features of Guangdong dairy products imports in 2020
(1) The import volume has declined, and the average import price has risen overall. In 2020, the import volume of dairy products in Guangdong Province declined slightly compared with the previous year. The average import price showed an upward trend in the first half of the year, but fell in the second half of the year, with an overall increase of 1%. In December, Guangdong Province imported 40,000 tons of dairy products, a year-on-year increase of 9.7%and a month-on-month increase of 6.8%; the average import price was 35,000 yuan per ton, a year-on-year decrease of 10.7%and a month-on-month decrease of 7.9%.
(2) General trade imports are absolutely dominant. In 2020, 396,000 tons of dairy products were imported by general trade, a decrease of 4%, accounting for 91%of the total dairy product imports in Guangdong Province (the same below) during the same period; 38,000 tons of dairy products were imported by bonded logistics, a decrease of 10.8%, accounting for 8.7%.
(3) Mainly imported from private enterprises and foreign-invested enterprises. In 2020, foreign-invested enterprises imported 230,000 tons of dairy products, an increase of 12.4%, accounting for 52.8%; private enterprises imported 195,000 tons of dairy products, a decrease of 14.8%, accounting for 44.8%.
(4) The EU and New Zealand are the main sources of imports. In 2020, imports of 199,000 tons from the European Union, an increase of 7%, accounting for 45.8%; imports of 145,000 tons from New Zealand, a decrease of 8%, accounting for 33.4%. The total imports from the two places accounted for 79.2%.
2. The main reason for the increase in the import volume of dairy products in Guangdong in 2020
(1) Affected by the epidemic, the import volume of dairy products has decreased. First, due to the impact of the epidemic, consumer social activities have decreased, resulting in lower consumption in the catering service industry, leading to a decline in consumption in the domestic dairy market. Second, as the epidemic continues to spread overseas, many large dairy countries in Europe have become the hardest hit areas of the epidemic, which has affected the trade of dairy products to a certain extent.
(2) The drought in New Zealand and rising freight prices have pushed up the prices of dairy products. Insufficient pasture and water supplies caused by the drought have reduced the production of dairy products in the North Island of New Zealand. The price of domestic dairy products has risen rapidly, reaching the highest price since June 2011. At the same time, due to the impact of the epidemic, air transportation prices have risen, and the transportation costs of fresh dairy products have pushed up overall prices.
3. Current issues and suggestions concerning the import of dairy products
(1) The domestic milk source supply rate has dropped, and the dependence on imported dairy products is relatively high. Since 2008, the self-sufficiency rate of my country’s dairy industry has shown a downward trend. In the past three years, the self-sufficiency rate was once below the global standard line of 70%. In 2019, the self-sufficiency rate of the dairy industry was 65.9%, a decrease of 27.2 percentage points within ten years. The dairy industry is currently developing well as a whole, but it is highly dependent on imported dairy products. At present, my country’s animal husbandry industry has not yet formed a breeding cycle, and the deep processing and R&D capabilities of dairy products are insufficient. The main raw materials for the production of infant formula milk powder, whey powder, lactoferrin, and lactose are highly dependent on imports. The core technology and equipment of the industrial chain are still being introduced. Imitation stage.
(2) The continuous rise in the price of domestic raw milk may boost the import of dairy products. According to the price data of the livestock product market of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, from May to December 2020, the national raw milk price increased for 7 consecutive months. The monthly average price increased from 3.57 yuan/kg in May to 4.15 yuan/kg in December. A cumulative increase of 16.25%, this round of price increases was mainly affected by two factors, demand growth and rising costs. The rise in the price of domestic raw milk may drive up the price of domestic dairy products, which will encourage domestic dairy companies to use imported dairy products as a substitute.
To this end, the first is to strengthen industry support and introduce relevant preferential subsidies to help domestic companies consolidate the milk supply chain system, innovate production methods, and respond to the rise in raw milk prices by improving production efficiency and reducing circulation costs; The second is to optimize the layout of the dairy industry and consolidate the healthy development of the dairy industry through mechanism reform and construction.