Guiding Opinions on Rice Breeding and Transplanting Techniques in Northeast China in 2021
By: Date: 2021-04-13 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
  The Rice Expert Steering Group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
  National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center
  ”Ching Ming” has passed, and rice planting and seedling raising in Northeast China has started one after another. Since March this year, the temperature in most parts of Northeast China has been relatively high, and the soil has thawed faster, which is conducive to the cultivation of rice seedlings. However, the high soil water content and heavy soil in some areas have adverse effects on soil preparation and bed making. In view of the current climate and production characteristics of Northeast China, we should focus on cultivating strong seedlings, focusing on improving planting quality, resisting wet and waterlogging, preventing low temperature, grasping the farming time, and grabbing accumulated temperature, and strive to complete planting before April 20 and May 25 The completion of transplanting seedlings will lay the foundation for achieving high and stable rice yields.
   One is to make a bed on a high platform to refine the seedling soil. Prepare soil to make a bed in advance to ensure that seedlings are grown on schedule. Strictly select bed soil to avoid phytotoxicity caused by borrowing soil from dry fields, and guide farmers to choose seed bed soil. Vigorously promote the cultivation of seedlings on high platforms. When the depth of melting of the soil in the shed is appropriate, start turning the ground, airing, dispersing moisture to increase the temperature, leveling the bed soil and raking fine compaction, making the bed body solid on the top and vacant underneath, and the compactness is consistent to ensure that it reaches Dry nursery standards. The bed soil and seedling strengthening agent should be mixed evenly, mix well 1-2 days before loading, cover with plastic film and simmer; the thickness of the loading plate should be kept at about 2 cm, and the seeding should be covered with 0.5 cm of soil.
  Second, it is the best seed, which falls in the right time. Choose locally approved and promoted rice varieties with good quality, strong cold tolerance, strong disease resistance, and suitable maturity period, and strictly prevent cross-region planting to ensure safe maturity. Before sowing, do a good job of pre-sowing treatments such as seed cleaning, seeding, germination test, seed disinfection, seed soaking and germination, and the germination rate should reach 85%or more. Generally, start planting in early and mid-April when the temperature is stable above 5℃, and strive to complete planting before April 20, to lay a solid foundation for cultivating strong seedlings.
   The third is to adjust the temperature of the water to cultivate strong seedlings. Technical measures such as centralized high-altitude dry cultivation, three-film mulching in greenhouses, and comprehensive temperature increase are adopted to prevent low temperature and cold damage. During the seed root growth period, the temperature is maintained at 28-30°C, and the highest temperature does not exceed 32°C. During the first leaf growth period, the optimum temperature is 25-28℃, and the highest is no more than 30℃. One leaf and one heart stage should be kept at 22-24℃, and the maximum should not exceed 25℃. To the transplanting period, the temperature should be controlled below 20℃ to avoid the phenomenon of”double-two-five” in which the temperature in the shed at the 2.5-leaf stage exceeds 25℃. At the same time, it should be watered once, and fertilizer should be applied 3-5 days before transplanting. Seedbed water management must highlight”drought” and not”water shortage”. When the tip of the leaf does not spit water in the morning and evening, the newly developed leaf curls in the noon, and the surface of the bed soil becomes white, water should be added immediately.
  Fourth is to prevent diseases and cure insects, take medicine to go to the field. Strengthen the prevention and control of seedling diseases, soak seeds and disinfect to prevent bakanae disease. Use metalaxyl (or metalaxyl mancozeb) alone or at the same time in the three links of nutrient soil spraying, seed dressing disinfection, and one leaf, one heart stage spraying, to prevent and control wilt. Strengthen the management of fertilizer, water, temperature and humidity in the seedling-growing shed, especially after the 1.5-leaf period, if it becomes clear after low temperature and rain, immediately ventilate and prevent cold and refine the seedlings, and carry out acid conditioning and disinfection on the seedling field to prevent bacterial wilt and wilt. Before planting seedlings, bring medicine to the ground to prevent leaf miners.
  Five is fine soil preparation and timely transplanting. Vigorously promote the dry land preparation technology, to the end, without leaving dead corners, the height difference within the same piece of land should not exceed 10 cm, and the ground surface should have a loose soil layer of 10-12 cm; the water preparation should be used for 3-5 days after putting water in the soaking field. The tractor is equipped with different soil preparation machinery to make the land level, the soil is finely fragmented, the height difference in the same pool is not more than 3 cm, and there is 2-3 cm of mud on the surface, so that the water can be filled with water and the drainage can be dried to ensure that the rice is high-yield. Transplanting seedlings is completed with high standards and high quality.