Excessive levels of sulfur dioxide residues and total number of colonies were detected, and Guizhou exposed these unqualified foods
By: Date: 2021-04-09 Categories: chinesefood Tags: ,
  Food Partner Network News On April 8, the Guizhou Provincial Market Supervision Bureau issued the 16th notice of 2021, organizing random inspections of catering food, tea and related products, meat products, edible agricultural products, and vegetable products 678 batches of samples of 7 categories of food, beverages, edible oils, fats and their products, and 20 batches of unqualified samples were detected. Unqualified foods involve indicators of the total number of colonies, coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cadmium (calculated as Cd), carbofuran, nitrite, and sulfur dioxide residues.
  4 batches of vegetable products detected excess sulfur dioxide residues
   Four batches of vegetable products were found to have excessive sulfur dioxide residues. They were dried bamboo shoots purchased from Guiyang Wudanglihui Chishui Pickled Cabbage Heidouhua Hotpot Restaurant, and Guiyang Guanshanhujiangqing Heidouhua Hotpot Restaurant purchased dried bamboo shoots. The dried bamboo shoots purchased from Guoji black bamboo shoots hot pot restaurant in Anshun Development Zone and Nanchuan Fang bamboo shoots purchased from a Shaojigong hot pot restaurant in Xingyi City did not meet the requirements of national food safety standards for sulfur dioxide residues.
   Sulfur dioxide, potassium metabisulfite, and sodium sulfite are commonly used bleaching agents and preservatives in food processing, and sulfur dioxide residues will be produced after use. After entering the human body, sulfur dioxide is finally converted into sulfate and excreted in urine. A small amount of intake will not cause health hazards to the body, but excessive consumption may cause gastrointestinal reactions such as nausea and vomiting. The”National Food Safety Standard Food Additives Use Standard” (GB 2760-2014) stipulates that the residual sulfur dioxide in dried vegetables (except dehydrated potatoes) shall not exceed 0.2g/kg. The reason for the excessive amount of sulfur dioxide residues in dried vegetables may be caused by the excessive use of bleaching agents such as sulfite to achieve the effect of bleaching and antiseptic; it may also be caused by inaccurate or inaccurate measurement.
  11 batches of food detected microbial contamination problems
   11 batches of food were found to have microbial contamination problems. Among them, 7 batches of drinking water were found to have unqualified Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coliforms. Tonguetan packaged drinking water, nominally natural drinking water produced by Gongqingquan Drinking Water Co., Ltd. in Liuzhi Special Zone (Yanjiaoquan), nominally packaged drinking water produced by Longtou Mountain Spring Co., Ltd. in Dafang County, and nominally Dafang County Long The Xiangsitan packaged drinking water produced by Tongitan Spring Co., Ltd. is nominally drinking natural spring water (Ginkgo Bay) produced by Gongqingquan Drinking Water Co., Ltd. in Liuzhi Special Zone, and Miaojiangyuan produced by Guizhou Miaojiangyuan Trading Co., Ltd. Packaged drinking water, Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not meet the national food safety standards; nominally, the Shijingshan Spring (packaged drinking water) produced by Liping County Shijingshan Industrial Co., Ltd. does not meet the national food safety standards.
   There are also two batches of meat products with a total number of colonies exceeding the standard, namely Yanglang Huangnanwu spicy chicken (500g/bag) produced by Guizhou Huangnanwu Food Co., Ltd., and Yanglang produced by Guizhou Huangnanwu Food Co., Ltd. Huang Nanwu spicy chicken (1 kg/bag), the total number of colonies does not meet the requirements of national food safety standards.
   In addition, two batches of tableware detected coliform bacteria that did not meet the national food safety standards. They were self-sterilized tableware (large bowls) used by Tanjin Brand Huangjia Skin Beef Noodle Restaurant in Bijiang District, Tongren City. ), the self-sterilizing tableware (soup bowl) used by Wanghu Hotel in Bijiang District, Tongren City.
   Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a conditional pathogen, widely distributed in various water, air, normal people’s skin, respiratory tract and intestines, etc. It is easy to survive in humid environments, and is resistant to disinfectants, ultraviolet rays, etc. Strong resistance is a health risk for people with weak resistance.”National Food Safety Standard Packaged Drinking Water” (GB 19298-2014) stipulates that Pseudomonas aeruginosa in packaged drinking water shall not be detected for 5 times. The main reason for the unqualified Pseudomonas aeruginosa in packaged drinking water may be improper protection of the source water and pollution of the water body; inadequate supervision of environmental sanitation by some enterprises, insufficient standard operation of staff, and cross-contamination in the production process; or packaging The materials are cleaned and disinfected due to defects.
   The total number of bacterial colonies is an indicative microbial index, which is mainly used to evaluate the cleanliness of food and reflect whether the food meets the hygienic requirements during the production process. If the total number of bacterial colonies in the food exceeds the standard, it will destroy the nutrients of the food, accelerate the spoilage of the food, and make the food lose its edible value. The”National Food Safety Standard Cooked Meat Products” (GB 2726-2016) stipulates that the total number of colonies in a sample of cooked meat products (except fermented meat products) shall not exceed 105CFU/g for 5 times, and at least 3 test results shall not exceed 105CFU/g. More than 104CFU/g. The total number of bacterial colonies in the food exceeds the standard, which may be caused by the company’s failure to strictly control the hygienic conditions of the production and processing process as required, or the inadequate cleaning and disinfection of packaging containers, or it may be related to improper product packaging and improper control of storage and transportation conditions.
   Coliform is one of the commonly used indicator bacteria for food contamination at home and abroad. The detection of coliforms in food indicates that it is more likely to be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. Food and tableware with excessive coliform bacteria may cause food contamination. The”National Food Safety Standard for Packaged Drinking Water” (GB 19298-2014) stipulates that no detection of coliform bacteria in a sample of packaged drinking water shall be detected;”National Food Safety Standard for Disinfected Meal (Drinking) Utensils” (GB 14934-2016) stipulates that coliforms shall not be detected in sterilized food (drink) utensils. The reason for the detection of coliforms in packaged drinking water may be that the source water is contaminated, or the product is contaminated by personnel, tools and other production equipment and the environment during the production process, or the product is not completely sterilized; The reason for the detection of coliforms in drinking utensils may be environmental pollution of the tableware during storage, or incomplete sterilization.
   Nitrite detected in 2 batches of drinking water (in NO₂⁻) Exceeded standard
   Nitrite detected in 2 batches of drinking water (in NO₂⁻ ) Exceeding the standard, they are nominally bottled drinking water (drinking natural spring water) produced by Jiulongshan Spring Water Plant in Xixiu District, Anshun City, and Huangguoshu produced by Waterfall Mountain Spring Drinking Water Production Co., Ltd. in Huangguoshu Tourist Area, Anshun City. Baidong Mountain Spring (packaged drinking water), nitrite (in NO₂⁻< /span>) does not meet the requirements of national food safety standards.
   nitrite (in NO₂⁻) can To a certain extent, it reflects the pollution of water bodies. Drinking water with severely excessive nitrite may cause poisoning. The”National Food Safety Standard Limits of Contaminants in Foods” (GB 2762—2017) stipulates that nitrites in packaged drinking water (except mineral water) (with NO₂⁻) The maximum limit value is 0.005mg/L. Nitrite in water can be converted from nitrate. Nitrate has natural and man-made sources. After water is polluted by bacteria, bacteria will release nitrate reductase at a certain temperature to reduce nitrate in water to nitrite. In addition, if the disinfection is not properly controlled, the nitrite concentration in the water delivery system will increase.
   In addition to the above-mentioned unqualified products, 3 batches of food were found to be unqualified, including 1 batch of meat products with food additives, 1 batch of green tea with excessive pesticide residues, and 1 batch of edible agricultural products. For heavy metal pollution problems, the unqualified products are bacon sold by the taste restaurant in the University Town of Gui’an New District. The nitrite (calculated as sodium nitrite) does not meet the national food safety standards; the unqualified products are sold at the Yongtianlu Tea Shop in Fenggang County. The green tea produced by Yongtianlu Tea Co., Ltd. in Fenggang County, Guizhou Province, carbofuran does not meet the national food safety standards; Chaotian pepper, cadmium (calculated in Cd) sold by Shenzhen Wal-Mart Retail Co., Ltd., Guiyang Shachong Road branch Does not meet the requirements of national food safety standards.
   Nitrite (calculated as sodium nitrite) is a food additive with color protection and antiseptic effects, which is widely used in the production and processing of meat products. Nitrite is used as a color protectant, which can make meat products present bright and beautiful colors. At the same time, it also has antiseptic effect and can inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Nitrite is also a carcinogen. If meat products with excessive nitrite are consumed for a long time, it may bring risks to human health. The”National Food Safety Standard Food Additives Use Standard” (GB 2760-2014) stipulates that the residual amount of nitrite (calculated as sodium nitrite) in cured meat products shall not exceed 30 mg/kg. The reason for the excess of nitrite in bacon may be that the company used it in excess of the limit in order to improve the color of the product, at the same time to make up for poor processing sanitary conditions, and to extend the product shelf life.
  Cadmium is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. Long-term or excessive intake of food with excessive cadmium content will accumulate in the body, damage the renal tubules and glomeruli, and cause chronic kidney poisoning. The”National Food Safety Standard Limits of Contaminants in Foods” (GB 2762—2017) stipulates that cadmium (calculated as Cd) is excluded from fresh vegetables (leaf vegetables, legumes, root and tuber vegetables, stem vegetables, day lilies) The limit in) is 0.05mg/kg. The main reason for the excessive cadmium in vegetables is the enrichment of cadmium in the environment during their growth.
  Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum, high-efficiency, low-residue, high-toxic carbamate insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide. It has systemic, contact, and gastric toxic effects, and has a certain degree of egg killing effect. The”National Food Safety Standard Maximum Residue Limit of Pesticides in Food” (GB 2763-2019) stipulates that the maximum residue limit of carbofuran in tea is 0.05mg/kg. Carbofuran is not easily degraded and easily causes environmental pollution. A small amount of pesticide residues will not cause acute human poisoning, but long-term consumption of foods with excessive pesticide residues will have a certain impact on human health.
   Regarding unqualified foods found in random inspections, in accordance with the”Food Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China”,”Food Safety Sampling Inspection Management Measures”,”Food Recall Management Measures” and other laws and regulations, the Guizhou Provincial Market Supervision Bureau has instructed relevant cities (prefectures) ) The market supervision department and the market supervision department of Gui’an New Area shall investigate and deal with it according to law. The market supervision departments of Guiyang City, Zunyi City, Liupanshui City, Anshun City, Bijie City, and Qiandongnan Prefecture have urged food production companies to check the flow of products, recall substandard products, and analyze the reasons for rectification; Guiyang City, Zunyi City, Anshun City, The market supervision departments of Tongren City, Qianxinan Prefecture, and Gui’an New Area have urged relevant units in the food business link to immediately take measures such as removing the shelves to control risks. The listing (prefecture) market supervision department and the Gui’an New Area market supervision department should report the risk prevention and control measures and the verification and disposal conditions to the provincial market supervision bureau and announce to the public in a timely manner according to the prescribed time limit and requirements.
Unqualified product information

Serial number Nominal manufacturer name Nominal manufacturing company address Name of the sampled unit Address of sampled unit Food name Specification model Trademarks Production date/
Lot number
Unqualified items║inspection result║standard value Classification Announcement number Announcement date Task source/project name Inspection agency Remarks
1 / / Shenzhen Wal-Mart Department Store Retail Co., Ltd. Guiyang Shachong Road Branch The first basement of Shachong Road (Guitie Xinyuan), Nanming District, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Chaotian Pepper Weighing / Purchase Date:2020/9/18 Cadmium (as Cd)
║0.089mg/kg
║≤0.05mg/kg
Edible agricultural products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
2 / / Tanjin Brand Huangjia Beef Noodles with Skin in Bijiang District, Tongren City Facade of No. 7 Paper Mill, Binjiang Avenue, Bijiang District, Tongren City, Guizhou Province Self-sterilizing tableware (large bowl) / / Processing date:2020/8/7 coliforms
║Check out/50cm²
║Do not check out
Dining food 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
3 / / Wanghu Hotel, Bijiang District, Tongren City Facade No. 2 (next to Tongren Public Security Bureau) of Lot 2 of Paper Mill, Bijiang District, Tongren City, Guizhou Province Self-sterilizing tableware (soup bowl) / / Processing date:2020/8/7 coliforms
║Check out/50cm²
║Do not check out
Dining food 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
4 Waterfall Mountain Spring Drinking Water Production Co., Ltd. in Huangguoshu Tourist Area, Anshun City White Cave of Jiuchang Group, Anzhuangpo Village, Huangguoshu Town, Huangguoshu Tourist Area, Anshun City, Guizhou Province Anshun Huangguoshu Scenic Area Waterfall Mountain Spring Drinking Water Production Co., Ltd. White Cave of Jiuchang Group, Anzhuang Village, Huangguoshu Scenic Area, Huangguoshu Town, Anshun City, Guizhou Province Huangguoshu Baidong Mountain Spring (packaged drinking water) 18.9L/bucket / 2020/10/10 Nitrite (as NO₂⁻)‖0.092mg/L‖≤0.005mg/L Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Zunyi Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
5 Jiulongshan Spring Water Plant, Xixiu District, Anshun City Shaziguan, Zuoguan Village, Shuangbao Town, Xixiu District, Anshun City Jiulongshan Spring Water Plant, Xixiu District, Anshun City Shaziguan, Zuoguan Village, Shuangbao Town, Xixiu District, Anshun City, Guizhou Province Bottled drinking water (drinking natural spring water) 18.9L/barrel / 2020/10/9 Nitrite (as NO₂⁻)‖0.023mg/L‖≤0.005mg/L Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Zunyi Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
6 Dafang County Longguitan Spring Co., Ltd. The third group of Xinzhong, Banchong Village, Dongguan Township, Dafang County, Bijie City, Guizhou Province Dafang County Longguitan Spring Co., Ltd. The third group of Xinzhong, Banchong Village, Dongguan Township, Dafang County, Bijie City, Guizhou Province Longguitan packaged drinking water 18.9L/bucket graphic trademark 2020/10/15 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ‖
31CFU/250mL;
27CFU/250mL;
30CFU/250mL;
41CFU/250mL;
20CFU/250mL‖
n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/250mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Zunyi Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
7 Dafang County Longguitan Spring Co., Ltd. The third group of Xinzhong, Banchong Village, Dongguan Township, Dafang County, Bijie City, Guizhou Province Dafang County Longguitan Spring Co., Ltd. The third group of Xinzhong, Banchong Village, Dongguan Township, Dafang County, Bijie City, Guizhou Province Xiangsitan Packaged Drinking Water 18.9L/bucket / 2020/10/15 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ‖
26CFU/250mL;
34CFU/250mL;
28CFU/250mL;
34CFU/250mL;
24CFU/250mL‖
n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/250mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Zunyi Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
8 Dafang County Longtou Spring Co., Ltd. Lengdi Village, Daxi Town, Dafang County, Bijie City, Guizhou Province Dafang County Longtou Spring Co., Ltd. Lengdi Village, Daxi Town, Dafang County, Bijie City, Guizhou Province Longtou Mountain Spring Packaging Drinking Water 18.9L/barrel / 2020/10/15 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ‖
7CFU/250mL;
8CFU/250mL;
8CFU/250mL;
6CFU/250mL;
6CFU/250mL‖
n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/250mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Zunyi Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
9 Guizhou Miaojiangyuan Trading Co., Ltd. Xiaochong, Layou Community, Bakai Town, Rongjiang County, Guizhou Province Guizhou Miaojiangyuan Trading Co., Ltd. Xiaochong, Layou Community, Bakai Town, Rongjiang County, Guizhou Province Miao Jiangyuan packaged drinking water 18.9L/bucket / 2020/9/9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa║5CFU/250mL; 12CFU/250mL; 14CFU/250mL; 9CFU/250mL;
3CFU/250mL║
n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/250mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
10 Liping County Shijingshan Industrial Co., Ltd. Shijingshan, Luozhai Village, Defeng Street, Liping County, Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province Liping County Shijingshan Industrial Co., Ltd. E-09, Qilinjiayuan, Zhengyang Street, Defeng Town, Liping County, Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province Ishijingshan Spring (packaged drinking water) 520ml/bottle graphics 2020/8/20 coliforms║
6CFU/mL;
6CFU/mL;
5CFU/mL;
3CFU/mL;
4CFU/mL║n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
11 Liuzhi Special Zone Gongqingquan Drinking Water Co., Ltd. Mugong Changshou Village, Yanjiao Town, Liuzhi Special Zone Liuzhi Special Zone Gongqingquan Drinking Water Co., Ltd. No. 30, Group 3, Mugong Village, Yanjiao Town, Liuzhi Special Zone, Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province Drinking natural spring water (Yanjiaoquan) 18.9L/bucket / 2020/9/16 Pseudomonas aeruginosa║
1CFU/250mL;
22CFU/250mL;
16CFU/250mL;
0CFU/250mL;
0CFU/250mL║
n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/250mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
12 Liuzhi Special Zone Gongqingquan Drinking Water Co., Ltd. Mugong Changshou Village, Yanjiao Town, Liuzhi Special Zone Liuzhi Special Zone Gongqingquan Drinking Water Co., Ltd. No. 30, Group 3, Mugong Village, Yanjiao Town, Liuzhi Special Zone, Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province Drinking natural spring water (Ginkgo Bay) 18.9L/bucket / 2020/9/16 Pseudomonas aeruginosa║
87CFU/250mL;
10CFU/250mL;
59CFU/250mL;
37CFU/250mL;
0CFU/250mL║
n=5,c=0,m=0CFU/250mL
Drinks 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
13 / / Guoji Black Bamboo Shoot Hot Pot Restaurant in Anshun Development Zone A 2-story comprehensive building, Building 1, Getuhe Road, Economic and Technological Development Zone, Anshun City, Guizhou Province Dried bamboo shoots Bulk weighing / Purchase Date:2020/5/17 Sulfur dioxide residue
║5.98g/kg
║≤0.2g/kg
Vegetable products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
14 / / Guiyang Guanshanhujiangqing Heidouhua Hotpot Restaurant No. 3, 1st Floor, Unit 1, Building 12 (S11), Phase 1 of Peking University Resources Dream City, Guanshanhu District, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Dried bamboo shoots Bulk weighing / Purchase Date:2020/6/30 Sulfur dioxide residue
║4.07g/kg
║≤0.2g/kg
Vegetable products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
15 / / Guiyang Wudangli Hui Chishui Pickled Cabbage Black Bean Flower Hot Pot Restaurant No. 2 on the 1st floor, 32-A, Yuejing New City, Beiya Road, Wudang District, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Dried bamboo shoots Bulk weighing / Purchase date:2020/6/2 Sulfur dioxide residue
║1.61g/kg
║≤0.2g/kg
Vegetable products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
16 / / A roast chicken hot pot restaurant in Xingyi City No. 9, Lane 1, North Road, Jushan Office Square, Xingyi City, Southwestern Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province Nanchuan Fang bamboo shoots Bulk weighing / Purchase Date:2020/6/15 Sulfur dioxide residue
║1.98g/kg
║≤0.2g/kg
Vegetable products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
17 / / A taste restaurant in University Town, Gui’an New District SZ-24-A-31, 32 second floor shops of Gui’an Digital Economy Industrial Park, University Town, Gui’an New District, Guizhou Province Bacon Bulk weighing / Purchase Date:2020/7/6 Nitrite (as sodium nitrite)
║84mg/kg
║≤30mg/kg
Meat products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Testing Technology Research and Application Center /
18 Guizhou Huangnanwu Food Co., Ltd. Libei Village, Yongjing Town, Xifeng County, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Guizhou Huangnanwu Food Co., Ltd. Libei Village, Yongjing Town, Xifeng County, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Yanglang Huang Nanwu Spicy Chicken 500g/bag Text and graphics 2020/9/26 Total number of colonies║
12000CFU/g;
13000CFU/g;
13000CFU/g;
11000CFU/g;
13000CFU/g║
n=5,c=2,m=10⁴CFU/g,
M=10⁵CFU/g
Meat products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
19 Guizhou Huangnanwu Food Co., Ltd. Libei Village, Yongjing Town, Xifeng County, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Guizhou Huangnanwu Food Co., Ltd. Libei Village, Yongjing Town, Xifeng County, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province Yanglang Huang Nanwu Spicy Chicken 1 kg/bag Text and graphics 2020/9/26 Total number of colonies║
9300CFU/g;
11000CFU/g;
12000CFU/g;
12000CFU/g;
10000CFU/g║
n=5,c=2,m=10⁴CFU/g,
M=10⁵CFU/g
Meat products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Guizhou Provincial Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
20 Yongtianlu Tea Industry Co., Ltd., Fenggang County, Guizhou Province Tianba Village, Yong’an Town, Fenggang County, Zunyi City, Guizhou Province Fenggang County Yongtianlu Tea Shop Jinjiuyuejing Building, Zhengtong Road, Longquan Town, Fenggang County, Zunyi City, Guizhou Province Green tea Weighing / 2020/4/20 Carbweiser
‖0.14mg/kg
‖≤0.05mg/kg
Tea and related products 2021 Issue 16 2021/4/8 Guizhou Province/Provincial Draw Zunyi Product Quality Inspection and Testing Institute /
(Source:Guizhou Provincial Market Supervision Administration)
  This article is edited by Food Partner Network Food Information Center. Unauthorized reprinting is prohibited. If you need to reprint, please contact and obtain authorization to reprint, please Contact [email protected]