2021 spring peanut production technical guidance
By: Date: 2021-04-16 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
   Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Oil Experts Steering Group
  National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center
   At present, my country’s spring peanuts have entered the stage of preparation for broadcast from south to north. In order to strengthen technical guidance for spring peanut production, improve planting quality, and promote stable and high yield and quality improvement of peanuts, the National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, in conjunction with the oil expert guidance group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, proposed technical guidance for spring peanut production in 2021.

   1. According to local conditions, select high-yield and high-quality varieties
   According to planting habits, ecological conditions and market demand, reasonably select high-yield, stable-yield, high-quality, multi-resistant, and suitable for machine harvest peanut varieties, and encourage the selection of high-oleic peanut varieties. In the Northeast production area, it is suitable to choose medium-early and medium-small fruit varieties with a growth period of about 120 days; areas with high latitudes, short frost-free periods, and low accumulated temperature can choose early-maturing and small fruit varieties with a growth period of less than 115 days. In Huanghuaihai production area with medium and upper land plots, medium and large fruit varieties with a growth period of about 125 days should be selected; medium and small fruit varieties with a growth period of about 125 days should be selected for dry land. In southern producing areas, pearl bean-type varieties with a growth period of about 120 days should be used. In southern Xinjiang, medium and large fruit varieties with a growth period of about 125 days should be used, and medium and small fruit varieties with a growth period of less than 120 days should be used in the northern Xinjiang region. In addition, for producing areas with a high degree of mechanized production, it is necessary to choose varieties with good ripeness and consistency, strong stalks, and suitable for mechanized harvesting.

  Second, grasp key technologies to improve seeding quality
   Cultivated land preparation:Before sowing, finely prepare the land, so that the top is empty and the bottom is solid, and the ground is flat without soil. It can be deep tilled about 30 cm (1 time in 2-3 years); when the soil moisture content is 65%-75%when sowing It is advisable to water the sole of the foot when it is dry, and when there is no water, the water content should be varied from time to time, and the seeding depth is 3-4 cm. For the production of high oleic peanuts, it is best to select fields that have not been planted in the previous year or only planted peanuts with high oleic acid. Seed treatment:Peanut seeds should not be peeled too early, generally 10-15 days before sowing, it is best to use a special peeler for peanut seeds after 2-3 days after sowing. , Damaged grains, moldy grains, and graded storage and seeding according to the size of the grains. Seed dressing or coating before sowing, dry in the shade for sowing. Suitable sowing season:The key is to have suitable ground temperature. The suitable sowing ground temperature for large-grain, small-grain and high-oleic acid varieties in spring is above 17℃, 15℃ and 19℃ respectively, and for pearl bean-type peanuts above 12℃ in southern producing areas. The sowing date of film-coated peanuts can be 7-10 days earlier than that in the open field. The sowing period of Huanghuaihai production area is generally from late April to early May, the northeast production area is in mid-to-late May, and the northwest production area is in early and mid-May. Reasonable dense planting:In general, spring sown large-grain varieties with double-grain sown 8,000-10,000 holes per mu, and small-grain cultivars with double-grain varieties 0.9-1.1 million per mu. Plots with good fertilizer and water conditions should be sparsely planted, and dry and thin plots should be densely planted. The planting density per mu in the Northeast production area is appropriate to be 17000-18000, and it is appropriate to preserve 16000 seedlings. Where conditions permit, single seed seeding is promoted. According to the characteristics of the variety and the soil fertility, 14000-16000 seedlings per mu can be planted.
  3. Strengthen field management to promote the growth and development of peanuts
  Scientific fertilization:peanuts should be fertilized with plantar fertilizer, with a reasonable combination of nutrients, and improved fertilizer utilization. Acidic soils can be added with calcium-containing partial alkaline fertilizers such as superphosphate or calcium-magnesium phosphate; continuous cropping can be increased with lime nitrogen and biological bacterial fertilizer; low-fertility soil and stubble land can be increased with peanut rhizobia fertilizer . Inserting seedlings and replenishing seedlings:If the film-covered peanuts have not adopted the automatic seedling introduction technology, the film should be removed in time to release the seedlings, and the first pair of side branches should be released to prevent high temperature scalding and burning of seedlings; timely replenishment of seedlings when lack of seedlings, and high oleic peanut Must be the same variety to avoid mixing of varieties to affect quality. Water management:peanuts are generally not watered at the seedling stage when the peanuts are sowed with sufficient moisture. However, when the first flower in the field opens, water must be well watered at the first flowering stage, and sufficient water must be watered thoroughly. Water should also be watered during drought during full fruit period. Watering should be carried out in the morning or evening. Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are recommended during irrigation to avoid low-temperature well water irrigation. Inter-cultivation and weeding:Open ground peanuts should be closed and weeded in time after sowing; artificial seeding and filming can be sprayed with herbicides after sowing and before filming; mechanical seeding and filming and herbicide spraying can be completed at one time. Post-emergence plots with a lot of weeds can be sprayed with special herbicides for peanuts after emergence to reduce the impact on peanut growth. Avoid spraying herbicides during the needle period after flowering to avoid phytotoxicity, which may make it difficult for fruit needles to penetrate the soil. Before peanut ridges are sealed, open ground peanuts are cultivated between rows, and peanuts covered with plastic film are cultivated between ridges, which is conducive to the fruit needles entering the soil and firming. Reasonably control proliferation:spray fungicides, growth regulators, etc. in the middle and late stages to prevent disease, proliferation, and lodging. At the same time, increase foliar fertilizer to improve the effect of preventing leaf spots and preventing premature aging.

   Four. Take multiple measures simultaneously to carry out integrated prevention and control of pests and diseases
  Reasonable crop rotation:Promote the rotation of peanuts, corn, rice and other food crops, reduce continuous cropping obstacles, and reduce peanut soil-borne diseases and some leaf diseases. Select disease-resistant varieties:In areas with severe peanut bacterial wilt and fruit rot, disease-resistant varieties can be selected to reduce the occurrence of diseases. Seed coating:seed coating before sowing can reduce soil-borne diseases such as peanut root rot, stem rot, crown rot, and underground pests such as grubs, mole crickets and cutworms, as well as peanut seedling aphids, thrips, and big ash Weevil and other pests and diseases occurred. Chemical control:The leaf spot disease control should be sprayed with fungicides in the middle and late stages of peanut growth, and the control should be 2-3 times depending on the extent of the disease, with an interval of 7-10 days; the peanut white sclerosis control should be sprayed with suitable agents in the early stage of the disease. Biological and physical control:frequency-vibration lamps, black light lamps, swatches, sex attractants, food attractants, sweet and sour liquid, castor and other trapping methods and technologies can be used to strengthen the protection and utilization of natural enemies according to local conditions.
  Five. Safe harvesting at the right time to ensure a bumper harvest
  Peanut harvest period should be selected when most of the leaves in the middle and lower parts of the main stem turn yellow and fall off, the full pod ratio of large-fruited varieties reaches more than 70%, and the full pod ratio of small-fruited varieties reaches more than 80%. The specific harvest period should also be flexibly controlled according to the weather and land conditions. It can be harvested late, prolong the time for full fruit and increase the yield and quality of peanuts. When harvesting in the northeast and high latitudes, special attention should be paid to the effects of low temperature. High oleic peanuts are more sensitive to low temperature, and they can easily cause frostbite when they are harvested. Especially when they are used as seeds, they will seriously affect the germination rate. Avoid harvesting at low temperatures. After harvest, the pods should be dried or dried as soon as possible to reduce the water content of the pods to below 10%, and be selected and stored as soon as possible. Peanut storage should control the temperature and humidity conditions, reduce the risk of mildew and aflatoxin pollution, and strengthen the prevention and control of storage pests.