【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizers
By: Date: 2021-04-16 Categories: chinesefood Tags: ,
  Introduction
   Chemical fertilizer is the most basic and most important material input for agricultural production. According to the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), chemical fertilizers account for about 40%to 60%of the total increase in crop production. China’s total production and total consumption of chemical fertilizers ranks first in the world, and it is also a major fertilizer importer and exporter. According to statistics, my country imported 10.61 million tons of chemical fertilizers with a value of over 20 billion yuan in 2020, and exported 29.17 million tons with a value of 46.7 billion yuan. . At the moment when the farmers are busy with spring plowing, the domestic demand for chemical fertilizers is strong. It is very important to strengthen the quality and safety inspection of imported chemical fertilizers to ensure the convenience of customs clearance and the safety of farmers’ fertilizer.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage
A brief history of    fertilizer development
   In 1828, the German chemist F.Whler synthesized urea artificially for the first time in the world.
   In 1838, L.B. Ross (L.B. Ross) treated phosphate rock with sulfuric acid to make phosphate fertilizer, which became the world’s first chemical fertilizer.
   In 1850, German chemist J.von Liebig invented potash fertilizer.
   Around 1850, Routh invented the earliest nitrogen fertilizer.
   Since the 1950s, the application of chemical fertilizers has been widely used.
  Fertilizer classification and customs HS code
   According to chemical properties, chemical fertilizers can be divided into:physiologically acidic fertilizers, physiologically alkaline fertilizers, and physiologically neutral fertilizers.
   According to the nutrient composition, chemical fertilizers can be divided into:nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer, compound fertilizer, trace elements, etc.
   According to the purpose, chemical fertilizers can be divided into:base fertilizer and top dressing.
   Chemical fertilizers are divided into:quick-acting fertilizer, slow-acting fertilizer, and long-acting fertilizer according to the release rate of fertilizer effect.
   Chemical fertilizers are divided into fertilizers for soil, fertilizers for foliage, etc. according to the working location.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(1)

  Imported fertilizer inspection and supervision requirements

   (1) Imported chemical fertilizer tariff quota
  According to the requirements of the”Interim Measures for the Administration of Import Tariff Quotas for Fertilizers”, in the Gregorian calendar year, the state determines the types of fertilizers subject to tariff quota management and the annual market access quantity. Imports within the determined quantity are subject to the tariff rate within the tariff quota, which exceeds this quantity. The import tariffs and additional tax rates are applicable.
  According to the Ministry of Commerce’s”2021 Fertilizer Import Tariff Quota, Distribution Principles and Related Procedures” requirements:
   In 2021, the total import tariff quota of chemical fertilizers will be 13.65 million tons. Among them, 3.3 million tons of urea, 6.9 million tons of diammonium phosphate, and 3.45 million tons of compound fertilizer.
   In 2021, the tariff quotas for state-owned trade in chemical fertilizers are respectively:2.97 million tons of urea, 3.52 million tons of diammonium phosphate, and 1.76 million tons of compound fertilizer. The state-owned trading enterprises Sinochem Corporation and China National Agricultural Production Materials Corporation apply for tariff quotas within the total state-owned trade volume.
   The quotas for non-state trade in chemical fertilizers in 2021 are 330,000 tons of urea, 3.38 million tons of diammonium phosphate, and 1.69 million tons of compound fertilizer. The non-state trading enterprises China National Chemical Construction Corporation and Huaken International Trade Co., Ltd. apply for tariff quotas within the total amount of non-state trading.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(2)
  (2) Import License Management
   According to the requirements of the Ministry of Commerce and the General Administration of Customs”Automatic Import License Management Goods Catalog (2021)” (Announcement No. 67 of 2020), chemical fertilizers will be imported by processing trade from January 1, 2021 (Catalogue No. 17) And 31) must submit the”Automatic Import License” to the customs.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(3)
  (3) Radioactivity detection
  Imported phosphate fertilizers and compound fertilizers shall be tested for radioactivity in batches in accordance with the”Limited Hygienic Standard for 226 Ra in Phosphate Fertilizers and Compound Fertilizers” (GB 8921-2011), and the content of 226Ra in phosphate fertilizers shall not exceed 500Bq kg 1.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(4)
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(5)
   (4) Imported chemical fertilizer identification label
  The packaging label should comply with the relevant regulations of”Fertilizer Labeling Content and Requirements” (GB18382-2001).
  ◆The text in the logo should use standardized Chinese characters. Minority languages, Chinese pinyin and foreign languages ​​can be used at the same time (nutrient names can be represented by chemical element symbols or molecular formulas). The Chinese pinyin and foreign fonts should be smaller than the corresponding Chinese characters and minority languages .
  ◆Product names are not allowed to add false or exaggerated words, such as”efficient ×××”,”××Fat King”,”All elements ××Fertilizer”, etc.
  ◆Improper transportation, storage, and use process, which is likely to cause property damage or endanger human health and safety, should have warning instructions.
  ◆For pasting labels and other corresponding labels, if the size and shape of the container allow, the minimum label area should be 120 mmX70 mm, and the minimum text height should be at least 3mm.
  ◆The minimum marking area of ​​the tag should be 120mmX70mm, and the minimum text height should be at least 3mm.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(6)

  (5) Inspection of Toxic and Hazardous Substances
   Toxic and hazardous substances in fertilizers shall be inspected in accordance with the”Limit Requirements for Toxic and Hazardous Substances in Fertilizers” (GB38400-2019). Those that do not meet the requirements of the standard are prohibited from entering the country.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(7)
  (6) Quality Inspection
  The common imported chemical fertilizer inspection items include the five elements of arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, and mercury, as well as appearance, moisture, particle size, nitrogen content, phosphorus content, potassium content, sodium content, etc.”Imported Chemical Fertilizer Inspection Regulations” (SN/T2937-2011) stipulates the general requirements, sampling, inspection, and result determination of imported chemical fertilizers.
【Commodity Inspection】The”grain” of grain-how much do you know about the inspection and supervision of imported chemical fertilizersimage(8)
  Policy Tips
   For fertilizers such as potassium nitrate and other dangerous goods, it shall comply with the relevant regulations of dangerous goods supervision.
Requirements for    chemical fertilizer safety reserve

  anti-moisture
   Ammonium bicarbonate is easy to absorb moisture, causing nitrogen volatilization loss; ammonium nitrate is very hygroscopic, easy to agglomerate and deliquesce; lime nitrogen and superphosphate are easy to agglomerate after moisture absorption, which affects the application effect. Therefore, these fertilizers should be stored in a dry, cool place, especially when storing ammonium bicarbonate, the packaging should be tightly sealed to avoid contact with air.
   Anti-Volatilization
  Ammonia water and ammonium bicarbonate are very volatile, so they should be sealed when stored. Nitrogen fertilizers and superphosphate are strictly prohibited to be stacked with alkaline substances (lime, plant ash, etc.) to prevent the loss of nitrogen fertilizers and reduce the fertilizer efficiency of phosphate fertilizers.
  Prevent heat
  The higher the temperature, the more serious the deliquescence, volatilization and agglomeration of chemical fertilizers (the worse the stability). Therefore, the temperature of the storage house should be kept below 30℃. It is best not to put it in a kitchen with a heat source in rural areas.
  Fire prevention
   Ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, etc. have combustion-supporting properties, and should not be stacked with combustible materials such as kerosene, gasoline, straw, wood chips, etc., to avoid fire.

  Explosion-proof
   Ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, etc. are easy to explode. If they are mixed with metal powders such as copper and iron, they will cause an explosion accident if they are frictionally hit. Therefore, after these chemical fertilizers become agglomerated and hardened, it is strictly forbidden to hit them with metal objects and crush them with heavy objects.
   Anti-corrosion
   Superphosphate is corrosive and should be prevented from contacting with skin and metal appliances; ammonia water is strongly corrosive to copper and iron, so it should be stored in ceramic, plastic, and wooden containers. In addition, chemical fertilizers should not be stacked with seeds, nor should the seeds be packed in chemical fertilizer bags, so as not to affect the germination of the seeds.

  Anti-mixing
  Fertilizers are acidic and alkaline. They should be classified into different categories and placed and stored according to the place of origin, type, and nature, so as not to reduce fertilizer efficiency.
  Anti-misuse
   Fertilizers cannot be mixed with pesticides, human and animal drugs, edible items (such as sugar, salt), etc., to avoid misuse. Especially to prevent children from eating by mistake.
   Contributor:Chongqing Customs