Research progress on the genome and cold tolerance mechanism of Vitis vinifera from Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences
By: Date: 2021-03-26 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
  Mountain grape is a wild grape widely distributed in East Asia. It can survive the winter safely at an extremely low temperature below -30℃. It has extremely high cold resistance and is an ideal material for cold-resistant breeding of grapes. Affected by factors such as high heterozygosity, the current research on the genome of Vitis vinifera has not been in-depth, and the research on the mechanism of its high cold tolerance is also in its infancy.
   The grape and wine R&D team of the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with Wuhan Botanical Garden of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, and Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, have drawn up a high-quality whole genome fine map of Vitis vinifera, laying a foundation for the study of grape cold tolerance mechanism. Studies have found that the response of grapes to chilling injury and freezing injury may have different regulatory mechanisms. Genes such as MYB14 and CBF3 play an important role in the early response to chilling injury, and carbohydrate metabolism may be one of the important factors affecting grape freezing injury. The study also used GWAS and transcriptome analysis to prove that PGK, a key gene in the glycolytic pathway, is of great significance to grapes overwintering under severe cold conditions.
   Based on the obtained grapevine genome, the team cloned the GRAS transcription factor PAT1, which controls the cold tolerance of the grapevine, and revealed the genetic regulation mechanism of PAT1 regulating the cold tolerance of the grapevine. Studies have found that PAT1 activates the expression of LIPOXYGENASE 3 gene by interacting with INDETERMINATE-DOMAIN 3 protein to promote the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, thereby improving the cold tolerance of grapes.
  Recently, relevant research results were published online in The Plant Journal and Plant Physiology. Wang Yi, a special research assistant of the Institute of Botany, and Wang Zemin, a graduated doctoral student, are the first authors of the two papers, and Liang Zhenchang, a researcher of the Institute of Botany, is the corresponding author of the paper. The research work was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program, the Biodiversity Survey and Evaluation Project of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, the General Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Special Breeding Project of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and the International Cooperation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
   Paper link:1, 2