Longan is a subtropical evergreen fruit tree belonging to the genus Longan in the Sapindus family. It has the characteristics of high nutritional value and good economic benefits. The area and output of longan in my country account for more than 50%of the world’s . In order to fully understand my country’s longan production and market conditions, and put forward recommendations for the development of the longan industry, the Institute of Science and Technology Information of the Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences was commissioned to establish a special study. Comprehensive investigation and analysis of the industry. Longan, as an advantageous agricultural product with tropical characteristics in my country, has played an important role in industrial poverty alleviation and rural revitalization in hot areas. From 2014 to 2018, my country’s longan cultivation and production were stable, and the output could not fully satisfy consumption. Fresh longan maintained a trade deficit. In the next 3 to 5 years, it is expected that the scale of longan cultivation in my country will stabilize, the output will increase steadily, and imports and consumption will continue to grow.
1. Current status of industrial development
(1) production. In 2018, the world’s total output of longan was about 3.9 million tons, and the planting area was about 9 million mu. In the past ten years, the harvested area of longan in my country has basically remained at about 4.1-4.8 million mu. Since 2015, my country’s total longan output has remained at around 1.9-2 million tons. The total output value of longan fluctuated greatly, fluctuating between 6.5-9 billion yuan before 2016, and exceeded 11 billion yuan in 2016, an increase of 67.6%over the previous year. In 2018, my country’s longan output was 2.03 million tons, the harvest area was 4.32 million mu, a decrease of 8.97%over the previous year, and the output value was 10.4 billion yuan, a decrease of 13.3%over the previous year.
Figure 1 2009-2018 my country’s total production, total harvest area and total output value of longan (unit:10,000 tons, Ten thousand mu, 100 million yuan)
Data source:South Asia Office of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
In the past ten years, the output of longan in Guangdong and Guangxi has increased year by year; the annual output of longan in Fujian has remained at about 300,000 tons; the annual output of longan in Hainan has been about 50,000 tons, year by year With a small increase, the longan production in other provinces fluctuates slightly. In 2018, Guangdong’s longan output was 920,000 tons, accounting for 45.3%of the country’s total longan output; Guangxi’s longan output was 675,000 tons, an increase of 13.8%over the previous year.
Since 2010, the area of longan in Guangdong has ranked first in the country. In 2018, the area of longan harvested in Guangxi surpassed that of Guangdong, reaching 1.74 million mu, accounting for 40.2%of the total area of longan in the country; the area of longan in Guangdong decreased to 1.67 million mu, a decrease of 10.7%from the previous year, accounting for 38.7%; the area of longan in Fujian remained at the same level. About 750,000 mu; Sichuan’s longan planting scale is expanding year by year, with 350,000 mu in 2018, an increase of 56.9%over the previous year; Hainan longan is basically 100,000-110,000 mu.
The output value of Guangdong’s longan in 2018 reached 5.96 billion yuan, accounting for 57.1%of the total output value of the national longan industry. It can be said that half of my country’s longan industry is in Guangdong Province. The output value of Guangxi longan remains at the level of 2 to 3 billion yuan.
(2) Consumption analysis. The world’s consumer markets for fresh longan and its processed products are relatively concentrated in Asian countries and regions. Our country is dominated by fresh food, which accounts for about 80%of total consumption. The processed products of longan are mainly dried longan, longan meat, canned longan, and longan fruit wine. Domestic longan production cannot fully meet consumption, and part of the consumption is supplemented by imports. In 2017, consumption exceeded 2.2 million tons. Fresh longan has a large potential for consumption.
Guangdong’s fresh longan is mainly sold to the Pearl River Delta and Hunan, Chongqing, Sichuan and other provinces. Dried longan and longan meat are sold to Shanghai and Zhejiang and other regions. There are fewer provinces in the north, mainly because of the high cost of long-distance transportation and long transportation time, which is not conducive to preservation and affects the taste of fresh longan. Consumers in the northern provinces prefer the taste of Thai longan, while consumers in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta prefer the taste of Guangdong and Guangxi longan.
(3) Processing and circulation. 30%-35%of Vietnam’s longan is used for processing, while Thailand’s longan processing ratio is relatively high, reaching 60%-70%. In the past five years, the annual processing volume of fresh longan in my country is about 300,000-400,000 tons, accounting for 20%-25%of the total output. Among them, the processing of longan meat is mainly in Gaozhou of Guangdong, Bobai and Cenxi of Guangxi, Putian and Zhangzhou of Fujian; the processing of dried longan is mainly in Fujian Province.
According to research, Guangxi’s processing volume of longan in 2018 was 130,000 tons, an increase of 16.3%over the previous year, and the output value of longan processing reached 1.3 billion yuan, a decrease from the previous year. 15.1%. Among them, the cities and counties with processing volume accounting for a large proportion of output are Yulin City (processing volume of 76,500 tons, accounting for 71.6%, and annual processing output value of 786 million yuan), Hezhou (processing volume of 2 million tons, accounting for 64.5%) , Laibin City (processing volume of 8,000 tons, accounting for 24.8%), Chongzuo City (processing volume of 15,000 tons, accounting for 21.4%), data show that these longan main producing cities and counties have higher processing levels.
(4) Import and export situation. The import and export trade of my country’s longan is dominated by fresh fruits, followed by dried longan, longan meat and canned longan. Thailand is the world’s largest exporter of longan, and Thailand and Vietnam are the two main sources of my country’s longan imports.
From 2009 to 2018, my country’s trade deficit in fresh longan fruit, dried longan, and longan meat is obvious. The annual import volume of fresh longan is 300,000-500,000 tons, and the annual import value is 200-500 million US dollars. The annual export volume of fresh longan is less than 5,000 tons, and the annual export value does not exceed US$10 million. In the past ten years, my country’s import trade of dried longan and longan meat has fluctuated greatly. In 2015, the import volume of dried longan was reduced to 13,200 tons, and it rebounded in 2016. In 2018, the import volume of dried longan was 84,000 tons, and the import value was 125 million. The US dollar increased by 45.1%and 34.7%respectively over the previous year. The export scale of dried longan and longan meat is very small, with an annual export volume of no more than 40,000 tons.
Import source country:The main import source countries of my country’s fresh longan are Vietnam and Thailand. In 2018, fresh longan imports from these two countries accounted for 71.4%and 28.6%respectively. 95.2%of dried longan and meat are imported from Thailand, and 4.8%are imported from Myanmar. 99%of canned longan is imported from Thailand.
Export target countries:The main export destinations of fresh longan are my country’s Hong Kong, Macau and Canada, accounting for 98%of total fresh longan exports; dried longan and longan meat are mainly Exported to Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan, Indonesia and other countries, accounting for 86.5%of total dried longan and meat exports; canned longan is mainly exported to Malaysia, accounting for 47.1%of total canned longan exports, followed by Mexico and Indonesia , Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Brunei and other countries.
(5) Price changes. Longan production, market period and fruit quality are the main factors affecting prices. In 2019, the comprehensive land price rose to 11.4 yuan per kilogram, the comprehensive wholesale price was 13.4 yuan per kilogram, and the comprehensive retail price was 24.2 yuan per kilogram, all of which were larger than the previous year. The rate of increase. In 2018, the longan yields in the main producing areas were high, but the quality was uneven, coupled with the market impact of imported longan from ASEAN countries such as Vietnam and Thailand, resulting in the low price of longan in 2018,”increasing production but not income”. The high yield of longan in 2018 consumes too much nutrients from the tree. In 2019, the nutrient supply of the longan tree is insufficient, and the fruit-hanging rate is reduced. The longan production in southern Guangdong has decreased significantly, which also caused the price of fresh longan to be higher than in previous years.
Figure 2 The monthly average price of longan in the national wholesale market from 2015 to 2019 (yuan/kg)< span style="font-size:12px;">
Data source:China Agricultural Information Network National Agricultural Products Wholesale Market Price Information System
In the past five years, the average monthly wholesale price of longan in my country is about 13-15.5 yuan per kilogram. In the first quarter, the output of off-season longan could not meet domestic consumer demand, and the price of fresh longan remained relatively high. In June, some early-maturing varieties entered the market, and other seasonal fruits were on the market one after another, which had an obvious substitution effect on the consumption of longan, and the wholesale price of fresh longan began to fall. July-August continued to decline slightly. From September to October, the harvesting period in Guangxi and Guangdong ended, and the output of ultra-late varieties was low. Coupled with the Mid-Autumn Festival and National Day consumption, the wholesale price of longan rose.
(6) Cost-benefit analysis. The average output per mu of medium-scale longan orchard is 3000-5000 yuan/mu. The main costs include pesticides, chemical fertilizers, farm manure, seedlings, wages (hiring workers to renovate the orchard, spraying medicine, top dressing, etc.), land rent, orchard water and electricity fees, and farm tools And other expenses, after subtracting the cost, the average income is about 1500-2500 yuan/mu. The economic benefits of planting longan orchards in different producing areas and varieties are quite different. Thailand’s labor costs and the cost of production materials such as compound fertilizers are lower than in my country, and the production period is long, the shelf life of fresh fruits is long, the processing utilization rate is high, and the economic benefits are higher than in my country.
2. Industry development prospects
(1) The output of longan is steadily increasing. Under the premise of large-scale promotion and application of longan production period adjustment technology, with the strengthening of integrated management of flower thinning and fruit thinning, water and fertilizer, and effective prevention of natural disasters and pests, it is expected that the total production of longan in my country will increase steadily.
(2) Imports of fresh longan continue to exceed exports, and longan products have great export potential. The implementation of the”zero tariff” policy and the opening of the”south-bound channel” shortened the shipping period for longan imports from Thailand and Vietnam. Thailand’s longan has thick flesh, low prices, early listing, and strong export competitiveness. my country’s fresh longan and dried longan The meat trade will maintain a deficit. With the improvement of the quality of my country’s longan and the continuous research and development of intensively processed products, the export potential of dried longan and canned longan is great.
(3) The domestic longan output is in short supply, and the longan consumption will continue to grow. The world’s longan production and consumption are highly concentrated in Asian countries. The output of fresh longan in my country cannot meet the market demand. With the development of longan’s value in health products and medicinal use, the consumption of fresh longan in my country will continue to increase.
3. Development of characteristic industries in poor areas
From 2016 to 2018, Guangxi’s industrial poverty alleviation has driven 78%of poor households and poor people out of poverty. In 2018, the output of longan in Nanning, Guangxi was 80,400 tons, of which the national poverty counties Longan, Mashan, and Shanglin counted 8,147 tons, 1,471 tons, and 669 tons, respectively.
In 2018, the output of longan in Baisha County, Hainan reached 3,687 tons, an increase of 14.9%over the previous year, and the output of longan in Baoting County was 9,409 tons, an increase of 1.5%over the previous year. Hainan Province promotes the development of the longan industry through various models such as”e-commerce +” and”tourism +”, trains poor labor force, and increases poverty alleviation public welfare jobs. Baoting and Baisha will be lifted out of poverty in 2019 and 2020 respectively.
(1) Main experience and practice
mainly through”base + cooperative + poor household”,”party branch + base + poor household”,”company + cooperative + poor household”,”company + base + poor household””And other models to promote longan’s industrial poverty alleviation. The main methods are:adding longan garden managers and other poverty alleviation positions to help poor households find jobs. Provide high-quality seedlings and organic fertilizers to poor households, organize agricultural technology training classes, buy fresh fruits for poor households at a price, and help poor households develop sales channels.
(2) Typical Case Analysis
1. Gaozhou Shenma Ecological Agriculture Development Co., Ltd.”leading enterprise + industrial demonstration base + poor households” industrial poverty alleviation model. The company is a key agricultural leading enterprise in Guangdong Province, and its”Matou” brand Chuliang longan has repeatedly won the title of Famous Brand Product of China Agriculture Expo. The company adopts a three-dimensional planting model of “planting litchi on the top of the mountain, planting longan on the mountainside, raising pigs at the foot of the mountain, and raising fish in the surrounding areas”, which has driven the income of poor households in the surrounding Shatian Village and other poverty-stricken villages in Guangdong Province. From 2017 to 2018, the base allocated a total of 504,000 yuan to poor households in Shatian Village, and allocated 40,000 yuan to the Shatian Village Committee as industrial poverty alleviation work funds. The base’s poor households were trained for 3-4 sessions per year. Each poor household processes 500 jin of fresh lychee and longan fruit per year for free, purchases and sells fresh lychee and longan fruit at a guaranteed base price of 4-5 yuan/kg, and distributes 10 plants of Chuliang longan and 40 kg of organic fertilizer to each poor household for free.
Thinking:Through leading enterprises to drive poverty-stricken households out of poverty, improve the educational level and skill level of poor households, provide jobs, solve the problem of longan processing, and reduce the cost of fruit farmers. Through”supporting confidence” and”supporting wisdom”, the endogenous motivation of poor households is stimulated, and fruit farmers in poor villages are transformed from decentralized operation to large-scale organized operation, and from coolie type to skill type.
2. Guangxi Pingnan Shixie Longan”e-commerce + cooperative + base + poor households””company + cooperative + base + poor households” poverty alleviation model. Pingnan County of Guigang City, Guangxi has the only Shixie Longan mother garden in the country, and has built the largest longan planting and processing base in Guangxi. It has established 92 Shixie Longan cooperatives and introduced 15 household appliances such as Alibaba and JD.com to Pingnan. The Yinglv Longan Planting Professional Cooperative in Pingnan County unites fruit farmers by holding production technology training courses, seminars and on-site observation meetings. The members of the cooperative unite purchase production materials and technical management. In 2019, the county’s longan output was reduced by more than 25%compared with the previous year. With the help of the Anhuai Supply and Marketing Cooperative’s newly-built cold storage to keep fresh, Yinglu Cooperative successfully completed the 600,000 jin longan sales contract signed with the purchasers in Guangdong, Sichuan and Yunnan. , Drove more than 30 local poor households to work every day, and the per capita income increased by nearly 5,000 yuan, and the income of members increased by more than 50%over previous years.
Thinking:The e-commerce model has a profound impact on the longan industry’s transportation and marketing methods. Chain distribution and other methods will deliver fresh fruits from the orchard to consumers within 24 hours, realizing online and offline promotion and integration of supply and marketing, which is conducive to high-quality fresh longan fruit to take the high-end fruit and gift fruit sales route, and improve the overall economic efficiency of the longan industry.
4. Problems and risks in industrial development< /strong>
(1) Main issues
1. The variety is single and the production period is concentrated. my country’s longan still has problems such as large but not strong industry, many but not good products, and miscellaneous but not bright brands. The main planted varieties are mainly’Chuliang’ and Shixie. The production period is concentrated from May to August, while Thai longan is basically on the market throughout the year. In contrast, the shelf life of Chinese longan is not long enough and concentrated, and the variety is relatively single , Affecting the economic benefits of fruit growers.
2. The freshness and processing level of longan after harvest is low. Longan processing machinery and processing technology are relatively backward, the market competitive advantage of longan products is not obvious, the freshness preservation level of fresh fruits is not high, and the loss is serious, which restricts the development of longan processing enterprises.
3. The degree of organization of the longan industry is low. The longan industry still has a relatively common phenomenon of decentralized operation, the degree of organization is low, and the fruit growers have a low sense of identity with the new business entity. It is difficult to achieve intensive production and brand management, and it is difficult to demonstrate and promote new varieties and new technologies.
4. The level of branding of longan needs to be improved. my country has a long history of longan processing. There are many types of longan products and a variety of brands. The coverage of geographical indication products such as”Gaozhou Longan” and”Luzhou Longan” needs to be expanded. The brand building level of fresh longan, dried longan and longan meat needs to be improved urgently.
(2) Risk Analysis
1. Natural disasters and pest risks. Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Hainan are vulnerable to natural disasters such as tropical storms, low temperature frosts and strong advection cold waves. Longan encounters typhoons during the flowering period, which affects normal pollination and produces different fruits, which also leads to reduced production. Therefore, typhoons, freezing damage, and pests and diseases will bring great risks to longan fruit hanging.
2. Business risk. For the losses caused by natural disasters in Guangdong, the loss rate of more than 20%will be paid by the insurance company, and the loss rate of more than 80%will be a total loss. The longan orchards of the poverty-stricken households in Fujian that have been registered in the province are included in the scope of industrial poverty alleviation protection. However, the agricultural insurance system for longan in other major producing areas is not yet complete, and longan fruit farmers and cooperatives are facing operational risks caused by natural disasters and other accidents.
V. Suggestions for policy measures
(1) Optimize the regional layout of longan varieties. Reasonably match the proportion of longan varieties, select and breed new varieties of longan that are extra-early, extra-late, high-quality, hard to crack, and resistant to storage and transportation, and use high grafting technology to update low-yield, low-quality, and low-efficiency longan orchards. It is recommended that in the main longan producing areas of the country, the production period should be adjusted through variety, latitude, altitude and microclimate factors to achieve the convergence and complementarity of the longan production period.
(2) Extend the longan industry chain and improve the level of deep processing. Increase the development and utilization of longan as an intermediate material in food, beverage, health care products and other products, and increase the added value of longan. At the same time, increase investment in the construction of pre-cooling facilities and cold chain transportation equipment for the production of fresh longan fruits to reduce sales costs and losses.
(3) Increasing scientific and technological investment in the entire industrial chain of Longan. Pay attention to the fertilizer and water management of longan orchards, strengthen the prevention and control of common, occasional, and sudden diseases and insect pests, and increase the molecular regulation mechanism of longan fruit peel browning and pulp autolysis, post-harvest pathophysiology, storage and preservation, etc. .
(4) Speed up the implementation of standardized longan planting and promote brand building. Build standardized longan orchards, longan processing bases and demonstration areas, promote technical systems such as seedlings, field management, and fresh-keeping transportation of high-quality longan varieties, improve brand strategic awareness, vigorously develop domestic and foreign markets, and improve the competitiveness of longan products in my country.
(5) Improve the degree of organization of the longan industry. Promote the development model of”cooperative + company + farmer households”, guide fruit growers to transform low-yield orchards through leases, contracting, and share cooperation, and cooperate with fruit growers through various forms such as guaranteed dividends and share cooperation to guide the standardized planting and management of longan orchards .
Article source丨 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs website