Guiding Opinions on Scientific Fertilization of Major Crops in the Spring of 2021
By: Date: 2021-03-06 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
  Planted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Industry Management Department, National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center

  Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Scientific Fertilization Guidance Expert Group

  一. Wheat

   (1) Irrigated winter wheat area in the North China Plain

   includes all of Shandong Province and Tianjin City, central and southern Hebei Province, central and southern Beijing, central and northern Henan Province, Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province, and southern Shanxi Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) According to the growth of the seedlings and soil moisture, apply nitrogen fertilizer in stages, and appropriately increase the application ratio in the middle and late stages of jointing; according to the amount of base (base) fertilizer, Seedling condition, temperature and soil fertility status scientifically determine the amount and time of top dressing; top dressing according to place, seedling and time.

   (2) According to the soil moisture and water and fertilizer retention capacity, reasonably determine the amount and time of irrigation to achieve the integration of water and fertilizer management.

   (3) Promote and control measures should be taken in time to promote the transformation of weak seedlings and increase the rate of ear formation at the jointing stage of wheat returning to green; control flourishing growth and prevent late green lodging.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Before returning to green, the total number of stems per mu is less than 450,000, and the three types of wheat fields with lighter leaf color and poor growth should be timely managed with fertilizer and water. In spring Top dressing can be carried out in two batches. For the first time, 5-6 kg of urea per acre was topdressed with watering during the rejuvenation period; for the second time, 6-7 kg of urea per acre was topdressed with watering during the jointing period.

   (2) Before turning green, the total number of stems per mu is between 450,000 and 600,000. Apply 8-10 kg of urea per mu.

   (3) The total number of stems per acre before returning to green is between 600,000-800,000, a type of wheat field suitable for the group, which can be combined with watering per acre during the jointing period Topdressing urea 10-13 kg.

   (4) Before returning to green, wheat fields with a total number of stems per mu of more than 800,000, dark green leaves and a trend of vigorous growth should be suppressed by cultivating and Chemical control measures, postpone the application time of nitrogen fertilizer and reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, control the growth of the population, prevent late lodging and late maturity. Generally, 6-8 kg of urea per mu can be topdressed in the late stage of jointing.

   (5) Nitrogen and phosphorus compound fertilizers should be applied to the base fertilizer without phosphate fertilizer or phosphorus-deficient fields. If there is no or less potassium fertilizer, it is recommended to turn green or jointing Nitrogen-potassium compound fertilizer is applied in the period; if there is no irrigation conditions or effective precipitation, the leaves can be sprayed with urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the spring to play a role in fertilizing water.

   (6) Foliar sprays of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, boron fertilizer and zinc fertilizer during the wheat grain filling period can prevent dry hot wind and lodging, increase the intensity of grain filling, and increase Grain weight.

   (7) For wheat fields in sulfur-deficient areas, if the base fertilizer is not applied with superphosphate, potassium sulfate, sulfur-based compound fertilizer, etc., ammonium sulfate should be used for topdressing in spring , The dosage is 20-25 kg per mu.

   (8) Do not harrow the ground after rotary tillage, resulting in too deep sowing and weak seedlings of deep sowing, few tillers, and weak seedlings. It is recommended to apply topdressing during the re-greening period. 10-12 kg of urea.

   (2) North China Yuyang Winter Wheat District

   includes the areas north of the Huaihe River in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, and the southeast of Henan Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) According to the soil moisture conditions, before the wheat turns green, suppress the soil and cultivate and hoe to preserve the soil moisture, increase the ground temperature, promote the transformation of seedlings, and improve the ability of drought resistance.

   (2) Apply a small amount of fertilizer several times in layers, pay attention to the weather forecast, apply fertilizer before and after rainfall and snowfall, and apply cover soil in time.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Take advantage of the thawing of the soil in early spring or after rain and snow, use a topdressing machinery to ditch and apply 7-8 kg of urea per mu in time. Rainfall can topdress 3-5 kg ​​of urea per mu. Use 7-10 kilograms of diammonium phosphate per mu for phosphorus-deficient fields, and 15-20 kilograms of nitrogen and potassium compound fertilizer for potassium-deficient fields. Pay attention to timely cover soil after fertilization.

   (2) Timely suppression, break down rubbish, heavy soil, increase moisture retention, and prevent later drought. Suppression should be combined with cultivating and hoeing, first pressing and then hoeing. Before the wheat rows are closed, straw can be used to cover the rows to reduce water evaporation.

   (3) years ago, the total number of stems per mu was more than 800,000, the wheat population was too large, the nutrient consumption was serious, and the wheat seedlings turned yellow in spring. , It can be topdressed twice from the green to the jointing stage, and 10 kg of high-nitrogen compound fertilizer per acre is applied each time.

   (4) The wheat population is too small due to the drought during the winter, the total number of stems per mu before turning green is less than 450,000, the leaf color is lighter and the growth is poor In wheat fields, fertilizer and water management should be carried out in time, and topdressing should be carried out 2 times after returning green to the jointing stage, and topdressing 5-6 kg of urea per mu each time with the rainfall.

   (5) Combine disease control, one spray and three preventions for extra-root topdressing, supplement sulfur, zinc, boron and other middle and trace elements, and spray urea and phosphoric acid Potassium dihydrogen and so on.

   (3) Winter wheat area in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River

   includes 5 provinces (cities) of Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Shanghai, southern Henan, and the area south of the Huaihe River in Anhui and Jiangsu.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) For soil moisture and seedling conditions, suppress or hoe the wheat before turning green to increase moisture content, prevent cold and frost, promote the transformation of seedling conditions, and enhance drought resistance The ability to keep out the cold.

   (2) Scientifically determine the time, frequency and quantity of top dressing and irrigation according to soil fertility, base fertilizer application, seedling condition and moisture.

   (3) Combine fertilizer and water management with drought resistance and drainage, and prevention and control of diseases, pests and weeds.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Pay close attention to the weather conditions and seedling conditions before the wheat’s return to green jointing. If there is drought and less rain, you should take advantage of the warmer weather and the increase in soil evaporation in early spring. Irrigate.

   (2) Yield level is below 300 kg/mu, and topdressing with urea 6-8 kg/mu in the rain or combined with irrigation from the rise to jointing period; yield level 300 -400 kg/mu, topdressing 8-10 kg/mu of urea in the rain or combined with irrigation from the rising stage to the jointing stage; yield level 400-550 kg/mu, topdressing urea in the rain or combined with irrigation from the rising stage to the jointing stage 10- 12 kg/mu and potassium chloride 4-6 kg/mu; the yield level is above 550 kg/mu, and topdressing 13-15 kg/mu of urea and 6-8 kg of potassium chloride during the rising period to the jointing stage, taking advantage of the rain or combined with irrigation /mu.

   (3) In areas lacking trace elements, it is recommended to combine”one spray and three prevention”, pest control, and spraying at the jointing, booting, and filling stages of wheat. Apply trace element foliar fertilizer, and use 150-200 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5-1 kg of urea and 50 kg of water for foliar spray in the early stage of wheat grain filling.

   (4) Northern rain-fed dry farming winter wheat area

   includes northern Hebei Province, northern Beijing, southern Ulanchabu City in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, most of Shanxi Province, northern Shaanxi Province, western Henan Province, and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region North, east of Gansu Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Last year there was plenty of rain before the wheat planting, but winter and spring were dry. According to the precipitation and soil moisture, the soil should be suppressed as soon as possible before the wheat turns green. Then hoe, increase the moisture content, promote the transformation of seedling conditions, and enhance the ability of wheat to resist drought and cold.

   (2) Top-dressing or top-dressing fertilizer in time according to seedling conditions or combined with precipitation and top-dressing; according to the growth of wheat, hoeing, chemical promotion and chemical control are carried out to promote stable and increased production of dryland wheat.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Take timely water conservation measures to reduce the massive loss of soil moisture before early spring wheat is sealed. Before the soil is thawed and turned green, it is suppressed and hoeed in a timely manner to break up rubbish, heavy soil, and increase and protect moisture. For dry land that has been irrigated with overwintering water, hoe early before thawing and turning green to break hardening and eliminate cracks. Before the wheat rows are closed, 200-300 kg of wheat or corn stalks per mu can be used to cover the rows to reduce soil moisture evaporation.

   (2) For fields with low soil fertility and insufficient nutrient input, it is necessary to seize the opportunity of rainfall and timely topdressing of wheat in early spring. Use 5-7 kilograms of urea per mu for nitrogen-deficient fields, and 7-10 kilograms of diammonium phosphate per mu for phosphorous-deficient fields, which are applied to the soil with a fertilizer applicator/columbine. For dry land with supplementary irrigation conditions, combined with spring irrigation, 6-8 kg of urea per mu is applied to the nitrogen-deficient fields and 8-10 kg of diammonium phosphate per mu for the phosphorus-deficient fields.

   (3) Before sowing, the pre-sowing moisture is good or the planting is early and the amount of fertilization is high before the long field, which is mainly controlled. Dry land without irrigation conditions should be suppressed and hoeed as soon as possible to increase moisture content. The dry land that has been watered over the winter water should be hoeed as early as possible and watering in spring should be postponed to the late jointing stage.

   (4) For the fields with late sowing and weak seedling conditions, it is advisable to combine soil moisture preservation and hoeing as soon as possible to raise the ground temperature and promote weak seedlings to grow stronger.

   (5) Northwest Irrigation Spring Wheat Area

   includes central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, central and western Gansu Province, eastern Qinghai Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Determine the target yield based on soil fertility, reduce the input of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, apply potassium fertilizers reasonably, and supplement micro-fertilizers appropriately.

   (2) Return the full amount of straw to the field, increase the application of organic fertilizers, improve soil fertility, and use organic and inorganic fertilizers in combination.

   (3) Combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, early application of base fertilizer, and smart application of topdressing. Strictly control the application of base fertilizer and the quality of sowing to ensure that the seedlings are uniform and complete. Topdressing should be done at the right time to prevent the wheat from being overly prosperous in the early stage, and reducing the yield in the later stage.

   (4) Organic combination of top dressing and irrigation. Use water and fertilizer integration or topdressing before irrigation, and spray micro-fertilizers such as zinc and boron outside the roots at booting stage.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Recommend 17-18-10 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula, and apply 2-3 cubic meters/mu of farm manure where conditions permit .

   (2) Yield level is below 300 kg/mu, base application formula fertilizer 15-20 kg/mu, combined with irrigation and topdressing urea 5- 8 kg/mu.

   (3) Yield level 300-400 kg/mu, base application of formula fertilizer 20-25 kg/mu, combined with irrigation and topdressing urea 8 from rise to jointing stage -12 kg/mu.

   (4) Yield level 400-550 kg/mu, base application of formula fertilizer 30-35 kg/mu, combined with irrigation and topdressing urea 12 from rise to jointing stage -18 kg/mu.

   (5) Yield level is above 550 kg/mu, base fertilizer is 35-40 kg/mu, and urea is applied in combination with irrigation and topdressing 15- from the rising stage to the jointing stage. 20 kg/mu.

  二. Rice

   (1) Single-season rice area in cold northeast region

   includes all of Heilongjiang Province and some counties (districts, flags, fields) in Hulunbuir City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) According to the results of soil testing and formula fertilization, appropriately reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and optimize the amount of potassium fertilizer.

   (2) Reduce the amount and ratio of basal tiller fertilizer and increase the ratio of ear fertilizer, so that the ratio of ear fertilizer nitrogen at the jointing stage will reach about 30%.

   (3) Early application of green fertilizer to promote early onset of tillers, and application of green fertilizer within 3 days after transplanting.

   (4) Appropriate supplement of middle and trace elements according to soil nutrient status.

   (5) Calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer should be applied to acidic plots, and compound fertilizer or compound fertilizer with lower pH should be used as base fertilizer for alkaline plots, and top dressing should be used less Or instead of urea, ammonium sulfate can be used as top dressing.

   (6) Dry rotary tillage after base fertilizer application to realize full-layer fertilization; water-saving irrigation technology is adopted, and the field is dried for about 3 days before fertilization, and fertilization is carried out with water and nitrogen. .

   (7) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings to apply base fertilizer and tiller fertilizer to the side to achieve the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Recommend 14-16-15 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.

   (2) Yield level is below 450 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 14-18 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with urea 4-5 kg/Mu, 2-3 kg/mu.

  (3) Yield level is 450-550 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 18-23 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 5-7 kg of urea respectively /Mu, 3 kg/mu.

   (4) Yield level above 550 kg/mu, formula fertilizer 23-29 kg/mu, zinc sulfate 1-2 kg/mu, tillering fertilizer and spike fertilizer Topdressing urea 7-8 kg/mu and 3-4 kg/mu respectively, ear-grain fertilizer topdressing potassium chloride 1-3 kg/mu, supplemented with silicon fertilizer.

   (2) Northeast Jiliao and Mongolia single-season rice area

   includes all the provinces of Jilin and Liaoning, as well as some counties (districts, banners, fields) in the three cities (unions) of Chifeng, Tongliao, and Xing’an League in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Determine the reasonable amount of fertilizer for the plot according to the results of soil testing and formula fertilization and the characteristics of fertilizer requirements.

   (2) Control the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer, reasonably allocate the period of nitrogen fertilizer application, and appropriately increase the ratio of ear fertilizer.

   (3) Reasonably apply phosphate and potash fertilizers, and appropriately supplement medium and trace element fertilizers.

   (4) On the basis of increasing the amount of organic fertilizer applied, appropriately reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer in the later stage.

   (5) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings with deep machine fertilization and tiller fertilizer to realize the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

  (1) Recommend 15-16-14 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.

   (2) The yield level is below 500 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 19-24 kg/mu, and the tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are respectively topdressed with urea 6-8 Kg/mu, 3-4 kg/mu.

   (3) Yield level 500-600 kg/mu, formula fertilizer 24-28 kg/mu, zinc sulfate 1-2 kg/mu, tillering fertilizer and ear Topdressing granular fertilizer is 8-9 kg/mu, 4-5 kg/mu, and supplementary silicon fertilizer 10-15 kg/mu.

   (4) Yield level above 600 kg/mu, formula fertilizer 28-33 kg/mu, zinc sulfate 1-2 kg/mu, tillering fertilizer and spike fertilizer Topdressing urea 9-11 kg/mu and 5 kg/mu respectively, ear-grain fertilizer topdressing potassium chloride 1-3 kg/mu, and supplementary silicon fertilizer 15-20 kg/mu.

  (3) Single-cropping rice area in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River

   includes eastern Sichuan Province, all of Chongqing City, southern Shaanxi Province, some counties in northern Guizhou Province, and western Hubei Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Increase the application of organic fertilizers, and promote the combination of organic and inorganic.

   (2) According to the soil fertility, appropriately adjust the ratio of base fertilizer and topdressing.

   (3) Deep application of basal fertilizer and top-dressing”use water with nitrogen”.

   (4) In the oil-rice rotation field, appropriately reduce the amount of phosphate fertilizer for rice.

   (5) Choose medium and low-concentration phosphate fertilizers, such as calcium-magnesium phosphate fertilizer and general calcium, etc.; choose potassium chloride for potash fertilizer.

   (6) For fields with a soil pH of 5.5 or less, properly apply silicon-containing alkaline fertilizers or basal quicklime.

   (7) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings to apply base fertilizer and tiller fertilizer to the side to achieve the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) The yield level is below 450 kg/mu, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer (N) is 6-8 kg/mu; the yield level is 450-550 kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer ( N) dosage 8-10 kg/mu; yield level 550-650 kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 10-12 kg/mu; yield level above 650 kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 12-14 kg/mu . Phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 4-6 kg/mu, potash fertilizer (K2O) 5-8 kg/mu (potassium fertilizer dosage of middle and high-grade fertility fields with straw returned to the field is 4-7 kg/mu).

   (2) Nitrogen base fertilizer accounts for 50%-60%, tiller fertilizer accounts for 20%-30%, ear fertilizer accounts for 20%-30%; organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer All basal application; potash basal fertilizer accounts for 50%-60%, and panicle fertilizer accounts for 40%-50%.

   (3) In zinc- and boron-deficient areas, apply zinc fertilizer and boron fertilizer in an appropriate amount; apply silicon-alkaline per acre in fields with strong soil acidity 30-50 kg of fertilizer or quicklime.

   (4) Single and double cropping rice area in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

   includes central and eastern Hubei Province, northeastern Hunan Province, northern Jiangxi Province, and all of Anhui Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Appropriately reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, and increase the ratio of nitrogen fertilizer to ear fertilizer.

   (2) Deep application of basal fertilizer and top-dressing”use water with nitrogen”.

   (3) Phosphate fertilizers prefer general calcium or calcium-magnesium phosphate fertilizers, and potash fertilizers choose potassium chloride.

   (4) Increase the application of organic fertilizers and encourage the return of straw to the field.

   (5) Cooperate with zinc fertilizer and silicon fertilizer.

   (6) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings with deep machine application of base fertilizer and tiller fertilizer to realize the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) The yield level is below 350 kg/mu, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer (N) is 6-7 kg/mu; the yield level is 350-450 kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer ( N) The dosage is 7-8 kg/mu; the yield level is 450-550 kg/mu, and the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 8-10 kg/mu; the yield level is more than 550 kg/mu, and the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 10-12 kg/mu. . Phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 4-7 kg/mu, potash fertilizer (K2O) 4-8 kg/mu.

   (2) Nitrogen base fertilizer accounts for 50%-60%, tiller fertilizer accounts for 20%-25%, ear fertilizer accounts for 20%-25%; all phosphate fertilizers are used as base fertilizer ; Potassium fertilizer basal fertilizer accounts for 50%-60%, ear fertilizer accounts for 40%-50%; in zinc-deficient areas, apply a proper amount of zinc fertilizer (zinc sulfate) 1 kg/mu; proper basal application of silicon-containing fertilizer; organic fertilizer basal application.

   (3) The amount of basal fertilizer can be appropriately reduced when applying organic fertilizer or planting green manure over-compressed fields; the amount of potash fertilizer can be reduced by 30%for fields where straw is returned to the field all the year round.%about.

  (5) Single-cropping rice area in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

   includes all of Jiangsu Province and the northern part of Zhejiang Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Increase the application of organic fertilizer and combine organic and inorganic.

   (2) Control the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer, adjust the ratio of base fertilizer and topdressing, and appropriately reduce the amount of base fertilizer nitrogen.

   (3) Deep application of basal fertilizer and top-dressing”use water with nitrogen”.

   (4) Oil (wheat) rice rotation field, appropriately reduce the amount of rice phosphate fertilizer. Potash fertilizer chooses potassium chloride.

   (5) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings with deep machine fertilization and tiller fertilizer to realize the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) The yield level is below 500 kg/mu, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer (N) is 8-10 kg/mu, and the phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) is 2-3 kg/mu; Potash fertilizer (K2O) 3-4 kg/mu; yield level 500-600 kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 10-12 kg/mu, phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 3-4 kg/mu; potassium fertilizer (K2O) 4-5 Kg/mu; the yield level is above 600 kg/mu, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer (N) is 12-18 kg/mu, the phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) is 5-6 kg/mu; the potash fertilizer (K2O) is 6-8 kg/mu.

   (2) Nitrogen base fertilizer accounts for 40%-50%, tiller fertilizer accounts for 20%-30%, ear fertilizer accounts for 20%-30%; organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer All basal application; potash basal fertilizer accounts for 50%-60%, and panicle fertilizer accounts for 40%-50%. Apply 1-2 kilograms of zinc sulfate per acre to zinc-deficient soil; apply silicon-containing fertilizers appropriately.

   (3) Apply organic fertilizer or plant green manure over pressed fields, the amount of base fertilizer can be appropriately reduced.

   (Six) Jiangnan hilly and mountainous single- and double-cropping rice area

   includes central and southern Hunan, southeastern Jiangxi, southern Zhejiang, central and northern Fujian, and northern Guangdong.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Determine the target yield according to soil fertility, control the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer, balance the application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and combine organic and inorganic.

   (2) Deep application of basal fertilizer and top-dressing”use water with nitrogen”.

   (3) Phosphate fertilizers prefer calcium-magnesium phosphate or general calcium.

   (4) Appropriate application of soil amendment or base application of quicklime to acidic soil.

   (5) In areas lacking magnesium and zinc, pay attention to the reasonable application of magnesium and zinc fertilizers.

   (6) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings with deep machine application of base fertilizer and tiller fertilizer to realize the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

   (1) Yield level is about 500 kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) 10-13 kg/mu, phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 3-4 kg/mu; potash fertilizer (K2O) 8-10 kg/mu.

   (2) Nitrogen fertilizer is applied in stages, base fertilizer accounts for 35%-50%, tiller fertilizer accounts for 25%-35%, ear fertilizer accounts for 20%-30%, Appropriate postponement of tillering fertilizer; basal application of all phosphate fertilizers; 50%of potash fertilizer as basal fertilizer and 50%as ear fertilizer.

   (3) It is recommended to return straw to the field or increase the application of organic fertilizer. For plots where straw is returned to the field all the year round, the amount of potassium fertilizer can be reduced by about 30%; for plots where organic fertilizer is applied, the amount of base fertilizer can be appropriately reduced.

   (4) For fields with strong soil acidity, apply 40-50 kilograms of silicon-containing alkaline fertilizer or quicklime per mu during land preparation.

   (5) In areas lacking magnesium or zinc, apply 2-3 kg of magnesium fertilizer (calculated as MgO) or 1-2 kg of zinc sulfate per mu.

   (7) Double-cropping early rice in the hills of South China Plain

   includes southern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern Guangdong Province, Hainan Province, and southeastern Fujian Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Control the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer, adjust the base and topdressing ratio, reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer in the early stage, and implement nitrogen fertilizer backward.

   (2) Deep application of basal fertilizer and top-dressing”use water with nitrogen”.

   (3) Phosphate fertilizers prefer calcium-magnesium phosphate or general calcium.

   (4) For fields with a soil pH of 5.5 or less, properly apply silicon-containing alkaline fertilizers or basal quicklime.

   (5) Supplement magnesium fertilizer, zinc fertilizer and silicon fertilizer in areas with magnesium deficiency, zinc fields, gledding rice fields and low temperature and low temperature areas.

   (6) Combination of organic and inorganic application, and the promotion of returning straw to the field.

   (7) In areas where conditions permit, it is recommended to use machine-transplanted seedlings to apply base fertilizer and tiller fertilizer to the side to achieve the integration of fertilization and transplanting.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

  (1) Recommend 18-12-16 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.

   (2) Yield levels below 350 kg/mu, formula fertilizer 20-25 kg/mu, topdressing fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer 4-6 kg/mu respectively , 3-5 kg/mu.

   (3) Yield level 350-450 kg/mu, formula fertilizer 25-30 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 5-7 kg urea respectively /Mu, 3-5 kg/mu.

   (4) Yield level is 450-550 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 30-35 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 7-10 kg urea respectively /Mu, 4-7 kg/mu.

   (5) The yield level is above 550 kg/mu, the formula fertilizer is 35-40 kg/mu, and the tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 8-11 kg of urea. Mu, 5-8 kg/mu.

   (6) Fields with strong soil acidity, apply 40-50 kg silicon-containing alkaline fertilizer or quicklime per mu during land preparation.

   (7) In areas lacking magnesium or zinc, apply 2-3 kg of magnesium fertilizer (calculated as MgO) or 1-2 kg of zinc sulfate per mu.

  (八) Mountain single-cropping rice area in the Southwest Plateau

   includes all of Yunnan Province, southwestern Sichuan Province, most of Guizhou Province, western Hunan Province, and northern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Increase the application of organic fertilizers, implement straw return to the field, and combine organic and inorganic.

   (2) Adjust the ratio of base and top dressing to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer in the early stage.

   (3) Phosphate-deficient soils should be appropriately increased phosphate fertilizers, preferably calcium-magnesium-phosphate fertilizers.

   (4) For rice fields with low potassium supply capacity, pay attention to potassium supplementation in the late stage of rice growth.

   (5) For fields with soil pH below 5.5, appropriate application of alkaline soil amendments containing silicon and calcium or base application of quicklime.

   (6) Combine fertilizer application with high-yield and high-quality cultivation techniques.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

  (1) Recommend 17-13-15 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.

   (2) Yield level is below 400 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 20-26 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with urea 4-6 kg/Mu, 3-4 kg/mu.

   (3) Yield level is 400-500 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 26-33 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 6-7 kg urea respectively /Mu, 4-5 kg/mu.

   (4) Yield level is 500-600 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 33-39 kg/mu, tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 7-8 kg of urea respectively /Mu, 5-6 kg/mu, topdressing potassium chloride 1-2 kg/mu for ear and grain fertilizer.

   (5) The yield level is above 600 kg/mu, the formula fertilizer is 39-46 kg/mu, and the tiller fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer are topdressed with 8-10 kg of urea. Mu, 6-7 kg/mu, and 2-4 kg/mu of potassium chloride topdressing fertilizer for ears and grains.

   (6) In zinc-deficient areas, apply 1-2 kg of zinc sulfate per mu; apply silicon-alkaline per mu in fields with low soil pH 30-50 kg of fertilizer or quicklime.

  三. Spring corn

   (1) Northeast cold spring corn area

   includes most of Heilongjiang Province and the eastern part of Jilin Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Determine the reasonable amount of N, P, and K fertilizer based on the results of soil testing and formula fertilization.

   (2) Nitrogen fertilizer is applied in stages, and the proportion of potassium fertilizer is appropriately increased in high-yield fields.

   (3) According to the climate and soil fertility conditions, the combination of agricultural machinery and agronomy, the combined application of seed fertilizer and base fertilizer.

   (4) Increase the application of organic fertilizers, encourage the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crush appropriate amounts of straw and return it to the field, and return the straw to the field for a long time to appropriately reduce the amount of fertilizer.

   (5) Pay attention to the application of sulfur, zinc and other trace elements, and increase the application of alkaline fertilizers on the soil with severe acidification.

   (6) It is recommended that corn and soybeans be intercropped, intercropped or rotated. At the same time, reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers and increase the application of organic fertilizers and microbial fertilizers.

  2. Fertilization recommendations

  (1) Recommend 14-18-13 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.

   (2) The yield level is below 500 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 18-23 kg/mu, and topdressing urea is 9-11 kg/mu during the seven-leaf period .

   (3) Yield level 500-600 kg/mu, formula fertilizer 23-28 kg/mu, topdressing urea 11-13 kg/mu during the seven-leaf period.

   (4) Yield level is 600-700 kg/mu, formula fertilizer is 28-32 kg/mu, and topdressing urea is 13-16 kg/mu during the seven-leaf period.

   (5) The yield level is over 700 kg/mu, the formula fertilizer is 32-37 kg/mu, and the topdressing urea is 16-18 kg/mu during the seven-leaf period.

   (2) Northeast semi-humid spring corn area

   includes southwestern Heilongjiang Province, central Jilin Province, and northern Liaoning Province.

  1. Fertilization principles

   (1) Control the application amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, apply nitrogen fertilizer in stages, appropriately reduce the amount of base fertilizer, and make full use of the after effects of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.

   (2) For plots with one-time fertilization, choose slow and controlled-release fertilizers, and appropriately add diammonium phosphate as seed fertilizer.

   (3) Plots with high effective potassium content and low yield levels can use less or no potassium fertilizer when applying organic fertilizers.

   (4) Pay attention to applying zinc fertilizer on plots with high soil pH, high yield and zinc deficiency. The plots with long-term application of chlorine-based compound fertilizer should be replaced with sulfur-based compound fertilizer or sulfur-containing fertilizer.

   (5) Increase the amount of organic fertilizer, large amount of straw returned to the field and long-term straw return to the field, appropriately reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer; straw mulch or striped plots, appropriate Increase the proportion of phosphate fertilizer in seed fertilizer.

  (6)推广应用高产耐密品种,合理增加玉米种植密度。

  (7)无秸秆还田地块可采用深松,促进根系发育,提高水肥利用效率。

  (8)地膜覆盖种植区,可考虑在施底(基)肥时,选用缓控释肥料,以减少追肥次数。

  (9)中高肥力土壤采用施肥方案推荐量的下限。

  2.基追结合施肥建议

  (1)推荐15-18-12(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方。

  (2)产量水平550公斤/亩以下,配方肥20-24公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素10-13公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平550-700公斤/亩,配方肥24-31公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素13-16公斤/亩。

  (4)产量水平700-800公斤/亩,配方肥31-35公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素16-18公斤/亩。

  (5)产量水平800公斤/亩以上,配方肥35-40公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素18-21公斤/亩。

  3.一次性施肥建议

  (1)推荐29-13-10(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方。

  (2)产量水平550公斤/亩以下,配方肥27-33公斤/亩,作为基肥或苗期追肥一次性施用。

  (3)产量水平550-700公斤/亩,配方肥33-41公斤/亩,作为基肥或苗期追肥一次性施用。

  (4)产量水平700-800公斤/亩,要求有30%释放期为50-60天的缓控释氮素,配方肥41-47公斤/亩,作为基肥或苗期追肥一次性施用。

  (5)产量水平800公斤/亩以上,要求有30%释放期为50-60天的缓控释氮素,配方肥47-53公斤/亩,作为基肥或苗期追肥一次性施用。

  (三)东北半干旱春玉米区

  包括吉林省西部、内蒙古自治区东北部、黑龙江省西南部。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)有机无机结合,风沙土区域可采用秸秆覆盖免耕施肥技术。

  (2)氮肥深施,施肥深度8-10厘米;分次施肥,大喇叭期追施氮肥。

  (3)水肥耦合,利用玉米水肥需求最大效率期同步规律,结合补水施用氮肥。

  (4)平衡施肥,氮磷钾比例协调供应,缺锌地块要注意锌肥施用。

  (5)根据区域土壤特点,采用生理酸性肥料,种肥宜采用磷酸一铵。

  (6)中高肥力土壤采用施肥方案推荐量的下限。

  (7)膜下滴灌种植,可适当减少底(基)肥数量,少量多次灌水施肥。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐13-20-12(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方。

  (2)产量水平450公斤/亩以下,配方肥19-25公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素8-10公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平450-600公斤/亩,配方肥25-33公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素10-14公斤/亩。

  (4)产量水平600公斤/亩以上,配方肥33-38公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素14-16公斤/亩。

  (四)东北温暖湿润春玉米区

  包括辽宁省大部和河北省东北部。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)依据测土配方施肥结果,确定合理的氮磷钾肥用量。

  (2)氮肥分次施用,尽量不采用一次性施肥,高产田适当增加钾肥施用比例和次数。

  (3)加大秸秆还田力度,增施有机肥。

  (4)重视硫、锌等中微量元素的施用。

  (5)肥料施用与深松、增密等高产栽培技术相结合。

  (6)中高肥力土壤采用施肥方案推荐量的低限。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐17-17-12(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方。

  (2)产量水平500公斤/亩以下,配方肥20-24公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素11-14公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平500-600公斤/亩,配方肥24-29公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素14-16公斤/亩。

  (4)产量水平600-700公斤/亩,配方肥29-34公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素16-19公斤/亩。

  (5)产量水平700公斤/亩以上,配方肥34-39公斤/亩,大喇叭口期追施尿素19-22公斤/亩。

  四、马铃薯

  (一)北方马铃薯一作区

  包括内蒙古、甘肃、宁夏、河北、山西、陕西、青海、新疆等地。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)依据测土配方施肥结果和目标产量,确定氮磷钾肥合理用量。

  (2)降低氮肥基施比例,适当增加追施次数,加强块茎形成期与块茎膨大期的氮肥供应。

  (3)依据土壤养分状况,在马铃薯旺盛生长期叶面喷施中微量元素肥料。

  (4)增施有机肥,有机无机肥配合施用,若基肥施用有机肥,可酌情减少化肥用量。

  (5)肥料施用应与病虫草害防治相结合,尤其需要注意病害防治。

  (6)具备滴灌和喷灌等条件的马铃薯种植,应实施水肥一体化。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐11-18-16(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方作种肥,尿素与硫酸钾(或氮钾复合肥)作追肥。

  (2)产量水平3000公斤/亩以上,配方肥(种肥)推荐用量60公斤/亩,苗期到块茎膨大期分次追施尿素20-22公斤/亩、硫酸钾12-15公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平2000-3000公斤/亩,配方肥(种肥)推荐用量50公斤/亩,苗期到块茎膨大期分次追施尿素15-18公斤/亩、硫酸钾8-12公斤/亩。

  (4)产量水平1000-2000公斤/亩,配方肥(种肥)推荐用量40公斤/亩,苗期到块茎膨大期追施尿素8-12公斤/亩、硫酸钾5-8公斤/亩。

  (5)产量水平1000公斤/亩以下,建议施用19-10-16或相近配方的配方肥35-40公斤/亩,播种时一次性施用。

  (二)南方春作马铃薯区

  包括云南、贵州、广西、广东、湖南、四川、重庆等地。

  施肥原则

  (1)依据测土配方施肥结果和目标产量,确定氮磷钾肥合理用量;依据土壤肥力条件优化氮、磷、钾化肥用量。

  (2)增施有机肥,有机无机配合施用;忌用没有充分腐熟的有机肥料。

  (3)依据土壤钾素状况,适当增施钾肥。

  (4)肥料分配上以基、追结合为主,追肥以氮钾肥为主。

  (5)依据土壤养分状况,在马铃薯旺盛生长期叶面喷施中微量元素肥料。

  (6)肥料施用与高产优质栽培技术相结合,尤其需要注意病害防治。

  施肥建议

  (1)推荐13-15-17(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方作基肥,尿素与硫酸钾(或氮钾复合肥)作追肥;也可选择15-5-20或相近配方做追肥。

  (2)产量水平3000公斤/亩以上,配方肥(基肥)推荐用量60公斤/亩;苗期到块茎膨大期分次追施尿素10-15公斤/亩、硫酸钾10-15公斤/亩,或追施配方肥(15-5-20)20-25公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平2000-3000公斤/亩,配方肥(基肥)推荐用量50公斤/亩;苗期到块茎膨大期分次追施尿素5-10公斤/亩、硫酸钾8-12公斤/亩,或追施配方肥(15-5-20)15-20公斤/亩。

  (4)产量水平1500-2000公斤/亩,配方肥(基肥)推荐用量40公斤/亩;苗期到块茎膨大期分次追施尿素5-10公斤/亩、硫酸钾5-10公斤/亩,或追施配方肥(15-5-20)10-15公斤/亩。

  (5)产量水平1500公斤/亩以下,建议施用配方肥(基肥)推荐用量40公斤/亩;苗期到块茎膨大期分次追施尿素3-5公斤/亩、硫酸钾4-5公斤/亩,或追施配方肥(15-5-20)10公斤/亩。

  (6)每亩施用200-500公斤商品有机肥或2-3方腐熟农家肥做基肥;若基肥施用了有机肥,可酌情减少化肥用量。

  (7)对于缺硼或缺锌土壤,可基施硼砂1公斤/亩或硫酸锌1-2公斤/亩。

  五、油菜

  (一)长江流域冬油菜区

  包括云南、贵州、四川、重庆、陕西、河南、甘肃南部、湖北、湖南、江西、广西、安徽、江苏、浙江等地。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)针对去年油菜播期推迟、播后渍害较重、幼苗生长缓慢、苗情总体较弱的情况,科学追施薹肥,促进油菜长势均衡,防治后期早衰。

  (2)根据区域特点和苗情分类指导,科学施肥。

  (3)重视薹花期追施磷、钾、硼、镁等养分,充分发挥抗逆促产作用。

  (4)及时追施薹肥,追肥时注意以水带肥。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)在基肥用量不足及应施冬季腊肥而未施的地块,北方冬油菜施氮量(N)3-4公斤/亩;长江上游和中游冬油菜施氮量(N)1.5-3公斤/亩、施钾量(K2O)1公斤/亩;长江下游冬油菜施氮量(N)3-4.5公斤/亩、施钾量(K2 O)1-1.5公斤/亩左右。薹肥追用时,可将尿素和氯化钾均匀混合后施用,也可施用相应养分量的复合肥。

  (2)磷钾肥用量不足的地块,在结荚期喷施磷酸二氢钾0.3-0.5公斤/亩,可有效防止油菜早衰。

  (3)依据土壤有效硼状况补充硼肥,注意使用合格硼肥,可在薹肥时每亩施用0.3-0.5公斤的硼砂,也可与防治菌核病结合进行肥药喷施,一般叶面喷施硼砂0.2公斤/亩,浓度0.2%左右。

  (4)酸性土壤地区、高产区域近年缺镁现象时有发生,可在花时与防治菌核病结合进行肥药喷施,一般喷施硫酸镁0.5-1.0公斤/亩,浓度1%-2%,也可在结荚期喷施。

  (二)北方春油菜区

  包括内蒙古、青海、甘肃西部、新疆、西藏、宁夏等地。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)充分利用测土配方施肥技术成果科学施肥。提倡施用春油菜专用配方肥。

  (2)补施硼肥、锌肥和硫肥。

  (3)增施有机肥,利用油菜收获后的水热资源种植绿肥。

  (4)基肥施于土下6-8厘米处。

  (5)做好土壤集墒、保墒工作,利用水肥协同作用,提高养分利用效率,促进油菜生长。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)产量水平150公斤/亩以下,氮肥(N)6-8公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)4公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)2.5公斤/亩,硫酸锌1公斤/亩,硼砂0.5公斤/亩。

  (2)产量水平150-200公斤/亩,氮肥(N)8-9公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)2.5公斤/亩,硫酸锌1.5公斤/亩,硼砂0.75公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平200公斤/亩以上,氮肥(N)9-11公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5-6公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)3.0公斤/亩,硫酸锌1.5公斤/亩,硼砂1.0公斤/亩。

  (4)有条件时,可一次性施用春油菜专用种肥和缓控释基肥组合,推荐15-15-15(N-P2O5-K2O,硫基)配方的种肥、28-12-8(N-P2O5-K2O)或相近配方的春油菜专用肥(加硼和锌),根据目标产量推荐种肥用量为5-8公斤/亩、基肥用量为20-30公斤/亩。如果没有施用种肥,可根据苗情在薹期追施尿素2-5公斤/亩。

  六、东北大豆

  包括辽宁省、吉林省、黑龙江省、内蒙古自治区。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)根据测土结果,科学确定氮磷钾肥施用量,调节土壤酸碱度,提倡秸秆还田与有机无机科学配施,对于高产大豆和米豆轮作等栽培方式,提倡根瘤菌剂拌种。

  (2)秸秆还田条件下,根据秸秆还田量适当减少钾肥投入;玉米改种大豆区域和米豆轮作区在前茬施肥量基础上可大幅减少化肥施用量;大豆连作区域应科学补施硼钼镁等元素,并控制土壤酸度。

  (3)有条件的地块结合中耕进行追肥,追肥氮占总氮量的40%,追肥中磷钾肥占对应养分总量的30%;不追肥田块基肥中40%以上的氮肥可以应用缓控释氮;无法追肥或者应用控释肥的田块,如果后期大豆脱肥可结合防病喷施1-2%的尿素1-2次。

  (4)提倡施用大豆专用肥,在偏酸性土壤上,建议选择生理碱性肥料或生理中性肥料,磷肥选择钙镁磷肥,钙肥选择石灰。

  (5)提倡侧深施种肥,施肥位置在种子侧方6-8厘米,种子下方5-8厘米;如做不到侧深施肥可采用分层施肥,施肥深度在种子下方3-4厘米占1/3,6-8厘米占2/3;难以做到分层施肥时,在北部高寒有机质含量高的地块采取侧施肥,其它地区采取深施肥,尤其磷肥要集中深施到种子下方10厘米。

  (6)补施硼肥和钼肥,在缺素症状较轻地区,钼肥可采取拌种的方式,和根瘤菌剂混合拌种,提高结瘤效率。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)依据大豆养分需求,氮磷钾(N-P2O5-K2O)施用比例在高肥力土壤为1:1.2:0.5-0.8;在低肥力土壤可适当增加氮钾用量,氮磷钾施用比例为1:1:0.7-1.0。

  (2)产量水平130-150公斤/亩,氮肥(N)2-3公斤/亩、磷肥(P2O5)2-3公斤/亩、钾肥(K2O)1-2公斤/亩。

  (3)产量水平150-175公斤/亩,氮肥(N)3-4公斤/亩、磷肥(P2O5)3-4公斤/亩、钾肥(K2O)2-3公斤/亩。

  (4)产量水平175公斤/亩以上,氮肥(N)3 -4公斤/亩、磷肥(P2O5)4-5公斤/亩、钾肥(K2O)2-3公斤/亩。

  七、花生

  (一)北方农牧交错区

  包括辽宁省、吉林省、黑龙江省、河北省、山西省、内蒙古自治区、新疆维吾尔自治区等农牧交错区。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)有机与无机相结合。增施腐熟有机肥,氮肥减施,适当增加磷钾肥用量,提倡配合施用花生根瘤菌剂。

  (2)基肥为主,追肥为辅。基肥氮磷钾均衡施用,采用地膜覆盖栽培总施肥量提高20%。追肥以氮钾肥为主,提倡水肥一体化追肥。

  (3)平衡施肥,补充中微量元素肥料。酸性土壤钙肥可以选用钙镁磷肥,中性和碱性土壤选用过磷酸钙,也可以在开花下针期以后采用水溶性钙肥叶面喷施。钼、硼等微量元素可采取拌种或与根瘤菌剂混合拌种方式,提高接瘤效率,但要注意微量元素间拮抗作用。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐配方。基肥13-15-17、13-18-14、12-14-14或相近配方;追肥25-0-5或相近配方。

  (2)基肥。产量水平150-200公斤/亩,配方肥推荐用量30-35公斤/亩;产量水平200-300公斤/亩,配方肥推荐用量35-40公斤/亩;产量水平300-400公斤/亩,配方肥推荐用量40-45公斤/亩。建议增施农家肥2-3方/亩。

  (3)追肥。在开花后下针期前,结合中耕培土作业,每亩追施氮肥(N)2.5公斤-3.5公斤。

  (4)叶面追肥。于开花下针期之后,采用1%的磷酸二铵水溶液,或0.5%的磷酸二氢钾水溶液进行2-3次叶面追肥,每亩喷施40公斤-50公斤,每次间隔7-10天。

  (5)种肥。在肥力较低的地块建议施种肥,可以施用磷酸二铵5公斤/亩。

  (二)黄淮海区

  主要包括河南省、山东省、安徽省、河北省南部等地区,花生种植方式主要有春花生、麦套花生、夏直播花生。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)春花生要注意土地用养结合,麦套花生要统筹小麦-花生周年施肥,夏直播花生要深翻,减少秸秆对花生生长发育的影响。施用有机肥、微生物肥、土壤调理剂,减轻土壤连作障碍。

  (2)补充钙、硼、钼等中微量营养元素。酸性土壤钙肥可以选用钙镁磷肥,中性和碱性土壤选用过磷酸钙,也可以采用水溶性钙肥叶面喷施。钼、硼等微量元素可采取拌种或与根瘤菌剂混合拌种方式,提高接瘤效率。

  (3)麦后夏播花生,可在花生开花下针期和结荚期分别追入氮肥。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐配方。氮磷钾配方为20-15-10、13-15-17或相近配方。

  (2)基肥。结合播前整地施用。

  春播花生:550公斤/亩以上产量水平,推荐施用量为60-70公斤/亩;400-550公斤/亩产量水平,推荐施用量为50-60公斤/亩;400公斤/亩以下产量水平,推荐施用量为40-50公斤/亩。可配合施用石膏(碱性土壤)或生石灰(酸性土壤)30-40公斤/亩,腐熟有机肥1000-2000公斤/亩。

  麦套花生:500公斤/亩以上产量水平,推荐施用量为55-60公斤/亩;350-500公斤/亩产量水平,推荐施用量为50-55公斤/亩;350公斤/亩以下产量水平,推荐施用量为45-50公斤/亩。

  夏直播花生: 450公斤/亩以上产量水平,推荐施用量为50-60公斤/亩;300-450公斤/亩产量水平,推荐施用量为40-50公斤/亩;300公斤/亩以下产量水平,推荐施用量为30-40公斤/亩。

  (3)追肥。根据花生长势,开花下针期追施尿素5.0-7.5公斤/亩;花针期喷施硼锌钼等微量元素肥料,结荚期喷施锌锰铁铜等微量元素肥料,饱果期喷施钙、锌等中微量元素肥料。

  (三)长江中下游区

  主要包括湖北省、湖南省、江苏省等花生产区。

  1. 施肥原则

  (1)适当减施氮肥。为充分发挥花生共生固氮作用,提倡接种根瘤菌剂。出苗后不追施氮肥或复混肥,以免徒长。

  (2)适量施用磷、钾肥。酸性红壤土建议施用钙镁磷肥。花生是中等忌氯作物,硫酸钾优于氯化钾。

  (3)增施钙、锌、硼、钼、硫肥。施用熟石灰既可补钙,又能降酸。硫酸锌可以同时补充锌、硫肥。钼肥可采取拌种或与根瘤菌剂混合拌种方式,提高接瘤效率。硼肥基施或花期喷施。

  (4)增施有机肥。有机肥须腐熟,不提倡在花生当季施用,以免造成生育中后期徒长,最好在前季作物上施用,至少在冬前施入。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐配方。南方地区花生基肥推荐15-15-15、13-15-17或相近配方。

  (2)基肥。产量水平150-200公斤/亩,配方肥30-35公斤,钙镁磷肥50公斤,熟石灰30-40公斤,硼肥0.5公斤拌入磷肥或石灰中撒施,或0.1公斤始花期喷施,锌肥0.3%硫酸锌水溶液浸种3小时,或0.5公斤拌入磷肥或石灰中撒施;产量水平200-300公斤/亩,配方肥35-40公斤,钙镁磷肥50公斤,熟石灰40-50公斤,硼、锌肥同上;产量水平300-400公斤/亩,配方肥40-45公斤,钙镁磷肥50公斤,熟石灰50-60公斤,硼、锌肥同上。南方温度高、湿度大,不建议在花生当季施用有机肥或农家肥,以免中后期徒长、倒伏,不便于收获,尤其是机械化作业。

  (3)追肥。下针期在叶面无水时,每亩用熟石灰、钙镁磷肥、草木灰各15公斤,混匀后形成“黑白粉”撒施,壮籽效果好。此外,建议后期叶面喷施0.3%磷酸二氢钾水溶液。

  (四)南方丘陵区

  包括四川省、福建省、广东省、广西区、贵州省、江西省等花生产区。

  1. 施肥原则

  (1)增施有机肥,控制氮肥和磷肥用量、适当增加钾肥用量,提倡配合施用花生根瘤菌剂。

  (2)基肥为主、追肥为辅,基肥氮磷钾均衡施用,追肥以氮钾肥为主。提倡一次性全层基肥施用。

  (3)补充钙肥、硼、钼肥。酸性土壤钙肥可以选用钙镁磷肥,中性和碱性土壤选用过磷酸钙。钙肥可以在开花期追施,避免与其它化肥产生不良反应。钼、硼等微量元素可采取拌种或与根瘤菌剂混合拌种方式,提高接瘤效率。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)推荐配方。基肥13-10-17、10-13-13或相近配方;追肥用10-6-15、25-5-5或相近配方。

  (2)基肥。产量水平150-200公斤/亩,基施有机肥500公斤/亩,配方肥推荐用量30-35公斤/亩;产量水平200-300公斤/亩,基施有机肥500-800公斤/亩,配方肥推荐用量35-40公斤/亩;产量水平300-400公斤/亩,基施有机肥800-1000公斤/亩,配方肥推荐用量40-45公斤/亩。提倡各种肥料在整地时作一次性全层基肥施用,以后不再追肥。

  春季花生覆膜种植,在旋耕整地前撒施有机肥或农家肥800-1000公斤/亩、石灰50公斤/亩、复合肥20-30公斤/亩作基肥。如不施用有机肥料,则施用复合肥40-50公斤/亩和钙镁磷肥50公斤/亩作基肥;如不覆膜种植,适当减少基肥用量。

  (3)追肥。在花生开花下针期结合中耕追施尿素5-7.5公斤/亩、硫酸钾5-10公斤/亩,或氮钾复合肥10公斤/亩。

  八、棉花

  (一)黄淮海棉区

  包括河南、河北、山东以及山西、陕西、辽宁部分地区。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)增施有机肥,提倡有机替代比例20%以上,但不高于35%。

  (2)依据土壤肥力条件,适当调减氮磷化肥用量,合理施用钾肥,注意补充硼和锌。

  (3)氮肥分期施用,增加生育中期的氮肥施用比例,降低基肥比例。

  (4)肥料施用应与灌溉排渍和其他高产优质栽培技术相结合。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)皮棉产量85-100公斤的条件下,亩施优质有机肥2吨以上,氮肥(N)12-14公斤,磷肥(P2O5)6-8公斤,钾肥(K2O)6-8公斤。对于硼、锌缺乏的棉田,注意补施硼砂、硫酸锌每亩1-2公斤,硼肥叶面喷施,亩用量100-150克水溶性硼肥,在现蕾-开花期进行。

  (2)有机肥在犁地前全部施入土壤做基肥。氮肥25%-30%用作基肥,25%-30%用在初花期,25%-30%用在盛花期,10%-25%用作盖顶肥;磷肥85%作基肥,15%做种肥;钾肥全部作基肥或基追(初花期)各半。从盛花期开始,对长势弱的棉田,结合施药混喷0.5%-1.0%尿素和0.3%-0.5%磷酸二氢钾溶液35-50公斤/亩,每隔7-10天喷一次,连续喷施2-3次。

  (二)长江中下游棉区

  包括江苏、湖北、安徽、江西、湖南、上海、浙江、四川等省。

  1.施肥原则

  (1)增施有机肥,提倡有机替代比例20%以上,但不高于35%。

  (2)依据土壤肥力状况和肥效反应,适当调减氮磷化肥用量,稳定钾肥用量。

  (3)土壤硼、锌明显缺乏的棉田应基施硼肥和锌肥,潜在缺乏的应注重根外追施硼、锌肥。

  (4)对于育苗移栽棉田,磷钾肥采用穴施或条施等集中施用。

  (5)肥料施用应与灌溉排渍和其他高产优质栽培技术相结合。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)皮棉亩产在90-110公斤的条件下,亩施用优质有机肥1.5吨以上,氮肥(N)13-15公斤,磷肥(P2O5)6-7公斤,钾肥(K2O)10-12公斤。对于硼、锌缺乏的棉田,注意补施硼砂1.0-2.0公斤/亩和硫酸锌1.5-2.0公斤/亩。低产田适当调低施肥量20%左右。

  (2)有机肥在犁地前全部施入土壤做基肥。氮肥25%-30%作基施,25%-30%用作初花期追肥,25%-30%用作盛花期追肥,15%-20%用作铃期追肥;磷肥全部作基施;钾肥60%用作基施,40%用作初花期追肥。从盛花期开始对长势较弱的棉田,喷施0.5%-1.0%尿素和0.3%-0.5%磷酸二氢钾溶液25-30公斤/亩,每隔7-10天喷一次,连续喷施2-3次。

  (三)西北棉区

  1.施肥原则

  (1)充分利用有机肥资源,增施有机肥,棉秆全部还田。

  (2)施肥与高产优质栽培技术相结合,尤其要重视与滴灌、水溶肥、水肥一体化技术结合。

  (3)适当调整氮肥用量、增加生育中期施用比例,合理施用磷、钾肥。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)膜下滴灌棉田:皮棉亩产120-150公斤,在秸秆全部还田的基础上,亩施用棉籽饼50-75公斤或者牛羊粪堆肥600-1000公斤。氮肥(N)20-22公斤,磷肥(P2O5)8-10公斤,钾肥(K2O)5-6公斤;皮棉亩产150-180公斤,在秸秆全部还田的基础上,亩施用棉籽饼75-100公斤或者牛羊粪堆肥600-1000公斤,氮肥(N)22-24公斤,磷肥(P2O5)10-12公斤,钾肥(K2O)6-8公斤。对于硼、锌缺乏的棉田,施硼砂1.0-2.0公斤/亩,硫酸锌1.5-2.0公斤/亩。硼肥叶面喷施,亩用量100-150克。

  有机肥在犁地前全部施入土壤做基肥。氮肥基肥占20%左右,追肥占80%左右(现蕾期20%,开花期20%,花铃期30%,棉铃膨大期10%),磷肥、钾肥基肥占50%左右,其他作追肥。全生育期追肥次数8次左右,从现蕾期开始追肥,一水一肥。前期氮多磷少,中后期磷多氮少,结合滴灌系统实行灌溉施肥。提倡选用水溶肥配合尿素施用,水溶肥提倡选用高磷低钾品种。一般前期尿素与水溶肥用量比例2:1,中后期尿素与水溶肥用量比例1:1,8月底开始只施用专用肥。

  (2)常规灌溉(淹灌或沟灌)棉田:皮棉亩产110-130公斤,在秸秆全部还田的基础上,亩施用棉籽饼50公斤或优质有机肥1-1.5吨,氮肥(N)22-26 公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)7-8公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)6-8公斤/亩;皮棉亩产130公斤以上,亩施用棉籽饼75-100公斤或优质有机肥1500-2000公斤,氮肥(N)25-28公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)10-13公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)6-9公斤/亩。对于硼、锌缺乏的棉田,施硼砂1.0-2.0公斤/亩,硫酸锌1.5-2.0公斤/亩。硼肥叶面喷施,亩用量100-150克。

  有机肥在犁地前全部施入土壤做基肥。 45%-50%的氮肥用作基施,50%-55%作追肥施用。 30%的氮肥用在初花期,20%-25%的氮肥用在盛花期。 50%-60%的磷钾肥用作基施,40%-50%用作追肥,分现蕾肥、花铃肥两次施入,一般现蕾肥占总量20%左右,花铃肥占总量30%左右。硼肥叶面喷施效果较好,亩用量100-150克。锌肥做基肥施用,亩用量1-2公斤。

  九、果树

  (一)柑橘

  1.施肥原则

  (1)增施有机肥,坚持有机无机肥料配合施用;秋季未施用有机肥的晚熟柑橘园注意春季补施;提倡橘园行间种植绿肥,春季翻压或者覆盖还田,培肥土壤、保持水土。土壤酸化严重的果园施用碱性调理剂进行改良。

  (2)根据柑橘园土壤肥力和不同熟期柑橘品种的生长势及产量水平,优化氮磷钾肥用量、配比和施肥时期,适当调减化肥用量;中微量元素采用“因缺补缺”的施肥策略,在南方酸性土壤上注意补充镁、钙、硼、锌等中微量元素,尤其是在春季柑橘萌芽前及开花前后补充硼和锌。

  (3)肥水管理应与绿色高产优质栽培技术结合,春季施肥前注意果树的整形修剪;尤其是受前期低温影响发生冻害的柑橘园,要及时修剪枯枝,温度回升后尽早施用优质有机肥等促进根系生长和树势恢复;夏季易出现高温伏旱,提倡橘园生草覆盖和穴贮肥水技术,有条件的果园提倡水肥一体化技术。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)施用有机肥300-500公斤/亩, 或者农家肥2-4方/亩;树势弱或肥力低的土壤多施用;受低温冻害的果园,增加有机肥施用。全部有机肥作基肥,最好于秋季施用,秋季未施用的在春季2-3月及早施入,采用开沟或挖穴方法施用。

  (2)亩产1500公斤以下的果园,氮肥(N)8-13公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)4-6公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)7-11公斤/亩。亩产1500-3000公斤的果园,氮肥(N)13-18公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5-7公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)11-15公斤/亩;亩产3000公斤以上的果园,氮肥(N)18-23公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)7-9公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)15-19公斤/亩。

  (3)化肥分3-4次施用,第1次是秋季基肥,在上年9-11月(晚熟品种最好在9月施用,其他品种在采果前后施用)20%-30%的氮肥、40%-50%的磷肥、20%-30%的钾肥配合施用;第2次是春季施肥,于2-3月萌芽前施用30%-40%的氮肥、30%-40%的磷肥、20%-30%的钾肥;在5月根据挂果情况酌情施用稳果肥;第3次是夏季施肥,于6-8月果实膨大期施用30%-40%的氮肥、20%-30%的磷肥、40%-50%的钾肥。

  (4)针对性施用中微量元素肥料。缺硼、锌和缺钙的柑橘园,在春季萌芽前每亩施用硫酸锌1-1.5公斤、硼砂0.5-1.0公斤、硝酸钙30公斤;缺素严重的果园还应在花期叶面喷施2-3次0.2%硼砂,幼果期喷2-3次0.3%的钙肥。缺镁的柑橘园,在幼果期每亩施用硫酸镁20-30公斤,在秋施肥时钙镁磷肥30公斤与有机肥配合施用。

  (二)苹果

  1.施肥原则

  (1)增施有机肥,提倡有机无机配合施用;依据土壤测试和树相,适当调减氮磷钾化肥用量;注意增加钙、镁、硼和锌的施用。

  (2)秋季未施基肥的果园,参照秋季施肥建议在萌芽前尽早施入,早春干旱缺水地区要在施肥后补充水分以利于养分吸收利用。

  (3)针对上年秋季早期落叶病发生严重且2020年冬季极端低温的影响,建议在萌芽前(3月初开始)喷3遍1%-3%的尿素(浓度分别为3%、2%和1%,间隔5-7天)加0.5%硼砂和适量白糖(约1%)以及防霜抗冻剂,目的是增加利用贮藏养分防止抽条,利于花芽分化、提高座果率、增产和减轻早春晚霜冻危害。

  (4)与高产优质栽培技术相结合,如平原地起垄栽培、果园生草、下垂果枝修剪以及壁蜂授粉技术等。黄土高原等干旱区域要与地膜(园艺地布)覆盖结合。

  (5)土壤酸化的果园可通过施用硅钙镁肥、石灰或其他土壤改良剂改良土壤。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)亩产2500公斤以下果园:氮肥(N)5-7.5公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)3-3.5公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)5.5-8公斤/亩;亩产2500-4000公斤果园:氮肥(N)7.5-15公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)3.5-7公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)8.5-16公斤/亩;亩产4000公斤以上果园:氮肥(N)10-17.5公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)4.5-10公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)11-18.5公斤/亩。

  (2)秋季已经施肥的果园化肥分3-6次施用,第1次在3月中旬到4月中旬,以氮钙肥为主,建议施用一次硝酸铵钙,亩用量30公斤左右;第2次在果实套袋前后(5月底到6月初),氮磷钾配合施用,建议施用17-10-18(或相近配方)苹果配方肥,亩用量25-50公斤。 6月中旬以后建议追肥2-4次;前期以氮钾肥为主,增加钾肥用量,建议施用16-6-20配方肥(或相近配方),亩用量25-50公斤;后期以钾肥为主,配合少量氮肥(氮肥用量根据果实大小确定,果实较大的一定要减少氮肥用量,且增加钙肥用量)。干旱区域建议采用窄沟多沟施肥方法,多雨区域可放射沟法或撒施。

  (3)秋季没有施肥的果园应尽快尽早春季第1次施肥,每亩地除施用30公斤左右硝酸铵钙外,还要施用生物有机肥200公斤,商品有机肥600公斤左右或堆肥1500公斤左右或饼肥300公斤左右;同时配合施用15-15-15等平衡型复合肥75-100公斤/亩,施肥方法建议采用沟施或穴施;土壤酸化的果园,每亩施用石灰150-200公斤或硅钙镁钾肥50-100公斤。

  (4)土壤缺锌、硼的果园,萌芽前后每亩施用硫酸锌1-1.5公斤、硼砂0.5公斤左右;在花期和幼果期叶面喷施0.3%硼砂、果实套袋前喷3次0.3%的钙肥。

  (三)梨

  1.施肥原则

  (1)增施有机肥料,实施梨园生草、覆草,培肥土壤;土壤酸化严重的果园施用石灰和有机肥进行改良。

  (2)按照产量水平和土壤肥力条件,确定肥料施用时期、用量和元素配比。施肥与高产优质栽培技术结合。

  (3)根据土壤肥力和梨树生长状况,适当减少氮磷肥用量,增加钾肥施用,通过叶面喷施补充钙、镁、铁、锌、硼等中微量元素。

  (4)优化施肥方式,改撒施为条施或穴施,结合灌溉施肥,以水调肥。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)亩产2000公斤以下果园:氮肥(N)8-10公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)6-8公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)9-11公斤/亩;亩产2000-4000公斤果园:氮肥(N)10-18公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)6-12公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)12-20公斤/亩。

  (2)化肥分3-5次施用,第1次在5月中旬,氮磷钾配合施用;6月中旬以后建议追肥2-4次;前期以氮钾肥为主,逐渐增加钾肥用量,建议施用20-5-20配方肥;后期以钾肥为主,配合少量氮肥。

  (3)秋季未施用有机肥的果园,应补施有机肥,并且在春季土壤解冻后及早施入,采用开沟或挖穴方法土施。土壤肥沃、树龄小、树势强的果园施有机肥1-2方/亩;土壤瘠薄、树龄大、树势弱的果园施有机肥2-4方/亩。

  (4)根外追肥:硼、锌、铁等缺乏的梨园可用0.2%硼砂溶液、0.2%硫酸锌+0.3%尿素混合液或0.3%硫酸亚铁+0.3%尿素溶液于发芽前至盛花期多次喷施,隔周一次。

  (四)桃

  1.施肥原则

  (1)依据土壤肥力、早中晚熟品种及产量水平,适量增施有机肥,合理调控氮磷钾肥施用水平,注意钙、镁、硼、锌、铁肥的配合施用。

  (2)不同品种的春季追肥时期要有差别,早熟品种较晚熟品种追肥时期早,追肥次数少。

  (3)注意预防春季低温冻害;与优质栽培技术相结合,夏季易出现涝害的平原地区需注意结合起垄、覆膜或果园生草技术;干旱地区提倡采用地表覆盖和穴贮肥水技术。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)根据产量水平确定全年化肥用量。产量水平1500公斤/亩,氮肥(N)8-10公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5-8公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)10-13公斤/亩;产量水平2000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)13-16公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)7-10公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)15-18公斤/亩;产量水平3000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)16-18公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)10-12公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)18-21公斤/亩。

  (2)秋季未施用有机肥的果园,应补施有机肥,并且在春季土壤解冻后及早施入,采用开沟或挖穴方法土施。早熟品种、土壤肥沃、树龄小、树势强的果园施有机肥1-2方/亩;晚熟品种、土壤瘠薄、树龄大、树势弱的果园施有机肥2-4方/亩。

  (3)化肥施用量要全年统一考虑。化肥中60%以上的磷肥和30%-40%钾肥及40%-50%的氮肥最好一同与有机肥秋季基施,其余用作追肥;秋施数量不足的,可以在追肥时补足。中早熟品种可以在桃树萌芽前(3月初),果实迅速膨大前分2次追肥,第1次氮磷钾配合施用,第2次以钾肥为主配合氮磷肥;晚熟品种可以在萌芽前,花芽生理分化期(5月下旬至6月下旬),果实迅速膨大前分3次追肥。萌芽前追肥以氮肥为主配合磷钾肥,后两次追肥以钾肥为主配合氮磷肥。

  (4)上一年负载量过高的桃园,今年应加强根外追肥,萌芽前可喷施2-3次1%-3%的尿素,萌芽后至7月中旬之前,每隔7天1次,按2次尿素与1次磷酸二氢钾(浓度为0.3%-0.5%)的顺序喷施。

  (5)中微量元素推荐采用“因缺补缺”、矫正施用的管理策略。出现中微量元素缺素症时,通过叶面喷施进行矫正。

  (五)荔枝

  1.施肥原则

  (1)重视有机肥的施用,根据生育期施肥,合理搭配氮磷钾肥,视荔枝品种、长势、气候等因素调整施肥计划。

  (2)土壤酸性较强果园,适量施用石灰、钙镁磷肥来调节土壤酸碱度和补充相应养分。

  (3)采用适宜施肥方法,针对性施用中微量元素肥料。

  (4)果实发育期正值雨季,氮肥尽量选用铵态氮肥,避免用尿素或硝态氮肥。

  (5)施肥与其他管理措施相结合,例如采用喷滴灌施肥、施肥枪施肥料溶液等。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)结果盛期树(株产50公斤左右):每株施有机肥10-20公斤,氮肥(N)0.75-1.0公斤,磷肥(P2O5)0.25-0.3公斤,钾肥(K2O)0.8-1.1公斤,钙肥(Ca)0.25-0.35公斤,镁肥(Mg)0.07-0.09公斤。

  (2)幼年未结果树或结果较少树:每株施有机肥5-10公斤,氮肥(N)0.4-0.6公斤,磷肥(P2O5)0.1-0.15公斤,钾肥(K2O)0.3-0.5公斤,镁肥(Mg)0.05公斤。

  (3)肥料分6-8次分别在采后(一梢一肥,2-3次)、花前、谢花及果实发育期施用。视荔枝树体长势,可将花前和谢花肥合并施用,或将谢花肥和壮果肥合并施用。氮肥在上述4个生育期施用比例为45%、10%、20%和25%,磷肥可在采后一次施入或分采后和花前两次施入,钾钙镁肥施用比例为30%、10%、20%和40%。花期可喷施磷酸二氢钾溶液。

  (4)缺硼和缺钼的果园,在花前、谢花及果实膨大期喷施0.2%硼砂+0.05%钼酸铵;在荔枝梢期喷施0.2%的硫酸锌或复合微量元素。 pH值小于5的果园,施用石灰100公斤/亩。

  (六)北方葡萄

  1.施肥原则

  (1)重视有机肥料的施用,根据生育期合理搭配氮磷钾肥,视葡萄品种、产量水平、长势、气候等因素调整施肥计划。

  (2)土壤酸性较强果园,适量施用石灰、钙镁磷肥来调节土壤酸碱度和补充相应养分。

  (3)采用适宜施肥方法,有针对性施用中微量元素肥料。

  (4)施肥与其他管理措施相结合,有条件的水肥一体化,遵循少量多次的灌溉施肥原则。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)根据产量水平进行合理施肥。亩产1500公斤以下,氮肥(N)10-15公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5-10公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)10-15公斤/亩;亩产1500-2000公斤,氮肥(N)15-20公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)10-15公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)15-20公斤/亩;亩产2000公斤以上,氮肥(N)20-25公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)15-20公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)20-25公斤/亩。

  (2)秋季未施用有机肥的果园,应补施有机肥,并且在春季土壤解冻后及早施入,采用开沟或挖穴方法土施。

  (3)化肥施用量要全年统一考虑,一般分3-4次施用,第1次应在上年9月中旬到10月中旬(晚熟品种采果后尽早施用)基肥时施入,结合有机肥施用20%氮肥、20%磷肥、20%钾肥;第2次在4月中旬进行,以氮磷肥为主,施用20%氮肥、20%磷肥、10%钾肥;第3次在6月初果实套袋前后进行,根据留果情况氮磷钾配合施用,施用40%氮肥、40%磷肥、20%钾肥;第4次在7月下旬到8月中旬,施用20%氮肥、20%磷肥、50%钾肥,根据降雨、树势和产量情况采取少量多次的方法进行,以钾肥为主,配合少量氮磷肥。

  (4)采用水肥一体化栽培管理的高产葡萄园,萌芽到开花前,每次追施氮(N)、磷(P2O5)、钾(K2O)各为1.2-1.5公斤/亩,每10天追肥一次;开花期追肥1次,追施氮(N)0.9-1.2公斤/亩、磷(P2O5)0.9-1.2公斤/亩、钾(K2O)0.45-0.55公斤/亩,辅以叶面喷施硼、钙、镁肥;果实膨大期着重追施氮肥和钾肥,每次追施氮(N)2.2-2.5公斤/亩、磷(P2O5)1.4-1.6公斤/亩、钾(K2O)3-3.2公斤/亩,每10-12天追肥一次;着色期追施高钾型复合肥,每次追施氮(N)0.4-0.5公斤/亩、磷(P2O5) 0.4-0.5公斤/亩、钾(K2O)1.3-1.5公斤/亩,每7天追肥一次,叶面喷施补充中微量元素。

  (5)土壤缺硼、锌和钙的果园,花前至初花期喷施0.3%-0.5%的硼砂、0.2%硫酸锌溶液;坐果后到成熟前喷施3-4次0.3%-0.5%的磷酸二氢钾溶液;幼果膨大期至采收前喷施0.3%-0.5%的硝酸钙溶液。

  十、蔬菜

  (一)露地甘蓝

  1.施肥原则

  (1)合理增施有机肥、减少化肥用量,有机肥与化肥配合施用。

  (2)肥料分配上以基、追结合为主;追肥以氮肥为主,氮磷钾合理配合;注意在莲座期至结球后期适当地补充钙、硼等中微量元素,防止“干烧心”等病害的发生。

  (3)与高产高效栽培技术,特别是节水灌溉技术结合,推荐应用水肥一体化技术,充分发挥水肥耦合效应,提高水肥利用效率。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)基肥一次施用优质农家肥2-3方/亩。

  (2)产量水平4500-5500公斤/亩,氮肥(N)13-15公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)4-6公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)8-10公斤/亩;产量水平5500-6500公斤/亩,氮肥(N)15-18公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)6-10公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)12-14公斤/亩;产量水平大于6500公斤/亩,氮肥(N)18-20公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)10-12公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)14-16公斤/亩。氮钾肥30%-40%基施,60%-70%在莲座期和结球初期分两次追施,雨水丰富或土壤肥力水平较低的地块,在莲座期前封行时分配10%-15%的用量,磷肥全部作基肥条施或穴施。

  (3)对往年“干烧心”发生较严重的地块,在苗期至结球初期施用硝酸铵钙;对于缺硼的地块,可基施硼砂0.5-1公斤/亩,或叶面喷施0.2%-0.3%的硼砂溶液2-3次。同时可结合喷药喷施2-3次0.5%的磷酸二氢钾,提高甘蓝的净菜率和商品率。

  (二)设施番茄

  1.施肥原则

  (1)合理施用有机肥,调减氮磷肥数量,缺钾地块增施钾肥,酸性土壤需补充钙、镁、硼等中微量元素;推荐施用生物有机肥和促根类功能性水溶肥。

  (2)根据作物产量、茬口及土壤肥力条件合理分配化肥,大部分磷肥基施、氮钾肥追施;生长前期不宜频繁漫灌追肥,重视花后和中后期追肥,中后期追肥以高钾复合肥或水溶肥为主。

  (3)与高产栽培技术结合,采用“少量多次”的原则,合理灌溉施肥。

  (4)土壤退化的老棚需进行秸秆还田或施用高C/N比的有机肥,少施禽粪肥,增加轮作次数,达到除盐和减轻连作障碍目的。

  (5)提倡应用水肥一体化技术,做到控水控肥、提质增产、提高水肥利用效率。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)苗肥增施腐熟有机肥,补施磷肥,每10平方米苗床施经过腐熟的禽粪60-100公斤,钙镁磷肥0.5-1公斤,硫酸钾0.5公斤,根据苗情喷施0.05%-0.1%尿素溶液1-2次。

  (2)基肥施用优质有机肥4-5方/亩。

  (3)产量水平4000-6000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)15-20公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5-8公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)20-25公斤/亩;产量水平6000-8000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)20-30公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)7-10公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)30-35公斤/亩;产量水平8000-10000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)30-38公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)9-12公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)35-40公斤/亩。 70%以上的磷肥作基肥条(穴)施,其余随复合肥追施, 20%-30%氮钾肥基施,70%-80%分7-11次随水追施。苗期施1-2次肥,初花期1次肥,初果期1次。结果期根据收获情况,每收获1-2次追施1次肥,共4-8次(无限生长型次数多,量减少)每次追施氮肥(N)不超过4公斤/亩。进入盛果期后,根系吸肥能力下降可叶面喷施0.05%-0.1%尿素、硝酸钙、硼砂等水溶液,有利于延缓衰老,延长采收期以及改善果实品质。

  (4)菜田土壤pH值小于6时易出现钙、镁、硼缺乏,可基施钙肥(Ca)50-75公斤/亩、镁肥(Mg)4-6公斤/亩,根外补施2-3次0.1%浓度的硼肥。

  (三)辣椒

  1.施肥原则

  (1)因地制宜地增施优质有机肥,夏季闷棚之后推荐施用生物有机肥。

  (2)开花期控制施肥,从始花到分枝坐果时,除植株严重缺肥可略施速效肥外,都应控制施肥,以防止落花、落叶、落果。

  (3)幼果期和采收期要及时施用速效肥,以促进幼果迅速膨大。

  (4)辣椒移栽后到开花期前,促控结合,薄肥勤浇。

  (5)忌用高浓度肥料,忌湿土追肥,忌在中午高温时追肥,忌过于集中追肥。

  (6)提倡应用水肥一体化技术,做到控水控肥、提质增产、提高水肥利用效率。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)优质农家肥4-5方/亩作基肥一次施用。

  (2)产量水平2000公斤/亩以下,施氮肥(N)6-8公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)2-3公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)9-12公斤/亩;产量水平2000-4000公斤/亩,施氮肥(N)8-16公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)3-4公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)10-18公斤/亩;产量水平4000公斤/亩以上,施氮肥(N)16-20公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)4-5公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)18-24公斤/亩。

  (3)一般情况下氮肥总量的20%-30%作基肥,70%-80%作追肥,对于气温高、湿度大情况应减少氮肥基施量,甚至不施;磷肥可60%作基肥,留40%到结果期追肥;钾肥总量的30%-40%作基肥,60%-70%作追肥,追肥期为门椒期、对椒期、盛果期。盛果期根据收获情况,每收获2次追施一次肥,共3次。

  (4)在辣椒生长中期注意分别喷施适宜的叶面硼肥和叶面钙肥产品,防治辣椒脐腐病。

  (四)设施黄瓜

  1.施肥原则

  (1)提倡施用优质有机堆肥,老菜棚注意多施含秸秆多的堆肥,少施禽粪肥,实行有机无机肥配合施用和秸秆还田。

  (2)依据土壤肥力条件和有机肥的施用量,综合考虑环境养分供应,适当调整氮、磷、钾化肥用量。

  (3)采用合理的灌溉技术,遵循少量多次的灌溉施肥原则。

  (4)定植后苗期不宜频繁追肥,氮肥和钾肥分期施用,少量多次,避免追施磷含量高的复合肥,前期追施高氮复合肥,中后期重视钾肥的追施。

  (5)蔬菜地酸化严重时,尤其是土壤pH值5以下,应适量施用石灰等碱性土壤调理剂。

  (6)提倡应用水肥一体化技术,做到控水控肥、提质增产、提高水肥利用效率。

  2.施肥建议

  (1)育苗期增施腐熟有机肥,补施磷肥,每10平方米苗床施用腐熟有机肥60-100公斤,钙镁磷肥0.5-1公斤,硫酸钾0.5公斤,根据苗情喷施0.05%-0.1%尿素溶液1-2次。

  (2)基肥施用优质有机肥4-5方/亩。

  (3)产量水平3000-6000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)12-20公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)5-9公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)15-24公斤/亩;产量水平6000-9000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)20-28公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)9-15公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)24-36公斤/亩;产量水平9000-12000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)28-36公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)15-18公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)36-48公斤/亩;产量水平12000-15000公斤/亩,氮肥(N)36-45公斤/亩,磷肥(P2O5)18-24公斤/亩,钾肥(K2O)48-60公斤/亩。

  (4)全部有机肥和磷肥作基肥施用,初花期以控为主,秋冬茬和冬春茬的氮钾肥分7-9次追肥,越冬长茬的氮钾肥分10-14次追肥,结果期注重高钾复合肥或水溶肥的追施。每次追施氮肥数量不超过4公斤/亩。追肥期为三叶期、初瓜期、盛瓜期,盛瓜期根据收获情况每收获1-2次追施一次肥。