The plan for a year lies in spring. As the temperature gradually rises, Hubeithe province begins to enter During the production period of aquaculture, the incidence of aquaculture diseases will increase. According to the monitoring data of aquaculture disease in Hubei Province during the same period in recent years, it is very important to prevent and control aquatic animal diseases during this period. The following aquatic animal diseases should be focused on in April:
1. Illness prediction
The common and frequently-occurring diseases in aquaculture in our province in April are:freshwater fish bacterial sepsis, gill rot, bacterial enteritis, saprolegniasis, and anchovy Disease, leukoplakia syndrome, etc.
1. Freshwater fish bacterial sepsis:The main hazards are crucian carp, bream bream, silver carp, bighead carp, yellow eel, mandarin fish, California bass, etc., which have a more acute course of disease. Features of high mortality. The disease has caused great economic losses to the breeding industry in our province over the years, and all breeding areas in the province need to focus on prevention and control.
2. Gill rotten disease:This disease usually starts to occur when the water temperature is above 15℃. The higher the water temperature, the more likely it is to become an outbreak and the shorter the time to death. This kind of fish disease is more common. There are two main types of gill rot:parasitic gill rot and bacterial gill rot. The main hazards are herring, grass carp, crucian carp, group head bream, mandarin fish, California bass, etc., which should arouse the attention of various breeding areas.
3. Bacterial enteritis:A disease caused by intestinal punctate Aeromonas infection. It can infect a variety of freshwater fish such as herring, grass carp, silver carp, bighead carp, etc. It is often complicated with bacterial gill rotting and red skin disease. It is one of the most harmful diseases in farmed fish. When the water temperature is above 18 ℃, it is easy to get sick and cause epidemics.
4. Water mold:It mainly harms various injured fish and fish eggs. Water mold is widespread in freshwater waters, and its breeding temperature is 13℃～ At 18°C, severe infection can cause fish death.
5. Anchor head disease:A disease caused by the parasitism of the anchor head. The disease can be infected in both the fish species and the adult fish breeding stage. When the water temperature is 12°C～33°C, it is more prone to disease and can cause a large number of fish species to die in a short period of time.
6. Vitiligo syndrome:the disease is prone to break out when the water temperature is 18℃～30℃, and the main hazards are Penaeus vannamei, crayfish, etc. Crayfish in our province The breeding areas and rice and shrimp breeding areas need to focus on prevention and control.
In addition, this period also needs to focus on the occurrence of yellow catfish bacterial disease to avoid large-scale outbreaks.
2. Prevention and control measures
1. Establish a scientific breeding management system. Do a good job in cleaning ponds and disinfection, remove excessive silt at the bottom of the pond, and thoroughly kill pathogens and other hostile organisms. Pay attention to improving the bottom quality and water quality of the pond, and cultivate a”fat, refreshing, tender and live” water body to provide a good living environment for the fish. Take scientific and standardized aquaculture measures for healthy aquaculture and ecological aquaculture to improve fish immunity; select species with strong disease resistance, reduce morbidity, and reduce the use of fishery drugs.
2. Purchase seed with quarantine certificate of origin, control and control from the source, and prevent the introduction of seed with pathogen. Seed production companies need to breed high-quality parents, strengthen parent breeding, feed high-quality compound feed rich in protein, and add appropriate amounts of immune-enhancing vitamin C, vitamin E, and immune polysaccharides to the feed to enhance fish body resistance force. According to the weather conditions, the water level and water quality of the parent breeding pond should be adjusted appropriately to provide a suitable environment for the parents and promote the development of the gonadal glands.
3. Conventional fish bacterial diseases can be disinfected with quicklime or national standard fishery disinfectant containing chlorine and iodine, combined with drug susceptibility test, using high sensitivity and antibacterial effect Good antibacterial drugs are mixed and fed orally, and allicin, Chinese herbal medicines (such as compound Sanhuang powder, rhubarb essence) and vitamins can be taken orally at the same time to enhance the efficacy of the medicine.
4. The prevention and control of parasitic diseases should select appropriate drugs according to the body structure and parasitic laws of different parasites, and pay attention to the method of use and dosage. For infected ponds, use the national standard fishery medicine refined trichlorfon, copper sulfate ferrous sulfate mixture (5:2), Chinese herbal medicine anti-chute powder and other drugs, and try to choose high-efficiency non-toxic drugs for treatment.
5. To prevent water mold in freshwater fish, attention should be paid to feeding and management to avoid fish body injury as much as possible. Spawning tanks and hatching utensils should be cleaned and disinfected. Soak the seedlings with salt water or potassium permanganate before stocking. At present, there is no ideal treatment for this disease. Only timely treatment in the early stage of the disease will have a certain effect. The national standard aquaculture iodine-containing disinfectant that can kill fungi can be used, such as povidone-iodine solution or a mixture of 8mg/L salt and baking soda (1:1) and sprinkle it in the whole pond.
6. Viral disease White spot syndrome currently has no effective treatment method, mainly prevention. When breeding, select healthy shrimps that have been quarantined without pathogens as broodstock; feed high-quality feeds to enhance the physique and disease resistance of the shrimps; maintain good water quality, control the breeding density, and improve the habitat of the shrimps. For prevention, povidone iodine 0.3～3.5mg/L can be splashed in the whole pool; or chlorine dioxide 0.2～0.5mg/L can be splashed in the whole pool, once every half month. If shrimp is found to be sick, the sick shrimp should be isolated in time to control the further spread of the disease.