1. Tree management
(one) plastic trimming. Saplings are mainly plastic, mature trees adjust the structure of the tree body, and do a good job in the cultivation and renewal of the fruiting branch group. Remove the large branches, diseased branches, upright competitive branches, and over-dense and long branches that seriously affect the inner light and disturb the structure of the tree body, and improve the light of the tree body. The branches that need to be completely thinned out are close to the base and cut off, and the base of the branches that need to be renewed is left with horseshoe-shaped piles to promote the germination of hidden buds. After pruning, treat the cutting cut with a protective agent to prevent the water loss of the tree and the invasion of pathogens.
(2) carved buds. Before germination to one week after germination, carve buds on the parts that need branches to promote the shoots to fill the space.
(three) pull branches. After the sap flows, pull the branches according to”one push, two kneading, three pressing, and four positioning”. The branch angle is determined according to the variety and tree shape, and the main branch that needs to be extended in the arbor orchard should be appropriately raised.
(4) Repeat cut before flower. For fruit trees with too large flowers, weak tree vigor, and new year, in the bud stage, the bunches of flowering branches should be retracted, the weak fruiting branches should be thinned out, and the long fruit branches should be shortened appropriately.
Second, fertilizer and water management
(1) top dressing. For orchards that were unable to apply basal fertilizer after the fall of last year, they must hurry up and strive for early application. As a result, large trees were topdressed according to the requirement of 3,000 kilograms of high-quality organic fertilizer per mu, and young trees were more than 1,000 kilograms per mu. Topdressing quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer in early March, integrated fertilizer and water application through drip irrigation system, or watering the soil in time after fertilization. Topdressing compound fertilizer in mid-to-late April promotes young fruit growth.
(2) Watering. If conditions permit, water sprout water in time and water enough to promote spring shoots and enlarge leaves; postpone the phenological period and reduce the hazards of late spring cold and late frost. After the orchard is irrigated or rained, it should be plowed or raked sugar in time to prevent soil compaction.
3. Pest control
The focus of pest control in spring is aphids, mites, scale insects, rot, powdery mildew, rust and other”three pests and three diseases”. During the bud germination period (Exposure period) Spray the garden clearing medicine.
(1) Cut off the branches of diseases and insects. Combined with plastic pruning, cut off diseased and pest branches, and break the pest cocoons on the branches.
(2) Scrape the old peeled skin. Scrape the old peeled skin on the main trunk, the angles of branches, and sunburn scars.
(3) Scrape and cure branch and stem diseases.
1. Apple rot disease. Check the main trunk, big branches, branches, cut saws and old scars of rot, and scrape off the rot in time. When scraping, the wound must be as deep as the xylem. After scraping the decayed lesions, cut the surrounding healthy skin 1cm wide, with the knife edge in order to facilitate healing. During the scraping process, the scraper should be brushed and disinfected with a fungicide to prevent human infection. After scraping, apply fungicides such as flusilazole, tebuconazole or thiophanate-methyl to the wound. For orchards with severe rot disease, repaint once every 7-10 days.
2. Apple ring disease. In the orchard where ring disease is found, use a scraper to scrape off the raised tumor-like lesions until healthy bark is visible. After scraping the wound, apply thiophanate-methyl, carbendazim, myclobutanil and other protective and therapeutic antiseptics plus mineral oil or gelatin and other auxiliary agents. The application should be even and thoughtful.
(4) Completely clear the garden. Thoroughly remove fallen leaves, dead branches, weeds, pruning waste, etc. in the garden. Special attention should be paid to taking the cut off pest branches, the lifted insect traps, the scraped old peels, various scars, and diseased tissues out of the orchard in time for centralized destruction. Before germination, 3-5 Baumedu Lithium Sulfur Mixture was sprayed throughout the garden.
(5) Prevention of physiological diseases. Zinc sulfate was applied to the diseased plants in orchards with severe lobule disease after germination to before flowering. After the flowers fall, spray amino acid chelated calcium on the leaves to prevent water heart disease and bitter acne, and increase the firmness of the fruit.
(6) Prevention of mildew heart disease. Polyoxin was sprayed once during the inflorescence separation period.
4. Flowering period management
(1) Place wall bees and bees in the orchard 2-3 days before flowering to promote pollination and fertilization. Artificial pollination should be carried out in the early flowering period, and the first batch of flowers is the best.
(2) Spray nutrient solution (0.3%urea + 0.5%boron + 0.5%sugar) during flowering to increase fruit setting rate.
5. Preventing freezing damage of fruit trees
(1) Suitable for planting on the site, establish shelterbelts, plan the orchard according to the variety divisions, and choose tree species and varieties with strong cold resistance when building the garden.
(2) Young trees are buried in the soil to prevent cold, which should be done after the fruit trees have fallen leaves and before the soil is frozen. Pile a cone-shaped mound around the roots of the tree, about 30 cm high and sturdy to prevent ventilation, and cover it with about 3 cm of dry fine soil to prevent evaporation of water.
(three) winter whitening or covering of tree trunks and winter cutting wound protection, winter whitening of fruit trees, can prevent the bark from freezing damage and”sunburn” phenomenon.
(4) Irrigate in early spring, irrigate the fruit 1-2 times after germination and before flowering, reduce the ground temperature, and postpone the flowering period of fruit trees by 2-3 days.
(5) Spray water and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer on the trees, and spray plant cell membrane stabilizing agents on the fruit trees in time before the frost to increase the antifreeze ability, or Spraying water on the fruit trees, because the water cools and releases its potential, and the flowers are protected from freezing damage.
(6) Fumigation to prevent frost damage during the flowering period, use piles of tobacco to prevent frost damage during the flowering period. Smoke can be produced from crop straws, weeds, fallen leaves, etc. that can produce a lot of smoke Flammable materials.
VI. Orchard environmental protection
Clean up pesticide bottles, agricultural film and other wastes in the park, and recycle them in a unified manner.
VII. Safe production
Use agricultural materials and operate agricultural machinery (farming tools) in accordance with specifications, and take personal protection to ensure production safety.