Do you understand GB 14881 Food? Experts explain terms and definitions
By: Date: 2021-03-01 Categories: chinesefood Tags: ,
   GB 14881-2013″National Food Safety Standard and General Hygiene Code for Food Production” was promulgated by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China on May 24, 2013 and officially implemented on June 1, 2014.
   This standard stipulates the basic requirements and management guidelines for places, facilities, and personnel in the procurement, processing, packaging, storage and transportation of raw materials in the food production process. It is one of the mandatory standards that various food production companies must comply with It is also one of the main basis for second-party, third-party and official review and supervision and inspection (for example:SC license, daily supervision and inspection).
   such an important standard, the general sanitary regulations for food production, do you really understand it?
  I am here today, combined with some of our daily experience in guiding business consulting services, to talk with you about the learning and understanding of this standard, and you are also welcome to leave an interactive message at the end of the article, let’s discuss it together. First communicate with the food people on the terms and definitions of the standard.
   There are 9 terms and definitions in this standard, which are:pollution, pests, food processing personnel, contact surfaces, separation, separation, food processing places, monitoring and work clothes. When we see these 9 terms and definitions, can we explain them clearly without looking at the standards as food people? If not, please read the relevant content of the following study, hoping to answer your questions; if you have any questions in the daily production process, you can discuss it with us.
  1. Pollution

  Standard original text
   The process of introducing biological, chemical, and physical pollution factors in the food production process.
  Terms Interpretation
   Pollution can occur in the whole process from food production to food consumption. In this standard,”pollution” is a concept of phased management, and its scope covers raw materials, food production period, storage period, etc. during production process control Pollution within the scope emphasizes the nature of the whole process of pollution. The difference between the concept of”pollution” in this standard and the concept of”pollution” in other standards.
  Personal understanding
   A full understanding of the concept of pollution is conducive to the full and effective analysis of food raw materials and food pollution, secondary pollution, microbial pollution, chemical pollution and physical pollution. The source of pollution can be identified, and a sufficient basis can be provided for the compilation of pollution control documents and the adoption of hardware measures to avoid pollution hazards. For example:analysis of physical pollution materials (for example:glass, wood, metal, etc.), potential hazards (for example:metal cutting to the human body) and their sources (for example:metal pollution sources, equipment and facilities, personnel brought in, etc.) , We can know why companies need to compile glass control procedures, wood product control procedures, metal detection control procedures, etc., and use magnetic rods, metal detectors, X-ray machines in the production process, instead of just staying In order to meet the requirements of the audit to do related matters.
  2. Insect pests

  Standard original text
   The adverse effects caused by insects, birds, rodents and other creatures (including flies, cockroaches, sparrows, mice, etc.).
  Terms Interpretation
  Insects such as mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, birds such as sparrows, rodents such as house mice, or their carcasses, fragments, and excreta will cause physical pollution, and the pathogens they carry can cause biological pollution and may spread Food-borne diseases, birds in a wide range of activities, or insects contaminated with chemicals may also cause chemical pollution.
  Personal understanding
   Pest management has become a relatively”headache” in the daily management and review of food production enterprises. Because each time the audit, especially the more important audit (for example:BRC audit, the audit of the second party international brand, etc.), basically will ask questions about pest management, which may be documents or on-site . The main reason for these problems is that the definition of pests is not fully understood. For example, there is a lack of a bird prevention and control plan in the pest management program (document problem), and several flying birds were found in the warehouse during the audit (field problem). We should understand what exactly are insects, birds, and rodents in the definition of pests? For example:common insects include:flies, cockroaches, ants, moths, mosquitoes, etc. Another example:an electric shock fly-killing lamp is found in the production area, and there may be a risk of secondary pollution to the product (on-site problem). We should understand the measures to control flies and whether the measures will create new food safety hazards. Therefore, we must not just stop at the established pest management documents, and there is also a shallow management awareness of pest control facilities on the spot, while ignoring the in-depth management awareness of the compliance, effectiveness, and systematicness of pest management. We can only do a good job in pest management when we manage pests from its deep level.
  3. Food processor

  Standard original text
   Operators who have direct contact with packaged or unpackaged food, food equipment and utensils, and food contact surfaces.
Interpretation of    terms
  Food processing personnel are the human factor in food production. It is the basis for the production to be carried out and the most important link in the whole process control. The health, hygiene and behavior of food processing personnel, especially the cleanliness of hands, Can have a significant impact on food safety.
  Personal understanding
   Most food people understand the definition of food processing personnel right and not, and regard the quality inspectors who enter the workshop and the production management personnel who are in the workshop all day as food processing personnel. The food processing personnel referred to in this standard refer to the front-line personnel in the workshop, such as:ingredients personnel, packaging personnel, cleaning tools and equipment personnel and other operators. At present, the personnel entering the workshop generally include internal personnel (corporate personnel) and external personnel (persons outside the enterprise). Internal personnel usually include quality management personnel, production management personnel, equipment maintenance personnel, food processing personnel, etc.; external personnel include customers People who temporarily enter the production workshop, such as official inspectors, external auditors, external equipment maintenance personnel, etc., are also called”visitors” (for example:BRC 7.3 medical examinations for guests to fill out a health questionnaire ). Through a full understanding of food processing personnel, it is conducive to better formulate sanitation management systems, food processing personnel health management and sanitation requirements and other documents, and have a clearer welcome in personnel sanitation management when responding to second- and third-party audits. Check ideas.
  4. Contact surface

  Standard original text
  The surface that can be touched by equipment, tools, human body, etc.

Interpretation of    terms
   The cleanliness of the surfaces directly or indirectly contacted by food processing personnel and food directly affects the sanitation status in the production and processing process, and also affects the shelf life and subsequent storage and transportation performance. Monitoring the contact surface is also one of the important methods to effectively supervise and verify the effectiveness of the production environment and production process control.
  Personal understanding
  In the process of producing and processing food, there are many food contact surfaces. According to the potential sources of food contamination and referring to the definition of 110.3 current good practices in the US FDA 21 CFR Part 110 (g. Food contact surface:Refers to the surfaces in contact with human food and the surfaces of equipment and tools that are in contact with food and are contaminated by contaminated water droplets during normal processing). Food contact surfaces are usually divided into:direct food contact and indirect food contact surface .
  Direct contact surface refers to the direct contact with the product, without intermediate contact. For example:stainless steel countertops, cutting knives, quick-freezing machine steel belts, plastic baskets for products, equipment conveyor belts, inner packaging materials, food processing personnel’s hands or gloves, work clothes (for example:sleeves, aprons, etc.) , Air, etc.;
  Indirect contact surface refers to the non-direct contact with the product, but through contact with the intermediate contact surface (for example:equipment switch, workshop door handle, wall, etc.) or without contact with the intermediate contact surface (for example:ceiling, lampshade, etc.) Product contact surface.
   Fully understand that the food contact surface is a precondition to prevent cross contamination. It is of great significance for the selection of contact surface material requirements, design and manufacturing requirements, cleaning requirements and hygiene requirements in terms of document formulation and on-site compliance inspection. For example:In the formulation of cleaning procedures, products with appropriate pH and reasonable solvent formulations should be selected according to the nature of the contact surface material (documentation); to avoid condensation of condensation water on the ceiling and lampshade above the product (non-conformance items often mentioned in on-site audits) .
  5. Separation and 6. Separation
  Standard original text
  Separation:Separation is achieved by leaving a certain space between items, facilities, and areas, rather than by setting up physical barriers.
  Separation:Isolate by setting up physical barriers such as walls, sanitary barriers, shields or independent rooms.
  Terms Interpretation
  5.1.1.3 Separation of food processing water pipeline;
  4.1.3 The general operation area should be separated from other operation areas;
  4.1.4 The inspection room set up in the factory building shall be separated from the production area;
  5.1.8.5 Separate cleaning agents, disinfectants, pesticides, lubricants, fuels, etc. from raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, packaging materials, etc.
  Personal understanding
  Separation is a non-physical isolation in order to meet the needs of facilitating production and distinguishing stored items without causing cross-contamination risks to the product;
  Separation is to clearly distinguish the two forms of physical blocking of production space and sufficient space to distinguish items, facilities, and areas in the food production workshop, mainly to prevent cross-contamination.
   A full understanding of separation and separation has a great guiding role in reviewing the compliance of plant design, and it is also an important knowledge point for assessing food safety administrators.
  Query food safety management question bank:
   According to the”National Food Safety Standard and General Hygiene Code for Food Production” (GB 14881-2013), separation refers to leaving a certain space between items, facilities, and areas, and does not need to be physically blocked. Isolation (wrong);
  The general work area should be separated from the cleaning work area (wrong);
  In order to facilitate the operation of personnel, the inspection room can be directly located in the production area without being partitioned (wrong);
  According to the”National Food Safety Standard and General Hygiene Code for Food Production” (GB 14881-2013), the detergents and disinfectants in the warehouse of food production enterprises should be placed separately from the raw materials and finished products.
  7. Food processing places
  Standard original text
  The buildings and sites used for food processing, as well as other buildings, sites and surrounding environments managed in the same way.
  Terms Interpretation
  Food processing places are the most basic conditions for food processing to be realized. This definition distinguishes the functions and functions of various buildings in the food factory and different areas within each building; clearly distinguishes the similarities and differences between the areas used for food processing and other areas, It is emphasized that there should be different management methods for buildings, sites and environments such as”buildings and sites used for food processing”.
  Personal understanding
   Food processing buildings and venues, usually including raw material processing workshops, production workshops, packaging workshops, etc.; other buildings and venues managed in the same way, this is usually based on the characteristics of the product and the company’s own conditions. Comprehensive determination can include raw material warehouse, auxiliary material warehouse, inner packaging warehouse, finished product warehouse, inspection room, etc. A full understanding of this definition can provide guidance for companies in formulating risk control areas. For example, the BRC requires the development of a factory map, which should include products (zones) at different pollution risk levels:high-risk areas, high-attention areas, normal-temperature high-attention areas, low-risk areas, enclosed product areas, and non-product areas.
  8. Monitoring
  Standard original text
   Observe or measure according to preset methods and parameters to assess whether the control link is in a controlled state.
  Terms Interpretation
  Clarify the concept and extension of monitoring to help each implementation level correctly understand and implement this standard; emphasize and remind food manufacturers to pay attention to the important role of monitoring in food safety.
  Personal understanding
  Monitoring is very important in the production process, but some small and medium-sized enterprises do not perform well in actual operation. The main reasons are:① The enterprise managers and on-site operators do not understand the monitoring objectives and related content, and the relevant monitoring points are missing in the production process. ②There are monitoring points, but the relevant records of monitoring are not filled in in practice, which cannot serve as supporting evidence for system improvement. ③Failure to correct, fail to analyze the root cause of deviation and formulate effective corrective measures. So how to do a good job of monitoring?
   First of all, it is necessary to understand the purpose of monitoring ①In order to adjust the deviation in time during the food processing process, so as to achieve its controllable state. For example:the operating limit set for the critical control point; ②When the critical control point deviates, find out the time and cause of the loss of control. For example:in the”Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System General Requirements for Food Production Enterprises” Clause 7.9 c) Correction records:description and reasons for deviations. ③ To improve and adjust the system, to form records. For example:Correction records:Correction measures taken and results.
  Secondly, it is necessary to be clear about the content of monitoring during the monitoring process ①The monitored object (for example:weight, metal fragments, temperature, pH, time, documents, etc.). ② Monitoring methods (for example:continuous inspection of the production process, timing recording, sampling inspection, viewing records, etc.;). ③ Frequency of monitoring (for example:continuous or non-continuous). ④ Monitoring personnel (for example:trained and qualified key position operators, supervisors, quality control personnel, etc.).
  Finally, you must know the main points of monitoring ① Determine the processes that need to be monitored in the production process, and conduct a sufficient hazard analysis on them, and select the appropriate monitoring objects, monitoring methods and monitoring frequencies. ②The operators of the monitoring process should be trained to ensure their ability to meet the requirements of monitoring operations. ③We must pay attention to deviations, find out the root causes, take effective corrective measures, and verify them. ④ Strengthen the daily supervision and inspection of monitoring points, especially the timeliness, accuracy and standardization of filling in relevant monitoring records.
  9. Work clothes

  Standard original text
   According to the requirements of different production areas, special clothing is equipped to reduce the risk of food contamination by food processing personnel.
  Terms Interpretation
   The work dress of the production line operators is generally different from that of other employees in the factory, such as equipment maintenance personnel, maintenance personnel, management personnel, quality inspectors, temporary visitors, etc., and production operators of different production forms and scales are generally different. The dress code is also different, emphasizing the difference between the dress code and dress management requirements of production line operators and other personnel, and better promote the distinction and management of work clothes in production enterprises.
  Personal understanding
  For the management of work clothes, it is stipulated in the four clauses 6.6.1-6.6.4 of this standard 6.6 (work clothes management); in the 8th edition of the BRC separate 7.4 (protective clothing:employees and guests going to the production area) The 6 clauses 7.4.1-7.4.6 stipulate and the national standards for the technical requirements for food workers’ overalls (GB/T 37850-2019) recommended for use from September 1, 2020. These regulations on work clothes standard formulation and management fully illustrate the importance of work clothes to food safety. In daily audits, in terms of work clothes management documents (for example, unreasonable formulation of work clothes management for cleaning areas and general work areas; failure to conduct microbiological testing on work clothes as required, etc.) and on-site management (for example:clean work area personnel’s work clothes are not suitable). Clean; it is found that individual employees wearing work clothes are working outside the workshop, etc.) the non-conformity issues that may be mentioned. The main reasons for this are as follows:① The business managers are not clear about the importance of work clothes management. ②The personnel training is not in place. ③Insufficient attention is paid to the ideological awareness of personnel, and management is not effectively implemented. So how to do a good job related to work clothes management?
  First of all, corporate managers must understand and master the relevant requirements of work clothes management, and formulate a compliant work clothes management system.
  Secondly, it is necessary to strengthen the training work related to work clothes, and make work clothes management a focus of daily management.
   Finally, the ideological awareness of business managers must be improved. When entering the workshop wearing work clothes, we must strictly follow the work clothes management regulations to play an exemplary role for ordinary employees.