China Turbot Industry Development Report
By: Date: 2021-03-10 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
   Introduction

   Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), English name Turbot, commonly known as European flounder, is called”Duobao fish” in China. In 1992, Academician Lei Jilin introduced this fine variety from the UK to my country for the first time, and led the research team through a series of experiments such as domestication, broodstock breeding, reproductive regulation, spawning and seedlings, and broke through the key technology of productive seedling in 1999. Starting from the second half of 1999, aquaculture practitioners in Laizhou City, Shandong Province gave full play to their geographical advantages and used deep-well sea water to adjust the temperature of turbot factory farming experiments, and achieved good breeding results. Academician Lei Jilin learned from the greenhouse model of planting industry and created a new model of factory farming of turbot”greenhouse + deep well seawater”. Subsequently, driven by factors such as breakthroughs in seedling technology, innovation in breeding models, excellent quality of varieties and good profitability, turbot aquaculture was promoted in Shandong Peninsula, Liaodong Peninsula and Bohai Bay, and to a certain extent Extending to Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian and other places, it quickly became the largest breeding species of flounder in my country, and it also promoted the development of the entire flounder industry. At present, turbot aquaculture has developed into one of the important industries in my country’s marine fish aquaculture industry. Its rapid development has not only created a large number of employment opportunities, but also promoted the increase in the income of coastal fishermen, and has broad development prospects.

  1. Current status of industrial development

   (1) Breeding situation

  1, scale layout

   (1) Farming mode and its regional distribution

  According to the survey data of the National Marine Fish Industry Technology System in 2019, turbot aquaculture models mainly include factory running water and factory circulating aquaculture, of which factory running water aquaculture Accounted for a larger proportion. The breeding areas are mainly distributed from north to south in Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Jiangsu. The specific areas with observations are Huludao Longgang District, Suizhong County, Xingcheng City, Gaizhou City, and Dalian Ganjingzi District in Liaoning Province , Lvshunkou District, Dalian, Wafangdian City, Hangu District of Tianjin, Shanhaiguan District, Changli County, Leting County, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, Laizhou City, Changyi City, Longkou City, Penglai City, Zhaoyuan City, Shandong Province, Rushan City, Fushan District of Yantai City, Haiyang City, Laiyang City, Wendeng District of Weihai City, Lanshan District and Development Zone of Rizhao City, etc. As of the end of 2019, the turbot farming area in the system demonstration area totaled 6.0652 million cubic meters, of which the industrialized flowing water farming area reached 5,993,700 cubic meters, accounting for 98.82%of the total farming area, and the factory-based circulating water farming area was 71,500 cubic meters.
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage
   In the entire demonstration area, Liaoning Province and Shandong Province, which have an absolute advantage in breeding area, account for 46.88%and 45.10%of the total turbot breeding area, respectively. Turbot farming in Liaoning is mainly concentrated in Xingcheng City (farming area is 2 million cubic meters) and Suizhong County (farming area is 700,000 cubic meters). The farming area in Xingcheng City accounts for 70.34%of the entire Liaoning Demonstration Zone; Shandong’s The breeding area of ​​turbot is distributed in several main breeding areas and counties along the coast. Among them, Laizhou has the largest proportion, reaching 1.52 million cubic meters, accounting for 56.12%of the entire Shandong demonstration area. There are a certain number of industrial circulating aquaculture models in Hebei and Shandong, but they only account for 1.18%of the total aquaculture area in all demonstration areas.

   Due to market sales, regional construction, and comprehensive management, the breeding area of ​​turbot in some areas has been greatly reduced in recent years. At the beginning of January 2019, in the main breeding areas such as Longkou, Haiyang, Laizhou, Shandong, due to environmental protection, urban construction and other factors, the turbot breeding sheds were removed one after another, and the breeding area was significantly reduced. In the third quarter of 2019, the aquaculture area in all demonstration areas decreased by 17.72%compared with the same period of the previous year. In fact, the most obvious decline was from the end of 2018 to the beginning of 2019, but due to the good market prospects, there was a rebound in the aquaculture area in the middle of 2019.

  (2) Turbot production volume

   As of the end of 2019, the output of turbot in the system demonstration area totaled 62,952.56 tons, of which the annual output of the factory-based flowing water aquaculture model was 62,411.49 tons, accounting for the total output 99.14%, the production of the factory recirculating aquaculture model is 541.07 tons, accounting for 0.86%of the total output; the largest output of turbot in Liaoning Province accounts for 67.13%of the total output, followed by Shandong Province, accounting for 26.42%of the total output .
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(1)< br/>
  (3) Changes in sales volume of turbot in the system demonstration area span>

The total sales volume of turbot in 2019 in the    system demonstration zone was 55,756.79 tons. Among them, the sales volume of turbot in Liaoning Province was the highest, accounting for 67.31%of the total sales of turbot in the demonstration area; turbot in Shandong Province accounted for 25.90%. Both Hebei and Shandong provinces have factory recirculating aquaculture. The total sales volume of turbot under this breeding mode is 421.96 tons, accounting for 0.76%of the total annual sales.
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   From the perspective of the quarterly sales of different breeding models, the sales of turbot using the factory-based flowing water breeding model showed an overall upward trend. From 2018 to the end of 2019, sales The level decreased to a certain extent in the third quarter of 2018, and gradually recovered in 2019, reaching 15,541.29 tons in the fourth quarter of 2019; the factory-based circulating aquaculture model has a small proportion, which is not compared with the factory-based running water aquaculture model. Obvious, but its sales fluctuations were also low in the second two quarters of 2018. After entering 2019, there was a significant rebound, and the third and fourth quarters fell back.

  (4) Turbot seedling breeding situation strong>

  According to the follow-up survey of the system demonstration area, the turbot nursery areas are mainly concentrated in Shandong and Tianjin, all of which are factory nursery. In 2019, the fry production area of ​​the Shandong system demonstration zone was 158,400 square meters, the annual output was 2007094 million, the annual sales volume was 182,789,400 fish, and the year-end stock was 66 million; the Tianjin system demonstration zone in 2019 had a fish fry production area of ​​6,300 square meters. The annual production and sales volume is 10.5 million, and there is no stock at the end of the year.

  2, industrial benefits

  (1) Economic benefits of turbot breeding

  According to the survey data, the two modes of factory-based flowing water and circulating aquaculture are integrated. The total unit cost of turbot aquaculture in 2019 is 38.81 yuan/kg, which is variable The cost is 26.73 yuan/kg, accounting for 68.88%of the total cost; the unit fixed cost is 12.08 yuan/kg, accounting for 31.12%of the total cost. Feed expenditure that accounts for the largest proportion of variable costs is 16.82 yuan/kg, accounting for 43.35%of the total cost, followed by electricity expenditure at 6.65 yuan/kg, accounting for 17.14%of the total cost, and seedling expenditure at 2.26 yuan/kg, accounting for 5.83%of the total cost. The larger proportion of fixed costs are fixed asset depreciation, fixed employee wages and land rent, which are 6.61 yuan/kg, 2.61 yuan/kg, 2.04 yuan/kg, respectively, accounting for 17.03%, 6.74%and 5.25%of the total cost. See Table 1-3 for details.
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  There are certain differences in the cost of different farming modes. Among them, the total unit cost of the factory-based flowing water aquaculture model is lower, at 37.86 yuan/kg, and the cost of the factory-based circulating aquaculture model is 46.32 yuan/kg. Among the variable costs, the two farming models have the highest feed expenditures, and the factory-based circulating aquaculture model has significantly higher electricity costs (see Table 1-4).
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   According to Table 1-5, the average sales price of finished fish in 2019 is 49.43 yuan/kg, and the net profit is 10.63. Yuan/kg, the cost profit rate is 27.39%, the sales profit rate is 21.50%, and the marginal contribution rate is 45.93%.
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  According to Table 1-6, it can be seen that the net profit of turbot’s industrial flowing water aquaculture is 11.42 yuan/kg, the cost profit rate is 30.16%, and the sales profit rate is 23.17%, with a marginal contribution rate of 48.64%. The net profit of the factory-based circulating aquaculture enterprise is 4.32 yuan/kg, the cost profit rate is 9.33%, the sales profit rate is 8.53%, and the marginal contribution rate is 24.86%. The net profit of factory-based flowing water farming is significantly higher than that of factory-based circulating water. This is mainly due to the high initial fixed asset investment required for the circulating aquaculture model and the high cost of electricity resource consumption. This is also the main factor that makes it difficult to promote circulating aquaculture.
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   (2) Uncertain analysis

  The break-even operation rate reflects the ratio of the industry’s break-even output to the actual sales output during the production cycle. The lower the ratio, the more beneficial the individual breeding. Integrating the factory-based running water and circulating water aquaculture model, the break-even operation rate of turbot aquaculture in 2019 was 53.19%(Table 1-7).
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(7)< br/>
   is divided into different modes, the break-even operation rate of factory-based flowing water and circulating water are 52.36%and 65.69%, respectively. At the same time, its safety margin is relatively low, so the risk of factory circulating water is relatively high (Table 1-8).
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   Table 1-9 is the sensitivity analysis of turbot, indicating the sensitivity coefficients of different influencing factors to net profit and the specific impact level of 10%as an example Change analysis. It can be seen from the table that the sensitivity coefficient of feed expenditure is -1.583, indicating that for every 1 percentage point increase in feed expenditure, the profit of the farmers decreases by 1.583 percentage points. The absolute value of feed in the sensitivity coefficients of various factors is the largest, indicating that while keeping other influencing factors unchanged, changes in feed expenditures cause the greatest changes in net profit; the next is electricity expenditures and fixed asset depreciation.
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(9)< br/>
   Table 1-10 is the sensitivity analysis of different breeding modes. In terms of the degree of influence, the sensitivity coefficient of feed expenditure is the lowest in the two modes of factory running water and factory circulating water. The sensitivity coefficient of feed expenditure of factory circulating water is relatively low. At the same time, it is more obvious that factory circulating water has a relatively low sensitivity coefficient. The sensitivity coefficient of electricity expenditure in the model reaches -3.416, indicating that the electricity expenditure of factory-based circulating water is more sensitive.
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(10)< br/>
  (3) Ecological and social benefits of turbot breeding

   Underground seawater is the main source of water for industrial turbot aquaculture. This mode consumes a lot of water resources. The areas around the Bohai Sea in Shandong and Liaoning provinces are the main producing areas for turbot. The water consumption of turbot aquaculture is 30 m3/kg and 17 m3/kg respectively. In 2018, the water consumption of turbot aquaculture in the two provinces was up to 8.29×108 cubic meters. In comparison, the more water-saving recirculating aquaculture model consumes only 0.6 cubic meters of water per kilogram of turbot. If all recirculating aquaculture is adopted, the total water consumption is 2.52×107 cubic meters. The water consumption of the former is the latter with the same output. 33 times.

   Based on the survey data of turbot in the national marine fish industry system, the SBM model and CCR model are used to measure the environmental efficiency and economics of China turbot industrial flowing water aquaculture. effectiveness. The study found that the environmental efficiency of turbot is 0.627, which is significantly lower than the economic efficiency of 0.827, and the environmental efficiency is more volatile. The farming efficiency of turbot is mainly affected by farming scale, farming cycle, feed coefficient and technical conditions. These factors have certain differences in the impact of economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. According to the analysis of environmental efficiency and economic efficiency, since the environmental efficiency of the vast majority of farmers is lower than 0.80, it is necessary to make major improvements in breeding technology to improve environmental efficiency. At the same time, it was found that for the farmer households with high economic efficiency in the industrialized flow-water aquaculture of turbot, the environmental efficiency of their breeding is also high; in addition, the analysis shows that the environmental efficiency of turbot breeding is highly volatile, and it is difficult for some farmers to control the breeding process. The impact of the environment in order to reach the frontier of environmental efficiency. Among the variables reflecting the production characteristics, the scale of breeding, the breeding cycle, and the price of compound feed are all significant in the model, which means that the expansion of the scale of breeding can significantly improve the environmental and economic efficiency of breeding, and the improvement of environmental efficiency is economic efficiency 2 Times. This shows that if my country’s turbot farming realizes centralized management and expands the scale of farming, it can improve the environmental and economic efficiency by increasing the scale efficiency; the analysis also found that the breeding cycle and the feed coefficient reduce the environmental efficiency of the farming.

   It needs to be pointed out that although the common turbot fish farming model has certain shortcomings, it is undeniable that the farming model is more for farmers It is easy to learn and accept, and solves the employment and livelihood problems of a large number of coastal people, which also brings the rapid development of the entire industry. As a continuous problem in development, we need to face up to the existing shortcomings and study solutions. Green development is a trend of concern for many industries, including aquaculture. After these years of ecological breeding concept transmission and the development and improvement of related technical equipment, farmers and consumers are paying more and more attention to environmental and ecological issues. The social environment for the green development of the flounder breeding industry is gradually improving.

   (2) Turbot processing and trade situation

  1, processing condition of turbot

The main form of circulation and consumption of    turbot in the domestic market is fresh and live fish. There are very few rough processed frozen varieties, and the market circulation ratio is extremely low. With the improvement of economic level and consumption level and the change of population structure, the consumption mode of turbot is gradually shifting from hotel consumption to household consumption, and the product form is changing from traditional consumption of 0.5-0.75kg/tail live fish to live fish and processed products. The coexistence of (division, freezing) has changed. The rapid development of the cold chain logistics industry has also promoted the circulation and consumption of turbot processed products. At present, the processing of turbot is still dominated by rough processing. The main processed product circulating in the market is”Sande” frozen strip fish. The brand-led”Sande” frozen turbot gift box is available in Jingdong Fresh and Tmall. All flagship stores have sales, but due to the impact of raw material prices, consumption concepts, and packaging styles, mass production has not yet formed. The second type of processing is fish fillets or fish pieces, which are usually divided and sold in the hotel in a fresh way to meet the needs of diversified cooking such as braised, smoked, pan-fried, barbecue, and hot pot.

   The high-value utilization of turbot is very low. The fish skin, fins, and bones left over from the processed fish are used to extract effective substances, which is convenient for food processing and functional food processing. Turbot has rich nutritional value, and it is necessary to increase research on its high-value utilization of chondroitin sulfate and collagen to improve its economic value in order to extend the turbot industrial chain.

  2, global turbot product trade strong>

  (1) Overall size

   The scale of global turbot import and export trade has been relatively stable in the past five years. The annual total import and export trade volume is 29-34 thousand tons, with a total value of 235-298 million US dollars. Among them, the global turbot trade volume reached 290 million US dollars in 2018, an increase of 11.66%year-on-year. The import and export trade of turbot is concentrated in Europe. The top three in total import and export trade in the world are Spain, the Netherlands and Portugal. China’s participation is relatively low. The main product form of turbot international trade is”chilled turbot”, accounting for 87.8%; followed by”frozen turbot”, accounting for 11.9%; fish fillet accounted for 0.3%.

  (2) Import trade

   In 2018, global turbot imports were US$125 million, a year-on-year increase of 9.9%, of which “chilled turbot” accounted for 95%. The traditional consumption area of ​​turbot is Europe. This area does not sell fresh turbot, but sells chilled products according to different specifications after professional slaughter and processing. This kind of processed products can be sold in any form, and there are no minimum specifications or minimum price restrictions. The larger the specifications and the darker the back color, the higher the price of turbot. The top five import countries are Spain, Italy, France, Portugal and Germany, with imports accounting for 30.5%, 18.2%, 10.8%, 7.6%and 6.5%respectively. In 2018, the average import price of turbot was 11.3 US dollars/kg, a year-on-year increase of 16.6%.

  (3) Export trade

   In 2018, the global export volume of turbot was US$164 million, a year-on-year increase of 13.6%, of which “iced turbot” accounted for 81.8%. The main supply area of ​​turbot in the world is European countries. The top five export countries are Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Canada and France, with exports accounting for 32.8%, 17%, 15.8%, 12.9%and 4.5%respectively. In 2018, the export price of turbot increased by 11.7%. The average export price of”Chilled Turbot” rose from US$10.3/kg in 2017 to US$11.7/kg, and the average export price of”Frozen Turbot” rose from US$4.1. /kg rose to 4.4 US dollars/kg.

  3. my country’s turbot import and export situation

   (1) Overall import and export scale

   my country’s turbot has a low foreign trade activity and has not yet formed a scale advantage. Only a small amount of frozen turbot is exported to Taiwan Province of China and Malaysia, basically showing a surplus. In 2018, my country’s turbot import and export trade totaled US$1.066 million, with a surplus of US$1.065 million; among them, the export volume was 73.6 tons and the export value was US$1.066 million; the import volume was 0.4 tons and the import value was US$0.08 million. Turbot is not the dominant species in my country’s foreign trade of flounder, and its share of flounder is only 0.09%.

  (2) Import trade< /div>


   my country’s turbot has been imported in a small amount since 2012, the import volume is small and the annual change is large, and even some years such as 2016 and 2017 are zero imports. From 2012 to 2018, the average annual import volume was 10.2 tons, and the average annual import value was 75,600 US dollars. The source of imports is not fixed, mainly from the Netherlands, Taiwan Province of China and the United States, as well as Mauritania, Madagascar, Russia and Hong Kong.

   my country’s imported turbot product has a single form, which is”frozen turbot”. The import provinces are not fixed each year. Fujian, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang and Tianjin all have import records.

  (3) Export trade

   my country’s turbot has been exported since 2013, and the export trade is higher than the import, but the annual fluctuations are large. In 2014, the export volume reached a peak of 322.7 tons and US$3.765 million, and reached a trough (8.4 tons) in 2015. The average annual export volume in the past six years was about 92 tons, and the average annual export value was about 920,000 US dollars.

   my country’s export of turbot products is in a single form, called”frozen turbot,” and they are all exported in the form of general trade. The export market is single and fluctuating. Before 2016, Malaysia and Russia were the mainstays. In the past two years, it has shifted to Hong Kong, China and Taiwan Province of China. Liaoning and Fujian are two important provinces for my country’s turbot exports. In 2018, Fujian’s exports accounted for 95%and Liaoning’s 5%.

   (3) Market and consumption situation

  1, price changes

   From 2018 to the end of 2019, the sales price of turbot in the main demonstration areas showed an overall upward trend in each quarter. It can be seen from Figure 1-2 that from the second quarter of 2018 to the end of 2018, the price of turbot has not changed much, and the price of turbot above 1 kg is basically 42-44 yuan/kg. In 2019, turbot prices began to rise and reached a peak in the second quarter. This change is most obvious in Laizhou, Shandong. The price of turbot (above 1 kg) in Changyi, Rushan, Longkou and Laizhou can reach 62-66 yuan/kg.
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(11)< br/>
   From a long-term perspective, the price of turbot has relatively large fluctuations (Figure 1-3). Take the Huludao turbot (exceeding standard fish above 0.65 kg) as an example, its out-of-pool price reached 87 yuan/kg at its highest in 2012; it dropped to 24 yuan/kg in 2016. In addition to the impact of negative reports and other factors, this fluctuation is generally determined by the relationship between supply and demand; with the improvement of industrial organization and the improvement of coordinated development, the price of the pool has rebounded in 2017 and 2018, and the overall price in 2018 Stable at around 45-56 yuan/kg, and further rebound in 2019, roughly at 50-68 yuan/kg.
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(12)< br/>
  2, market consumption willingness and trend analysis

   Among the entire flounder products, turbot has a relatively high degree of market recognition and acceptance across the country. The main areas of consumption are Beijing, Shanghai, First-tier cities such as Guangzhou and coastal provinces such as Liaoning, Shandong, Jilin, Zhejiang and Jiangsu. At the beginning of the 21st century, the consumption of this variety showed typical characteristics of separation of production and sales, that is, the main production area is in the coastal area of ​​the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, but it is mainly consumed in large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. After 2010, due to its delicious meat, better cooking taste, gradual increase in consumer consumption, and gradual decline in product prices, it has increasingly become an important dish for aquatic product consumption in restaurants. It has not only won consumers’ favor in large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Accepted, it has been gradually promoted in provincial capitals such as Chengdu, Zhengzhou and even Urumqi, and consumption in production areas has gradually risen. It is worth noting that in recent years, consumption in the mainland market, including second- and third-tier cities, has gradually increased.

   Generally speaking, the penetration rate of turbot in the Chinese market is constantly increasing. The performance is as follows:First, in the terminal market, the high-end marine products consumed in restaurants have been transformed into household consumption products acceptable to ordinary consumers. In fact, in addition to restaurant consumption, turbot began to be sold in agricultural product retail markets in developed coastal areas such as Shanghai around 2010, and household consumption has gradually developed. Second, sales channels have gradually increased, starting from traditional restaurants, hotels, and restaurants. Agricultural (aquatic) product trading market to supermarket hypermarkets and e-commerce platforms in recent years. As far as its online sales are concerned, only a few top companies were involved at the earliest. By the end of 2019, turbot could be purchased from online channels such as JD.com, Taobao, Tmall and Dingdong. Gradually improve.

  2

  Market consumption willingness and trend analysis

   Among the entire flounder products, turbot has a relatively high degree of market recognition and acceptance across the country. The main areas of consumption are Beijing, Shanghai, First-tier cities such as Guangzhou and coastal provinces such as Liaoning, Shandong, Jilin, Zhejiang and Jiangsu. At the beginning of the 21st century, the consumption of this variety showed typical characteristics of separation of production and sales, that is, the main production area is in the coastal area of ​​the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, but it is mainly consumed in large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. After 2010, due to its delicious meat, better cooking taste, gradual increase in consumer consumption, and gradual decline in product prices, it has increasingly become an important dish for aquatic product consumption in restaurants. It has not only won consumers’ favor in large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Accepted, it has been gradually promoted in provincial capitals such as Chengdu, Zhengzhou and even Urumqi, and consumption in production areas has gradually risen. It is worth noting that in recent years, consumption in the mainland market, including second- and third-tier cities, has gradually increased.

   Generally speaking, the penetration rate of turbot in the Chinese market is constantly increasing. The performance is as follows:First, in the terminal market, the high-end marine products consumed in restaurants have been transformed into household consumption products acceptable to ordinary consumers. In fact, in addition to restaurant consumption, turbot began to be sold in agricultural product retail markets in developed coastal areas such as Shanghai around 2010, and household consumption has gradually developed. Second, sales channels have gradually increased, starting from traditional restaurants, hotels, and restaurants. Agricultural (aquatic) product trading market to supermarket hypermarkets and e-commerce platforms in recent years. As far as its online sales are concerned, only a few top companies were involved at the earliest. By the end of 2019, turbot could be purchased from online channels such as JD.com, Taobao, Tmall and Dingdong. Gradually improve.

  (1) consumer preference

   A total of 824 valid questionnaires were collected through consumer surveys in Guangzhou, Zhengzhou and Chengdu, three representative cities along the coast, central and western my country. Among them, 77.91%of the respondents knew about turbot (or turbot), 61.29%of the respondents had bought or eaten turbot, 50.5%of consumers thought the price was more appropriate, 21.98%Of consumers think that the price is too high, and 1.39%of consumers think the price is too low.

  According to the survey results, the consumption of turbot products in my country highlights the following characteristics:

  First, consumers have a higher overall recognition of turbot.

   Among consumers who have consumed turbot, 71.28%of consumers chose “agree” or “very much” in”I like the taste of turbot.” Agree”; 65.74%of consumers think that turbot is easy to cook; 49.71%of consumers who think turbot is a safe food for the same option, 54%of consumers believe that turbot products are easy to buy”If you add the proportion of consumers who choose”average”, the answers to the above questions will all reach more than 80%. Relatively speaking, the proportion of consumers’ approval in cooking methods and price reasonableness is slightly lower, which is related to the matching degree between the listed specifications and household consumption. At present, the market volume of turbot is generally 0.5kg/tail and above. The common cooking method is often whole steaming, usually without dividing, so there are requirements for the capacity of the cooking container, which will also cause consumers to feel that the cooking method Single; in terms of price, traditional freshwater fish consumers may feel that the price of turbot is not very advantageous.
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   Second, the consumption of turbot is dominated by fresh consumption.

   At present, the processing and consumption market of turbot has not been effectively developed, and the circulation and consumption are mainly fresh fish. It is worth noting that according to the results of a sample survey of all fish products, when answering the question”Which type of fish do you often consume”, the proportion of live fish is the highest, and the number of people who choose to buy live fish frequently accounts for 68.32%, which shows that Most consumers pay more attention to the freshness of aquatic products. The consumers who often buy”marinated fish” are the least. It is worth noting that the proportion of consumers who often buy”chilled fresh” forms has accounted for 27.68%, which means that many consumers have begun to accept this form of fish products. In general, the processing and consumption of fish products in my country needs to be further expanded.
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   Third, in terms of choice of consumption places, home consumption has grown rapidly.

  In 2010, this industry system survey showed that household consumption was very small, and it was mainly in the core areas of mega cities. However, the survey in 2019 shows (see Figure 1-6) that there is already a certain percentage of consumers who choose”frequently” and”usually” to consume turbot at home. Among them, more consumers choose the vegetable market to buy home cooking. The number of people accounted for 40.79%of the total number of people surveyed, followed by purchases in aquatic product markets and supermarkets. Of course, as 10 years ago, high-end hotels and small and medium-sized restaurants are still the main places to consume turbot, but the rising trend of the proportion of home consumption is very strong and it is worthy of the industry’s attention. With the development of fresh food e-commerce and cold chain logistics, it is believed that the proportion of home consumption will continue to increase.
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   Fourth, consumers are highly concerned about the safety, nutrition and freshness of turbot products.

  In recent years, with the improvement of people’s civilization and living standards, the attention to food safety has also increased, and many consumers not only care about product quality , And also have a certain degree of attention to the production process of the product. In the survey, for the information on the breeding process, the respondents indicated that the proportions of”important” and”very important” were both above 80%, and even the above-mentioned choices regarding the two aspects of”clean water quality” and”no medicine required for the breeding process” The proportion of people has reached more than 90%.
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   In terms of willingness to pay, it can be seen from Figure 1-8 that among the 17 product features involved, the price ranks 12th, indicating the price It is no longer the main factor that consumers consider when making purchase decisions. Consumers’ priorities are:product appearance and freshness, product safety, taste and nutritional value, which shows that consumers’ demand for products has changed from Quantity turns into quality demand. Because the quality of aquatic products is difficult to judge from the surface, and many fresh products invest little in branding, packaging and advertising, consumers can only rely on traditional cognition (such as the nutritional value and taste of the entire category, fresh appearance) Factors such as degree, place of origin, etc.).
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  In the statistics of product attributes that affect consumers to pay higher prices, according to the ranking results of the proportion of consumers’ choices, products with good taste, green products, international quality and safety Certified products and organic products rank in the top four. 86.16%of consumers are willing to pay higher prices for products that taste good, and 85.32%of consumers are willing to pay higher prices for green products. It is worth noting that when consumers are unable to determine the quality of fish and other aquatic products, they may rely more on some official or relatively recognized certificates, such as various domestic and foreign quality certifications, well-known origins (often with geographical indications), Well-known brands, etc.
China Turbot Industry Development Reportimage(18)
  由于消费者对于知名品牌的信任,受访者中尽管只有19.3%的人知道“兴城多宝鱼”的品牌,但仍有39.2%受访者选择了今后“愿意购买兴城多宝鱼”,并且有相当一部分消费者表示愿意付出一定的溢价来购买知名品牌的大菱鲆产品(表1-11)。

  第五,内陆区域知晓度明显低于沿海大城市。

  在调研的三个城市中,广州既是超大城市又是沿海城市,也是多年来大菱鲆产品的主要消费和集散地,在受访者中对大菱鲆的知晓比例达到90.71%,而成都和郑州的受访者知道大菱鲆的比例分别为70.39%和60.58%。

  (2)消费趋势 :安全、绿色、新鲜、美味

  近几年来,食品安全问题已经逐渐成为社会热点问题,消费者对食品安全的关注度也越来越高,加之2020年初新冠疫情的影响,消费者对食品安全问题愈发重视。根据对消费者的调查可以发现,消费者对水产品安全性的关注度越来越高,产品的绿色环保程度将会越来越受到关注。随着绿色生产与消费的理念的不断宣贯,对绿色环保型的产品消费会逐步增加。调查结果还表明,家庭收入越高,消费者对于安全水产品的支付意愿也在提高;家里如果有未成年小孩,消费者就越重视食品的安全性;消费者的年龄越大,对水产品的质量安全越为关注。总之,消费者不仅关注消费环节的安全性,同时也关注生产环节的安全性。随着消费者收入水平的提高、老龄化社会的到来以及广大居民对生活质量提升的热切追求,对产品安全的要求会进一步提高。

  另外,消费者非常注重水产品的口感,对高品质的鱼产品愿意支付更高的价格。消费者最为关注的属性中除了绿色安全,还有新鲜度、味道口感、营养价值等,价格已经退居次要。值得关注的是,由于生活水平的提高,消费者更加关注从食品中获得营养、健康和享受,愿意在原有价格上,为高品质的水产品付出额外价格。水产品供给方在提供产品时应当考虑到消费者的主要关注点,提供满足消费需求的商品。

  二、技术研发进展

  (一)年度技术进展

  1、大菱鲆弧菌病疫苗获新兽药审批,产业化应用不断推进

  在成功研制出大菱鲆爱德华氏菌腹水病疫苗并获批国家I类新兽药注册证的基础上,2019年,大菱鲆弧菌病基因工程活疫苗(MVAV6203株)新兽药注册申报通过农业农村部复核检验,获批国家I类新兽药证书;起草制订了《鲆鲽弧菌病和腹水病疫苗联合生产免疫接种操作规程(草案)》并在辽宁、山东、河北、天津等大菱鲆主产区实施了30万尾份大菱鲆弧菌病疫苗和腹水病疫苗生产应用及5万尾份联合接种示范,有效降低了抗生素等化学药物使用量,目标病害发生率降低40%以上。

  2、大菱鲆工厂化循环水养殖智能化、集约化水平再上台阶

  集成开发了工厂化循环水SCADA物联网云平台系统,实现了溶解氧、pH、ORP、温度等关键水质指标在线监测和溶解氧自动调控,氧气的使用量较物联网系统应用前节约了15%以上,初步实现了海水鱼养殖车间的数字化管理;开展了铁锰离子对生物滤器挂膜和运行效率影响研究,明确了低促高抑的环境效应和临界值,并从生物膜化学组分和微生物群落结构方面解析了效应机理。针对养殖水体营养盐去除效率低,氮物质净化不彻底问题,采用共混改性法制作一种PVA-PVP共混填料,氨氮和硝氮的平均去除率与常规聚乙烯填料相比提高了40.6%和53.5%,填料表面功能性细菌比例显著提高;研发建立了一套养殖尾水处理工艺技术,SS处理效率40-60%、TAN去除率71%、COD去除率40%、BOD5去除率45%-65%。

  3、构建产品质量安全保障技术体系,推动大菱鲆养殖提质增效

  完成了胶体金免疫层析检测大菱鲆样品中蛋白质、镁离子等主要基质干扰组分的识别、判断,并探索了基质干扰源Mg2+的干扰机理,集成形成一套现场快速检测装置,该快速检测技术不需要任何仪器设备,可以在15分钟内完成对药物的检测,具备在体系各试验站、养殖基地的推广应用条件;建立大菱鲆二维码溯源体系,实现了“一鱼一码一标”,打通养殖、流通、消费各环节,实现了从渔场到餐桌,一扫即现,全程了然;在兴城、葫芦岛等地集成应用相关技术打造大菱鲆品牌产品,真正实现了大菱鲆产品“来源可追溯、去向可查证、责任可追究”。针对牙鲆,大菱鲆,半滑舌鳎等鲆鲽类,全面开展营养特征及分布特点的分析测定,比较常见鲆鲽类的营养、风味等质量指标,研究如何有效鉴别产品来源、物种真实性、品质与产地或养殖模式的相关性,建立鲆鲽类营养特征的基础数据库。

  (二)主要推荐模式

  1、大菱鲆工厂化循环水养殖模式

  围绕大菱鲆养殖产业绿色发展和提质增效两大产业需求,建立以循环水系统为硬件基础,以“三段精养法”为主要管理策略的工厂化循环水健康养殖模式,并获国家发明专利授权(ZL 201711454033.3)。 “三段精养法”优化整合了优质苗种筛选、专用配合饲料、精准投喂、特定病原快速监测以及生产管理策略等核心工艺技术,实现饲料系数低于0.9,N、P和COD排放量下降40%,养殖成本降低20%。明确了体重在180g-550g的大菱鲆应对循环水养殖系统中养殖密度胁迫的生理生态学响应特征,分析了拥挤胁迫对RAS中大菱鲆生长和福利影响,明确了体重550g左右的大菱鲆在循环水系统中无福利胁迫养殖密度为50kg/平方米,为后续循环水系统大菱鲆精准化养殖提供了基础数据。

  2、大菱鲆“陆海接力”“南北接力”养殖模式

  大菱鲆“陆海接力”养殖是指将陆基工厂化车间培育的苗种在自然海区水温适宜时转移到北方或南方海上网箱养殖的一种节能高效养殖模式。其中,转移到南方网箱养殖的又称为“南北接力”。该模式集成了海水工厂化和网箱养殖的各自优势,具有养殖周期短、养殖成本低、鱼类品质优等特点。其主要技术要点如下:

  (1)网箱养殖海区条件与水温:宜选择风浪较小、周边无污染源和大量淡水注入、不受赤潮和绿潮影响的海域,水深10m以上,采用浮式网箱养殖时,海区流速宜小于0.5m/s。海区水温依据养殖对象适宜生长的水温确定,一般大菱鲆10℃-21℃,褐牙鲆12℃~26℃。

  (2)养殖网箱:网箱宜采用HDPE方形、圆形或钢结构方形框架的抗风浪网箱,网衣水下深度2.5-5m。针对大菱鲆的栖底习性,需在箱体底部设置具有一定刚性的底框架,并用绳索撑平,同时在网底敷设纤细小网目无结网衣,以为大菱鲆提供较为稳定的栖息平台。风浪、流速较大的海区不易采用浮式网箱,此时可选用沉箱或升降式网箱。

  (3)苗种规格与放养密度:投放到海上网箱养殖的大菱鲆鱼苗规格以50g以上为宜,规格较小的鱼苗抗逆性差,成活率低。放养密度一般为20尾/平方米-30尾/平方米。

  (4)鱼苗转运:短途转运可采用塑料袋充氧运输,长途转运宜采用活鱼车、船在低温、充氧条件下运输。长途转运鱼苗抵达目的地后,需用自然海水缓慢升温,接近自然水温1-2℃时卸鱼,按75kg/平方米用活水船运至网箱。

  三、问题及政策建议

  (一)存在的问题

  1、生产方面的问题

  第一,养殖技术仍需进一步提升。近一年内大菱鲆的养殖面积和产量有一定程度的缩减。土地及海水资源等约束越来越紧的大趋势下,靠扩展养殖面积来提升产量,从而来满足逐步扩大的市场需求已显然不现实。大部分养殖生产者与目前技术前沿还有较大差距,通过提升技术而增加产出还有很大空间。部分养殖者的产品成活率、固定资产利用率还有待提高,饲料投入中鲜杂饵料占比还比较高。

  第二,稳定价格难度还较大,品牌效应还不明显。 2019年大菱鲆的总体售价有所提升,但长期看价格波动幅度很大。优质优价尚未能够得到很好体现。要实现整个产业的长期稳定发展,在价格调控与品牌建设方面还需要下大力气。

  第三,工厂化循环水养殖模式占比低。大菱鲆养殖模式主要为工厂化流水养殖,此模式对地下海水的需求量较高,深井海水不能得到循环利用,不利于产业可持续发展。

  第四,疫苗等病害防控新技术推广率还比较低。 2019年已将30万尾份大菱鲆弧菌病疫苗和腹水病疫苗在生产中加以应用并进行了5万尾份联合接种示范,但与苗种投入量相比,显然占比极低。

  2、加工业存在的问题

  目前大菱鲆在国内市场的销售产品主要为鲜活品,加工消费非常滞后。这种消费方式对物流要求较高,不适于小规模家庭消费,在很大程度上限制了产品市场的拓展。随着线上电商与冷链物流的发展,出现了“三去”冻整条鱼的粗加工品的产品形态,但占比很小。

  3、市场方面的问题

  (1)国内市场需要进一步开发。大菱鲆的市场认知度近年来在缓慢增加,但接受度和忠诚度还较低。此外,广大的内地市场尚需开发。

  (2)国际市场参与度低。 2017年全球大菱鲆产量6.39万吨。其中我国是最大的生产国,占71%。但我国养殖的大菱鲆仅0.09%参与国际贸易。这不利于大菱鲆价格稳定,不利于产业的可持续发展。与此形成对比的是,在欧洲主产区,其大菱鲆80%参与国际贸易,市场多样化且结构稳定,保证了大菱鲆产业健康有序发展。

  (二)对策建议

  针对产业发展中存在的上述问题,提出如下对策建议:

  1、多方协同,提高养殖成活率

  建议从育苗抓起,加强对苗种生产者的资质规范管理,并强化苗种生产、销售环节的监督检查,加大对优质苗种的推介力度。同时建议进一步加大疫苗研发与推广力度,满足生产者的病害防控需求。

  2、多管齐下,提高养殖经济效益

  一是加大优质国产全价配方饲料研发与推广力度,尽早禁绝冰鲜饵料投喂。二是加强茬口管理、品种搭配,完善合作社(协会)内部合作机制,优化厂房设备等固定资产规模结构与利用率,提升规模效率。三是强化产业组织建设,加强产品生产与平抑价格波动的能力。

  3、行政与市场机制相结合,继续推进向工厂化循环水养殖转型

  大菱鲆工厂化循环水的养殖成本仍然相对较高,但这种模式产品质量更优,生态压力更小,更符合绿色发展的要求。其养殖成本相对较高,在一定程度上是因其将外部成本内部化,承当了相应的环保责任所致。为促进产业从流水养殖向循环水养殖转型,建议继续优化惠农(渔)资金使用方向,加大工厂化循环水养殖补贴支持力度,将循环水养殖设施设备补贴纳入农机补贴范畴,同时结合环保政策,严格执行养殖尾水治理达标排放政策,逐步淘汰落后产能。

  4、树品牌营销理念,延展产业链,加大市场开发

  一是加强品牌打造。前面已阐明,消费者对于质量较高的水产品更愿意付出较高的价格,更愿意购买优质品牌的产品。建议通过养殖生产者筹资为主,当地政府引导资金投入为辅,协会组织实施的方式,以提升产品国内外市场竞争力为目标,加大无公害水产品认证、原产地标识认证及区域品牌建设的力度,力争打造区域知名品牌。

  二是延展产业链,加大国内市场开发。建议生产、加工与流通互动,调整养殖周期与上市规格,在稳定鲜活消费市场的同时,逐步拓展加工消费市场。建议针对超大城市重点开发适于小规模家庭消费、便于网络销售的粗加工产品;同时重视加大内陆地区鲜活产品的家庭消费市场开发。

  三是高度关注新冠疫情的长期相关影响,推进流通渠道现代化、智能化改造。近年来起步线上生鲜消费在疫情期间已经得到进一步提升,一些消费者线上购买习惯将会得以固化。而且随着大数据、人工智能、物联网的发展和年轻一代消费者的成长,即便疫情过后,水产品的线上交易将会得到更多关注。建议一方面加强水产品批发市场、商超等传统购销渠道的现代化改造与线上电商的整合,另一方面积极开发网络销售渠道,加强基地直达配送、社区支持农场等新的流通渠道建设。

  5、实施多元化战略,拓展国内国际两个市场

  建议以提升国产大菱鲆的国际国内两个市场竞争力为目标,探索建立地方政府、大菱鲆行业协会和龙头企业三位一体的大菱鲆营销宣传机制。在国际市场培育方面,建议选择欧洲、日韩等几个重点市场,由大菱鲆行业协会主要负责组织大菱鲆国际市场的营销宣传和推广,并负责组织龙头企业共同参与。在国内市场开拓方面,建议生产者重视区域饮食文化差异以及消费层次的多样化而带来的差异化需求,重视随着消费者收入的增长、绿色消费理念的强化而带来的对高品质水产品的旺盛需求,在提供差异化产品的同时,着重提升产品品质。