Li Jiayang, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a researcher at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, proposed for the first time a new strategy for the rapid de novo domestication of allotetraploid wild rice. Finally, a new type of polyploid rice crop will be cultivated, which will greatly increase food production and increase the adaptability of crops to environmental changes. The research puts forward a new feasible strategy to deal with the future food crisis and opens up a new direction of crop breeding, which is a major progress in this field. In the future, the successful cultivation of new tetraploid rice crops is expected to have a significant impact on world food production.
With the rapid growth of the world’s population, by 2050, grain production will need to increase by another 50%to fully meet demand. How to further increase crop yields is an urgent solution In recent years, the intensified world climate change, global warming, and frequent extreme weather have brought challenges to food security. Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world, providing staple food for many people. Although my country has made brilliant achievements in rice breeding, there is still an urgent need for new strategies to meet future food challenges.
The current cultivated rice is derived from the ancestral diploid wild rice after a long period of artificial domestication. The domestication process has improved important agronomic traits while creating genetic diversity The loss. In addition to the diploid cultivated rice, there are 25 other wild plants in the Oryza genus, which can be divided into 11 types according to their genome characteristics, including 6 types of diploid genomes and 5 types of tetraploid genomes. Among them, allotetraploid wild rice has the advantages of large biomass, self-contained hybrids, and strong environmental adaptability, but it also has non-domesticated characteristics and cannot be used for agricultural production.
In order to solve the problem of creating new polyploid rice crops, Li Jiayang’s team first proposed a new strategy for rapid re-domestication of allotetraploid wild rice, which was divided into” Four stages”:The first stage is to collect and screen allotetraploid wild rice chassis germplasm resources with the best comprehensive traits; the second stage is to establish a rapid de novo domestication technology system for wild rice, which includes three core points, namely High-quality reference genome mapping and gene function annotation, high-efficiency genetic transformation system, high-efficiency genome editing technology system; the third stage is variety molecular design and rapid domestication, including important agronomic traits gene annotation and genomic information-based variety molecular design, important agronomy Functional verification of trait genes, multi-gene editing and aggregation, and field comprehensive trait evaluation; the fourth stage is the promotion and application of new rice crops.
Using the above strategy as a blueprint, the research team and collaborators screened the resources of CCDD-type allotetraploid wild rice with large biomass and strong stress resistance , Selected a high-stalk wild rice resource as the basis for subsequent research, and named it PolyPloid Rice 1 (PPR1). Researchers have solved technical problems such as a polyploid rice tissue culture regeneration and genetic transformation system, an efficient and accurate genome editing technology system, and a high-quality tetraploid wild rice reference genome. On this basis, the domestication genes and agronomic trait genes were further annotated, their homology was systematically analyzed, and the same in PPR1 for controlling shattering, awn length, plant height, grain length, stem thickness and growth period The source genes have been genome edited, and various gene editing materials with reduced shattering, shorter awn length, lower plant height, longer grain length, thicker stalks, and shortened heading time have been created. The research results prove that the strategy of rapid de novo domestication of allotetraploid wild rice proposed by the team is feasible, which is of great significance to the creation and cultivation of new crop species in the future to ensure food security.
On February 4, the related research results were titled A route to de novo domestication of wild allotetraploid rice (DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.013) , Published in”Cell”. Li Jiayang Research Group Associate Researcher Yu Hong, Postdoctoral Researcher Lin Tao, Senior Engineer Meng Xiangbing, Doctoral Candidate Zhang Jingkun, Researcher of the Institute of Genetics and Development Researcher Liang Chengzhi Du Huilong, Ph.D. of the research group is the co-first author of the paper, Yu Hong, Liang Chengzhi, Researcher Gao of the Institute of Genetics and Development Caixia and Li Jiayang are the co-corresponding authors of the paper. Researcher Cheng Zhukuan, Chen Mingsheng, Tian Zhixi, Wang Yonghong, Chu Chengcai, Zuo Jianru, Professor Liu Xiangdong, South China Agricultural University, Fan Zhilan, Researcher of Rice Research Institute of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Liang Yuntao, Researcher of Rice Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China Agriculture Researcher Wan Jianmin of the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qian Qian, researcher of the Chinese National Rice Research Institute, Han Bin, researcher of the Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Science (Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ph.D. Andrea Zuccolo and Professor Rod A from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology . Wing participated in the research. The research work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Strategic Leading Science and Technology Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Key R&D Program and the genetically modified project.
The rapid de novo domestication of allotetraploid wild rice