Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Wheat Expert Steering Group National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center
Since December last year, most of the winter wheat area has less precipitation than usual by 50 to 80%. In addition, the wind is strong, the soil surface moisture is insufficient, and some areas have drought. appear. According to forecasts by the Meteorological Department, the winter wheat area will still have less precipitation and higher temperatures in February, and the drought may continue to develop. At present, wheat in the southwest region is in the late jointing to booting stage, wheat in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River is in the greening period, southern Huanghuai is sprouting and turning green, and wheat in the central and northern Huanghuai, North China, and Northwest regions is about to turn green. This is the key to strengthening field management and promoting the transformation of seedling conditions. period. In view of the current wheat seedling situation and meteorological conditions, it is necessary to focus on”resisting drought and freezing, and promoting weak and strong”, strengthen field management, strengthen prevention and control of diseases and insects, focus on disaster prevention and reduction, and build a high-yield shelf.
One is irrigating water to supplement moisture, drought resistance and seedling protection. For wheat fields that have begun to turn green and have severe drought conditions that affect the normal growth of wheat, instruct farmers to water to replenish moisture, resist drought and protect seedlings according to early spring temperature conditions, promote the connection between surface moisture and bottom moisture, and create conditions for turning green and jointing. The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the southwestern regions should clear the gullies and clear the moisture, dredge the gullies, so as to achieve drought energy and flood irrigation.
The second is to suppress the plan, increase the temperature and increase the moisture content. Seize the fine weather and suppress it in due course. Note that the soil is too wet and not suppressed, so as not to cause compaction; do not suppress the frosted wheat field to prevent damage to the wheat seedlings; do not suppress the jointing wheat field to avoid damage to seedlings. Combination of suppression and hoeing, pressing first and then hoeing, bridges the cracks, compacts the soil, preserves moisture, raises the ground temperature, and promotes greening and root growth.
The third is the strategy of fertility and water management, which promotes the weak and strong. The rejuvenation period is a critical period to promote the weak and strong. To promote the weak seedlings, watering and topdressing at the right time, to promote early and fast growth. For weak seedlings with yellowing wheat fields, insufficient number of stems and tillers, and wheat fields with severe freezing damage, timely topdressing of urea can promote the transformation and upgrading of seedling conditions. Wheat fields with insufficient surface moisture affecting fertilizer efficiency should be irrigated and fertilized simultaneously, because seedlings should be properly applied in time Jointing fertilizer.
Fourth is prevention and treatment of pests and chemical weeding. As the temperature rises in the spring, wheat sheath blight, stripe rust, wheat spiders, aphids, underground pests and weeds have entered the initial period one after another. In particular, drought is conducive to the occurrence of wheat spiders and aphids. Strengthen monitoring, prevention and control to suppress The number of pests and diseases can reduce the damage in spring. For wheat stripe rust, timely pick and cure, prevent early and small. According to weather conditions, chemical weeding should be carried out in a timely manner.
Fifth is to prevent freezing damage and remediate in time. In early spring, the temperature warms up quickly, and it is easy to have strong cold air in stages, and there is a high probability of”spring cold”. Experience has shown that the superposition of”drought and cold” in spring is an important factor that causes the death of wheat seedlings and affects yield. It is necessary to pay close attention to changes in weather, focus on monitoring the”falling spring cold”, and release early warning information in a timely manner. Before the arrival of”back spring cold”, timely replenish water to wheat fields with deviations in soil moisture to improve surface moisture and buffer the impact of cooling. After freezing damage occurs, investigate the freezing situation in a timely manner, and use fertilizer and water in a timely manner to promote the recovery of frozen wheat fields and reduce disaster losses.