On the morning of February 25, 2021, the”Scientific Research Report on Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2021)” (hereinafter referred to as the”Report”) compiled by the Chinese Nutrition Society was officially release.
Attending the press conference were related persons in charge from the CDC and the Food Department of the National Health Commission, China Center for Disease Control, China Health Education Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Food Relevant leaders and experts from the Institute of Nutrition Development, the Institute of Sports Science of the State Sports General Administration, the relevant person in charge of the Chinese Nutrition Society, the main member of the working group of the scientific research report on Chinese residents’ dietary guidelines, and nearly 20 media representatives.
Yang Yuexin, chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society, first introduced the research work of the report. She pointed out that the”Healthy China Action (2019-2030)” issued by the State Council listed the”rational diet action” as one of the major actions. The”National Nutrition Plan” clearly proposes to”regularly revise and publish residents’ dietary guidelines.” In order to better revise the”Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” and formulate new dietary guidelines, and make full use of the scientific research results of nutrients and food and health, the Chinese Nutrition Society established a scientific report working group on the”Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents”. -On the basis of the Consensus of Scientific Evidence, we will gather new evidences about the development of dietary guidelines, diet and health research at home and abroad in recent years, analyze the current status and problems of diet and nutrition and health of Chinese residents, and provide a strong force for revising the”Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” Scientific basis.
Ding Gangqiang, vice chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society and director of the Institute of Nutrition and Health, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the scientific report working group of the”Chinese Residents Dietary Guidelines”, from China Nutrition The main content of the”Report” is explained in detail in three main aspects:health status research, food and health scientific evidence research, and foreign dietary guidelines research.
一. The”Report” analyzes the current status and problems of Chinese residents’ diet and nutrition and health
The “Report” pointed out that since the founding of New China 70 years ago, China’s nutrition security and supply capacity has been significantly enhanced, and the people’s health level has continued to improve. The average life expectancy has increased from 35 years. Increased to 77.3 years old, the residents’ undernutrition and physical development problems continue to improve, mainly reflected in the residents’ adequate dietary energy and macronutrient intake, the continuous increase of high-quality protein intake, the continuous increase of residents’ average height, and the significant growth retardation rate of children under 5 in rural areas Decrease, these are the main contributions of adequate food supply and improved diet quality.
Affected by factors such as the imbalance of social and economic development, aging population, unhealthy diet and lifestyle, there are still some nutrition and health problems that need to be solved urgently. First, the problem of dietary imbalance is prominent, which has become a major risk factor for chronic diseases. High-oil and high-salt intake is still common in our country. The consumption of sugary beverages by teenagers is increasing year by year. The intake of whole grains, dark vegetables, fruits, milk, fish, shrimp and soybeans is generally insufficient. 2. The lifestyle of residents has changed significantly, the total amount of physical activity has decreased, the control of energy intake and consumption has become unbalanced, overweight and obesity have become an important public health problem, and the problem of diet-related chronic diseases has become increasingly serious. The third is the uneven development of urban and rural areas, and the rural food structure needs to be improved. Rural residents’ intake of milk, fruits, aquatic products and other foods is still significantly lower than that of urban residents. Nutritional science education such as oil and salt intake and food diversification is in urgent need of sinking to the grassroots. Fourth, the nutritional problems of key populations such as infants, pregnant women, and the elderly deserve special attention. Fifth, the problem of food waste is serious, and residents’ nutritional literacy needs to be improved.
2. The”Report” compiles and analyzes new evidence of diet and health research
On the basis of”Food and Health—Scientific Evidence Consensus (2016)”, the working group has carried out evidence updates for the past 5 years and collected more than 30 different foods (And processed foods) and health, dietary patterns and health, physical activity and health and other domestic and foreign scientific research literature, refer to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and GRADE evaluation system, carry out the evidence evaluation, and propose the food and health evidence evaluation method in China And the conclusion recommendations, and organized dozens of experts in nutrition, medicine, epidemiology and other disciplines to conduct analysis and discussion, comprehensively evaluate more than 200 food and health scientific recommendations, dietary patterns and health scientific recommendations, and body Scientific guidance for activities and health.
The”Report” shows that with the development of social economy and the obvious changes in residents’ dietary patterns and lifestyles, the intake of various types of food is too high or too low There is a lot of evidence for the association with disease risk. The”Report” summarizes the dietary factors associated with the risk reduction of major health outcomes. The main dietary factors are:whole grains, vegetables, fruits, soybeans and their products, milk and their products. Products, fish meat, nuts, drinking water (tea drinking), etc., the level of evidence is B. Excessive intake of dietary factors that can increase the risk of adverse health outcomes are mainly:livestock meat, smoked meat, salt, alcohol, sugary beverages, oils, etc., and the level of evidence is B and above.
The”Report” also emphasizes the importance of dietary patterns. In recent years, the relationship between diet and health has shifted from a single nutrient or single food to a study on the relationship between dietary patterns and overall health or disease risks. The balanced diet model is designed based on the principles of nutritional science and the reference intake of dietary nutrients for residents. Following a balanced diet for a long time is an important cornerstone of healthy and longevity and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases, and can reduce the risk of all-cause death. The results of the study on the impact of different dietary patterns of the Chinese population on health outcomes show that the Jiangnan region is mainly characterized by more fruits and vegetables, more fish and shrimp aquatic products, regular consumption of milk and soy products, appropriate amounts of cereals, meat and poultry, and light cooking and less salt. The model represents the oriental healthy diet model. In areas with these dietary characteristics, the risk of people suffering from diseases such as overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and stroke is lower.
The”Report” also provides evidence that maintaining a healthy weight and physical activity are associated with health. There is evidence that underweight or overweight can have a significant impact on health, and the level of evidence is B. At present, there is sufficient evidence that insufficient physical activity can lead to excessive weight gain. More physical activity is not only conducive to maintaining a healthy weight, but also reduces the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers and all causes of death The risk of death and the improvement of brain health are recommended for A grade.
3. The”Report” collects and studies key recommendations of dietary guidelines from countries around the world
In the”Report”, the full text of 46 English versions of dietary guidelines and 91 graphics of dietary guidelines from different countries (regions) are sorted out and studied in the”Report”. Information about relevant key recommendations, food information and consumption guidance. The ten keywords with the most frequent occurrences of keywords in the recommended entries of the national guidelines are as follows:”vegetables/fruits”,”salt/sodium”,”fat”,”sugar”,”sports”,”water”,”milk and products”, and”cereals”.”Fish” and”Diversity of Food”. The dietary guidelines of countries around the world pay more and more attention to the balance, rationality and health of dietary patterns. Different regions and countries propose different healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet, and the DASH diet, in order to prevent and control diseases according to their dietary characteristics. American healthy meals, etc. The”Report” uses the method of literature search and review to illustrate the research results of representative dietary patterns and health relationships at home and abroad.
4. The”Report” focuses on the construction of a healthy China and puts forward policy recommendations for implementing reasonable dietary actions
One is to update the dietary guidance documents based on evidence. On the basis of fully considering my country’s changing nutrition and health status and prominent nutritional problems, using evidence-based nutrition as a means, guided by scientific evidence, and fully considering the development trend of public policies, the”Chinese Residents Dietary Guidelines” are regularly revised to Meet the needs of the people for healthy development. Second, it is problem-oriented, based on the concept of omni-directional influencing factor intervention, with a balanced diet as the core, and proposed precise nutrition guidance measures. Third, we aim to prevent chronic diseases and lead a healthy lifestyle in all directions. It is particularly emphasized that obesity has become the primary risk factor threatening the health of Chinese residents and the common pathological basis of many chronic diseases (including cancer). The promotion and implementation of a healthy lifestyle cannot be separated from a healthy food consumption environment. The fourth is to build a new food production, processing and consumption model based on nutrition orientation. The concept of nutrition and health runs through the various links and systems of food production, processing, cooking, purchase, and dining to create a healthy food consumption environment. Fifth, take the construction of a nutrition talent team as an initiative to promote and practice Healthy China. Governments at all levels should strengthen the training and team building of nutrition professionals (registered dietitians, public nutritionists, nutrition instructors, etc.), national nutrition week, healthy lifestyle activities and other publicity and education activities as the implementation of reasonable diet actions and the realization of healthy China action goals Important measures.
The”Report” focuses on the main key issues of the nutrition and health status of Chinese residents, and uses the scientific research results of dietary nutrition and lifestyle and health as evidence to revise the dietary guidelines Provide important reference and scientific basis. The report released this time is a condensed version of the”Scientific Research Report on Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2021)”, which can be found on the official website and official WeChat account of the Chinese Society of Nutrition (website:www.cnsoc.org, WeChat public account:China Nutrition Industry) ; The original is divided into five parts:my country’s nutrition and health status, food and health evidence, and analysis of dietary guidelines in various countries. It will be published by People’s Medical Publishing House in the near future.