Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industry
By: Date: 2021-02-10 Categories: chinesefood Tags: ,
   1. Development status of kelp industry

   (1) Kelp culture and fishing situation

  1, scale layout

   kelp is one of the main algae products produced in my country. In 2018, my country’s total algae production was 4.71 million tons, of which kelp was 1.52 million tons, accounting for 32.30%of the total algae production. The national algae cultivation area is 140,000 hectares, of which 45,100 hectares of kelp cultivation area, accounting for 31.29%, are mainly distributed in the five provinces of Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong and Guangdong.

   First of all, from the time trend of kelp culture area, from 2008 to 2018, the national kelp culture area showed an overall upward trend (Figure 1). Before 2013, the aquaculture area of ​​kelp in my country experienced a sharp increase to a balanced level (40,000 hectares), but in 2013 the aquaculture area suddenly dropped to 37,300 hectares. The aquaculture area decreased by 7.21%. Since 2014, the kelp culture area has been increasing slowly. In 2018, the kelp culture area increased by about 34.63%compared to 10 years ago. The total culture area in the country reached 45,100 hectares, accounting for 31.29%of the national algae culture area. Kelp plays an important role in algae products.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage
  Secondly, from the perspective of the area distribution of kelp culture, currently, kelp culture in my country is mainly distributed in the southeast coastal area and the Bohai Bay area (Figure 2). In 2018, a total of 45,100 hectares of kelp cultured nationwide, of which 20397 hectares in Fujian, accounting for 45.23%, is the province with the largest kelp culture area in China; Shandong has a total area of ​​17,156 hectares, accounting for 38.04%, making it the second largest kelp culture in China Large provinces; ranked third is Liaoning Province, with a total of 6073 hectares of farming area, accounting for 13.47%; Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Guangdong also farmed kelp, but the farming area is small, and the total output of the three provinces accounted for the total output of the country.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(1)< br/>
   In addition, according to the national kelp production statistics from 1999 to 2018, it can be seen that 2014 is a dividing line for the total kelp production, before and after 2014 The production of kelp has changed significantly (Figure 3). Before 2014, the production of kelp was fluctuating, and the overall trend was slightly increasing, and it exceeded 1 million tons in 2013. Although the aquaculture area of ​​kelp decreased by 7%in 2013, the production increased by nearly 4%compared to 2012. In 2014, the total production of kelp increased significantly, reaching 1.36 million tons, an increase of 33.33%compared to 1.02 million tons in 2013. The total national kelp production in the five years after 2014 shows that domestic kelp production has grown steadily, with an average annual growth rate of 2%. By 2018, the total national kelp production reached 1.52 million tons, nearly double the 1999 level. In general, the total production of kelp in my country is increasing year by year, although the growth rate is slow, it basically maintains an annual growth of 2%.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(2)< br/>
   In addition, Figure 4 shows that the number of kelp nurseries nationwide has been steadily increasing from 1999 to 2018. Although the total number of domestic kelp seedlings declined from 1999 to 2002, in addition to a sharp decline in 2011, the total number of sports seedlings is increasing. Comparing the total annual production of kelp and the annual nursery volume, it can be found that the production of kelp has increased substantially since 2014, which is an increase of approximately 33.3%compared to 2013. Although the total production of kelp has gradually increased since 2014, it can be seen that the marginal production of kelp has gradually declined in recent years by comparing the total output and the output and input of the nursery volume. It may be that global temperature changes and water pollution in recent years have negatively affected the production of kelp, resulting in a large amount of investment in kelp nursery that cannot bring about a high increase in production.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(3)< br/>
  The three provinces of my country’s kelp producing areas are Fujian, Shandong, and Liaoning (Figure 5). Fujian is the largest province in kelp aquaculture, with kelp production in the past 5 years It is on a growing trend, with an average annual growth rate of 6.40%. It is the province with the fastest growth rate of kelp production in the country and exceeds the average growth rate of kelp production in the country. In addition to Fujian, the production of kelp in Liaoning Province has also been increasing in the past five years, with a slight increase. As the second largest province in kelp production, Shandong has gradually declined in kelp production in the past five years, but it has remained above 500,000 tons. In contrast, the production of kelp in the three provinces of Zhejiang, Guangdong and Jiangsu is relatively small, and the annual kelp production fluctuates slightly.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(4)< br/>
   Figure 6 shows that the kelp culture area of ​​major domestic kelp producing provinces also fluctuated from 2014 to 2018. The kelp culture area in Fujian and Shandong fluctuated greatly. From 2014 to 2016, the kelp culture area in Fujian gradually increased. In 2016, the kelp culture area in Fujian reached 19,789 hectares, but by 2017, the kelp culture area in Fujian fell by nearly 6.4%. However, the reduction in aquaculture area did not affect Fujian’s kelp production. In general, Fujian, as a major kelp production province in the country, has gradually increased the area of ​​kelp culture and the production of kelp. The aquaculture area of ​​kelp in Shandong fluctuated significantly from 2014 to 2018. Although the overall aquaculture area has increased, the production of kelp has been on a downward trend during these five years, with an average annual reduction of nearly 10,000 tons of kelp. The kelp culture area of ​​Liaoning, the third province producing large seaweeds, fluctuates, but the production of kelp in Liaoning does not fluctuate much, and is in a trend of steady growth. The area of ​​kelp culture in Jiangsu Province is decreasing year by year, and consequently the production of kelp in Jiangsu Province is also decreasing year by year. The aquaculture area of ​​kelp in Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces has been increasing year by year, but overall the aquaculture area in the two provinces is relatively small, accounting for only 2.6%of the national aquaculture area.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(5)< br/>
  2, industrial benefits

   kelp is a large economic algae of cold water, which is naturally distributed in the Shandong Peninsula (north of Qingdao) and Dalian coastal areas in China. Kelp is not only a marine food vegetable rich in nutrients, but also rich in economic ingredients such as algin, mannitol, iodine, etc. It is also an important raw material for industries such as medicine and health care, seaweed chemicals, and agricultural fertilizers. my country has formed a chain industry integrating kelp seedling, breeding, food processing, algae chemical and biological products development. The economic, social and ecological benefits of the kelp industry are significant. It is promoting employment, increasing fishermen’s income, and providing national people’s dietary health videos. Make important contributions to maintaining the ecological balance of aquaculture and promoting the development of abalone and sea cucumber industries through linkage.

   economic benefits. Kelp is a kind of nutrient-rich brown algae, rich in a variety of minerals, and has extremely high economic value in industry and food processing. According to the different processing methods of kelp, it is divided into rough processing and finishing. The primary processing of kelp is mainly dry and salted primary products, accounting for about 80%of kelp products, while the intensive processing of kelp is mainly processing kelp into food and industrial processing, and a small part is processed in agriculture and medical industries. . Fujian, Shandong, and Liaoning are the major provinces of kelp culture in my country. The kelp culture area accounts for more than 90%of the national aquaculture area, creating hundreds of billions of economic benefits for my country every year. my country has become the world’s largest algae culture country.

   kelp cultivation and processing has promoted the economic development of coastal areas in my country, and the lives of fishermen have been improved. The aquaculture area of ​​kelp is expanding year by year. With the development and improvement of the kelp processing industry, tens of thousands of jobs have been created for coastal areas. The processed kelp products are not only sold in the mainland. The intensively processed kelp products, such as kelp juice, kelp fish rolls and other soft packaging and canned products are exported to Japan, Southeast Asia and other countries. With the development of coastal aquaculture and processing industries, local fishermen have increased their income and gradually become rich.

   ecological benefits. While the coastal economy is developing rapidly, the pollution of coastal water quality is getting worse. The major pollutants in a large area of ​​the sea are inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus. Among them, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are extremely harmful to aquaculture organisms. Water bodies with high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and nitrite can cause various types of aquaculture organisms. Diseases and even deaths cause economic losses for fishermen. However, kelp aquaculture can not only create economic benefits, but also remove inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus from water bodies, transforming dissolved carbon dioxide in water bodies, and help to synergize with cultured organisms to purify water bodies and alleviate water eutrophication problems.

   First, studies have shown that kelp and farmed animals are ecologically complementary. During kelp farming, a large amount of inorganic nitrogen will be absorbed, reducing the content of inorganic nitrogen in the water body and at the same time absorbing farmed animals The excess nutrients released into the water body are transformed into products with high economic value, so as to achieve the purpose of repairing the water body and promoting the nitrogen and phosphorus cycle of the water body.

  Secondly, kelp has a good absorption capacity for nitrogen. If the N in kelp is 2.13%and P is calculated as 0.3%, the water content of fresh kelp is 90%. In an ideal state, every 1,000 tons of kelp cultured can absorb 2130kg of nitrogen and 300kg of phosphorus in the water. It can be seen from the ability of kelp to absorb and transform nitrogen and phosphorus, kelp is a very effective biological filter, which brings hope for alleviating seawater eutrophication.

   Furthermore, the annual carbon sequestration capacity of kelp is 0.234kg/㎡. If standardized conversion is adopted, kelp can better fix the carbon in the water body and can effectively carry out Ecological regulation helps prevent excessive carbon dioxide in the water body from being released into the air. Therefore, farming kelp can also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  Social benefits. Kelp culture helps to develop the local economy in light of the production situation in the production area. Farmers in coastal areas mainly rely on aquaculture for agricultural production. Compared with inland paddy fields and dry land, coastal mariculture and freshwater aquaculture are more developed. The three provinces of Fujian, Shandong and Liaoning are the main producing areas of kelp in my country. The kelp aquaculture industry continues to develop and expand, creating huge social benefits.

  Fujian’s kelp industry has grown from nothing to the present, helping people to get rid of poverty and get rich and live and work in peace, which is enough to see that kelp farming is the Fujian region Contribution to the development of Fujian introduced kelp seedlings from Qingdao, Shandong Province in October 1956, and successfully raised them in a raft in Jianglian County. Since then, Fujian has opened the door to kelp cultivation. Fujian has experienced more than 50 years of kelp farming practices, and now Fujian has made many achievements in kelp breeding, breeding, and processing. The kelp seedlings cultivated in Fujian are not only sold throughout the country, but also exported overseas. The successful practice of kelp seedling and breeding has promoted the development of related kelp industries in Fujian. Companies including food processing companies and chemical companies have sprung up, and the emerging companies have driven local employment. At the same time, they have also promoted processed kelp products, such as salted and cooked kelp. Dried, kelp tofu, etc. are exported overseas to promote local economic development. The development of related kelp industries along the coast has also responded to the country’s call for poverty alleviation and prosperity, giving full play to local advantages, adapting measures to local conditions, developing agriculture, and building villages, providing development impetus for realizing rural revitalization.

  The development of the kelp industry in Fujian is a microcosm of the development of the kelp industry in my country. On the whole, the development of the kelp industry in my country is rapid, and kelp is the largest producer of algae products in my country Algae products, kelp cultivation accounts for more than 50%of algae cultivation every year, and is the main economic crop for algae cultivation. Therefore, the development of the kelp aquaculture industry affects the development of the algae industry in my country. Therefore, considering the huge social benefits brought by kelp aquaculture, the country and society should pay attention to it, improve the technical service level of algae aquaculture in coastal areas, and increase support for algae aquaculture. Intensify efforts to promote the development and improvement of the coastal algae aquaculture industry, so that my country’s kelp aquaculture industry can move towards sustainable development.

  (2) Kelp processing and trade situation

  1. Current situation of kelp trade

  According to the China Customs database, my country’s kelp trade is divided into fresh kelp trade (HS code 12122110) and salted kelp trade (HS code 20089932). my country’s kelp trade is mainly export-oriented, and the export volume is much higher than the import volume. Among them, among the fresh algae, my country exports the most fresh kelp, with an export value of 16 million U.S. dollars in 2018. In the processed algae, the proportion of salted kelp exports is not very large. The import unit price of fresh kelp is higher than the export unit price, and the trade price deficit is 2.73 US dollars/kg. From 2015 to 2017, the export unit price of salted kelp was higher than the import unit price, but in 2018 there was a trade price deficit with a price difference of US$0.57/kg.

   my country’s fresh kelp is mainly exported, and the export volume is far greater than the import volume. From 2015 to 2018, the import volume of fresh kelp in my country showed a trend of rising first and then falling, fluctuating between 12,000 tons and 18,000 tons. In 2018, the import volume of fresh kelp in my country was 12,100 tons, and the import value was 725,600 US dollars. The import value of fresh kelp has been increasing year by year, with an average annual growth rate of 4.4%. In recent years, the import value has stabilized at 700,000 US dollars. From 2015 to 2018, the export volume of fresh kelp showed a trend of first decline and then rise, while the export volume was relatively unstable, fluctuating between 14 million US dollars and 17 million US dollars. In 2018, the export volume of fresh kelp in my country exceeded 500,000 tons, and the export value was 16.3 million US dollars. From the perspective of trade unit price, the import unit price of fresh kelp in my country is higher than the export unit price, and the import unit price is 4 US dollars/kg-6 USD/kg, and the export unit price is about 3.5 USD/kg.

   The main import sources of fresh kelp in my country are South Korea and Japan. In 2018, the imports of these two countries accounted for about 99%of the total fresh kelp imports . The main export destination countries are Japan, Russia and the United States. In 2018, the export volume of fresh kelp to these three countries was about 80%of the total export value. Among them, fresh kelp was exported to Japan the most in 2018, with an export value of 8.21 million US dollars (Table 1).
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(6)< br/>
   my country’s salted kelp is mainly exported, and the export volume is much higher than the import volume. From 2015 to 2018, the import volume of salted kelp in my country was relatively small, not exceeding 6,000 tons, showing a trend of rising first and then falling. The import volume fluctuated greatly, and also showed a trend of first rising and then falling. In 2018, the import volume of salted kelp in my country was 1,400 tons, and the import value was US$6.91. From 2015 to 2018, the export volume was almost stable at around 1 million tons, showing a trend of first decline and then rise. The export value has been on a downward trend, with an average annual decline rate of 11%. In 2018, the export volume of salted kelp in my country was 1.1172 million tons, and the export value was US$48 million. From the perspective of trade unit price, the export unit price of salted kelp in my country from 2015 to 2017 was higher than the import unit price. In 2018, my country’s export unit price was US$4.26/kg, while the import unit price was US$4.83/kg. There was a trade price deficit with a price difference of US$0.57/kg.

  The main import source country of salted kelp in my country is South Korea, and its export value in 2018 exceeded US$66,900. The largest export destination of salted kelp is the Taiwan, Penghu, Jinma Customs Territory, and the export value in 2018 was US$44 million. Followed by Russia and the United States, exports in 2018 were 1.73 million U.S. dollars and 770,000 U.S. dollars (Table 2).
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(7)
  2, kelp processing situation

   According to the data provided by Beijing Yubo Zhiye Market Consulting Co., Ltd.”2017-2022 In-depth Analysis of Algae Industry and”13th Five-Year” Development Planning Guidance Report”, The output value of algae farming is 43.1 billion. In 2011, the total production of seaweed cultivation in my country was 1.63 million tons, with an output value of 30 billion. The total output in 2018 was 2.344 million tons, and the output value was approximately 43.1 billion yuan. Among them, the seaweed chemical industry is 3.6 billion yuan, the alginate industry output value is 2 billion yuan, the agar gum industry output value is 800 million yuan, the carrageenan industry output value is 800 million yuan, the seaweed food industry is about 300, and the total output value is 11.2 billion yuan. There are hundreds of enterprises with an annual output value of more than 7 billion yuan. There are more than a dozen wakame processing enterprises, mainly in Liaoning, with an annual output value of about 2 billion yuan. The output value of laver is about 1.2 billion yuan. The output value of laver is about 1 billion yuan. The agricultural product industry is 300 million yuan, and the annual output value of the seaweed powder and seaweed fertilizer industry is about 300 million yuan. In addition, there are about 300,000 fishermen engaged in seaweed farming in China.

  According to the conditions of the companies and test stations tested, the most important crop for algae harvesting from May to July is kelp, and the output of the pond is 10,000 tons. As a unit, in June, the highest volume of ponds was 27,800 tons, accounting for 99.59%of the total volume of 28,000 tons of algae crops in the country in June. Among them, Shandong Rongcheng Daying Marine Aquaculture Co., Ltd. had the highest sales volume of kelp in June, about 19,800 tons, and sales reached 18.9667 million. The sales volume of kelp of Dalian Haibao Fishery Co., Ltd. is also relatively good, reaching 40 thousand tons and sales of 2.7737 million.

   In terms of the production input of algae products, the main production input of kelp is manpower input, which accounts for 88.59%of the total production input. The actual investment amount is RMB 28,793,300 . Material input is divided into seedling, feed and fuel, accounting for about 10.99%, and the actual input amount is 3.5729 million yuan. Service expenditure only accounts for 0.42%. For Xinchengshan Marine Company and Rongcheng Daying Marine Aquaculture Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Daying Company), which both use kelp as their main crop, the production input per kilogram of kelp by Daying Company is significantly lower than that of Xinchengshan Marine Company. The average production investment of Daying Company is only 0.54 yuan, while the average production investment of Xinchengshan Ocean Company is 1.95 yuan, which is nearly four times that of Daying Company. Specifically, both companies spend a relatively high proportion of their labor expenditures, accounting for more than 90%of their total production inputs. However, the sales volume of Xinchengshan Ocean Company is low, so the production input per kilogram of kelp is too much.

   Regarding the market situation of algae products, for the sales price of algae, the average price of algae is the highest in May, which can reach 2.3 yuan/kg. The average price of algae in July was the lowest in history, at 0.95 yuan/kg. The price of kelp has always been a relatively high price among many algae. Especially from August to October, the price of kelp remained high, reaching 7.49 yuan/kg in August. Regarding the number of algae sales, the national algae sales volume was the highest in September, and the actual sales volume was 34,900 tons. Among them, kelp reached the highest sales value in June, and the actual sales volume was 27,800 tons. As for algae sales, May-June is the peak season for algae crop kelp, with sales reaching 36,358,400 yuan and 36,460,400 yuan, respectively, and the sales of other algae crops have little difference. Xinchengshan Marine Company, which mainly produces kelp, had the highest sales from May to June. Sales in May exceeded 22.40 million yuan, while sales in June reached 12.8 million yuan.

  (3) Kelp market price and fluctuation analysis< /strong>

   my country is a major producer, consumer and exporter of algae products. Relying on superior natural resources and advanced aquaculture technology, my country’s algae industry has achieved rapid development. This article aims to use the STL price decomposition model to analyze the historical trend and volatility characteristics of kelp prices in my country. STL decomposition method is a data analysis method that decomposes time series into long-term trends, seasonal fluctuations and random factors. Among them, the long-term trend (Trend component) reflects the impact of the long-term development trend of the kelp market on the price fluctuations of the kelp; the seasonal component (Seasonal component) represents the price change of the kelp due to seasonal factors; the random fluctuation (Remainder component) ) Represents the part of the kelp price series that cannot be explained by seasonal and long-term trends, reflecting the impact of policies, festivals and extreme weather on the price of kelp. Calculate and clarify the internal mechanism of kelp price fluctuations, explore the influence mechanism of kelp price changes and various factors, in order to further stabilize the kelp market price and balance the income of the seaweed culture industry. In view of this, the Economic Research Office of the National Algae Industry Technology System uses the STL decomposition method to analyze the price fluctuations of kelp in my country based on the main algae species-the kelp producer price index data, and uses the fixed observation point enterprise survey data to analyze the price of kelp in 2019 Analysis and summary of changes.

  1. my country’s kelp industry supply, demand and price characteristics< /strong>

   kelp prices have increased steadily. According to the 2018 China Fisheries Statistical Yearbook, since 2010, the overall production of marine kelp in my country has been increasing. As of 2017, the total output of kelp products in the country reached 1,486,600 tons, accounting for 66.73%of my country’s total algae production. Among them, the total output of kelp nationwide in 2013 increased significantly, with a growth rate of 33.73%, which was mainly caused by the increase in kelp production in Shandong Province that year. The three major kelp-producing provinces in my country are Fujian, Shandong and Liaoning. Fujian and Liaoning provinces have seen steady growth in kelp production, and Shandong’s production has increased significantly in 2013.

  The aquaculture area of ​​kelp is increasing in fluctuation. Kelp, as a large-scale cold-water economic algae, is naturally distributed in my country’s Shandong Peninsula (north of Qingdao) and coastal areas of Dalian, covering Fujian, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong and other provinces. From the perspective of the aquaculture area, the kelp culture area in China showed an overall upward trend from 2000 to 2017, but there were also two periods of fluctuations during the period:(1) The kelp culture area decreased for three consecutive years from 2005 to 2008, respectively. A year-on-year decrease of 5.96%, 9.83%and 11.46%year-on-year, which directly dropped from 43,900 hectares in 2005 to 33,500 hectares, and there was a slight increase in 2009; (2) The area of ​​kelp culture was slightly increased from 2012 to 2013. The adjustment was reduced from 40,200 hectares to 37,300 hectares, but then it rebounded and showed a steady upward trend year by year until 2017, the breeding area reached a maximum of 44,200 hectares. (3) Among the main provinces for kelp culture, Zhejiang and Fujian have relatively stable culture areas.

   kelp industry structure and price characteristics. The culture of kelp in my country began in the 1950s and has now formed an industrial chain covering primary processing, finishing and deep processing. However, the processing industry has relatively weak technology and simple product structure, and its development is at an early stage. Taking Fujian and Shandong as the main producing areas, the kelp industry chain in Fujian includes seedling, breeding and food processing, mainly the primary processing of kelp feed and salted kelp, and the sophisticated production of dried kelp and snack food. Processing, sea cucumber and abalone feed consumption of kelp feed accounts for 30%of the output. The industrial chain of Shandong Province includes seedling breeding, breeding, food processing and chemical industry. The primary processing is mainly dried kelp and salted kelp, the intensive processing is mainly food and industrial processing, and a small part is medicine and agricultural processing.

  2. Analysis of kelp price fluctuation based on STL model

   This report uses the quarterly price data of my country’s kelp producers from 2011 to 2017, using STL (Seasonal-Trend decomposition procedure based on Loess) time The sequence decomposition method decomposes the time series into long-term trend (trend component), seasonal component (seasonal component) and random fluctuation (remainder component), and then analyzes the price fluctuation of kelp in my country. The data used in this report comes from my country’s agricultural product price yearbook.

   It can be seen from Figure 9 that from 2011 to 2017, the price of kelp showed a trend of a slight decline and a volatile increase. Among them, in 2013, the price of kelp in my country fluctuated sharply. At the same time, according to the decomposition of STL time series, the price of kelp in my country is obviously affected by random factors, and is less affected by long-term trends and seasonal fluctuations.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(8)< br/>
   my country’s kelp price index in 2017 was 113.53, and the price index in the second quarter of 2014 was the lowest at 50.16. The price index in the first quarter of 2017 was the highest at 140.56. Among them, the price fluctuations from 2013 to 2014 were quite severe, with the difference between the highest price index and the lowest price index of 109.24. The multi-factor superposition of festival effects, haze weather and kelp diseases caused sharp price fluctuations during the 2014 Spring Festival. In addition, the drying period of kelp plays a key role in the quality and yield of kelp.

  In terms of long-term trends, the impact on the price of algae in my country has steadily increased, and since the second quarter of 2016, the impact has increased slightly. Specifically, from 2011 to the first quarter of 2016, my country’s algae price volatility was relatively stable due to long-term trends. After the second quarter of 2016, my country’s algae price volatility was affected by long-term trends and increased slightly, which is related to frequent fluctuations in algae prices. Joint.

  In terms of seasonal trends, the impact on the price of algae in my country has a general regularity. According to the growth habit of kelp, kelp is cultivated in October every year, and harvested from May to September of the following year. It shows a cyclical change with the change of natural seasons within a year.

  In terms of random factors, 2013-2016 will have a greater impact on the price of algae in my country, especially during the Spring Festival in 2014, when consumer demand increased, kelp prices rose slightly , The product substitution effect has caused the price of kelp to fall sharply. At the same time, sea water temperature, haze weather, pollution and disease in the breeding environment are the main reasons for the changes in kelp production.

  3, 2018-2019 kelp price fluctuation analysis

   As of September 2019, a total of ten fixed observation points for the kelp industry have been established, of which two kelp production monitoring stations in Rongcheng, Shandong account for approximately the total area of ​​the monitoring stations 85%of kelp sales also far exceed other testing stations. During 2018, the production of kelp was excessive and the weak market demand caused the price of kelp to decline. In 2018, the comprehensive sales price of kelp was 2.2 yuan/kg (dried kelp), the average price of fresh vegetables was 0.46 yuan/kg-0.48 yuan/kg, and the price of food vegetables was 0.6 yuan/kg. In terms of sales, compared to 2017, total sales in 2018 have declined. In addition, seaweed processing companies have purchased fewer kelp than usual, and some kelp has been converted into dried vegetables to enter the market, further promoting market saturation.

   During 2019 (January-September), the raw kelp collection point sold 47,000 tons of kelp, the sales revenue was 77.062 million yuan, and the comprehensive sales price was 1.64 yuan/kg , A further decrease from 2018. From May to July each year is the concentrated harvesting period of kelp. From May to July 2019, with the large-scale mature harvest of kelp, the price of kelp continued to fall. In August, the amount of kelp out of the pond decreased sharply, and the price also stopped falling and rebounded (Table 3).
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  4. Summary

   Since entering the new century, the scale of my country’s kelp industry has developed rapidly and the industrial structure has been optimized. This paper uses STL time series decomposition to explore the characteristics and main reasons of the price fluctuation of kelp in my country. Since 2010, the overall production of mariculture kelp in my country has been increasing, and the production of kelp in Shandong Province has increased significantly. From 2000 to 2016, the area of ​​kelp culture in my country showed an upward trend in fluctuations, showing a development model with primary processing as the mainstay and intensive processing as the supplement.

   The analysis of historical price fluctuations of kelp based on the STL model shows that during the period from 2011 to 2017, the price of kelp in my country showed a trend of slight decline and volatility. Factors affect kelp fluctuations around 2013. At the same time, the price of kelp in my country is obviously affected by long-term trends and random factors, and less affected by seasonal fluctuations.

  The fixed observation point data of the algae industry system shows that in 2018, my country’s kelp production was surplus, and the sluggish market demand caused the price of kelp to drop. During 2019, from January to July, the price of kelp continued the downward trend of the previous year, and the price of kelp stopped falling and rebounded from August. Based on this, it is recommended that the competent authorities and business enterprises pay attention to the establishment of kelp information circulation channels, improve the price fluctuation supervision and prevention mechanism, so as to obtain timely and accurate domestic kelp price and production supply and demand information, and effectively avoid the large fluctuations in the price of kelp from the enterprises, The negative impact and impact brought by farmers and consumers.

   (4) Analysis of the consumption structure of the kelp market

The    Algae Industry System Industrial Economic Research Office launched the theme”Consumers’ Value Demand, Attribute Preference and Demand Structure of Kelp Products from November to December 2019″, a large-scale social questionnaire survey. The survey was launched on the online questionnaire survey platform-Questionnaire Star-widely used by social science researchers. A total of 1085 questionnaires were collected in this survey, of which 18 were obviously abnormal and were excluded. The final effective sample was 1067, and the effective sample recovery rate was 98.3%. This survey sample mainly covers 29 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities across the country. The distribution of the sample by province is shown in Figure 10.
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(10)< br/>
  1. Basic situation of the sample

   There are 587 women (55.01%) among the respondents in this survey, with an average age of 29.98 years (SD =8.102),样本的年龄覆盖范围较广。样本的家庭人口数分布在1-9之间,平均家庭人口数为3.64(SD=1.130),样本的家庭规模覆盖较广。在受教育水平上,有80%以上的受访者的学历在大学本科及以上,这表明受访者的学历偏高。在工作状态方面,有80.97%的受访者为全职,有11.53%的受访者为学生。在工作类型上,本次调查的受访者的工作主要分布在制造业(22.21%)、专业人士(教育、医疗、法律、文体、科技等)(21.56%)、管理、商业、金融领域(13.50%)和服务业(10.12%)。在家庭月收入方面,本次调查的受访者的家庭税前月收入分布在6000-20000元(61.29%)之间,属于中低收入水平。在家庭月生活花费方面,本次调查的受访者的家庭月生活花费分布在2000-5000元之间(52.3%)。在家庭月饮食花费方面,本次调查有一半以上的(55.48%)受访者的家庭月饮食花费在2000元以下,在饮食方面的投入较少。具体情况见表4:
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(11)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(12)

  2、消费者海带消费现状

  本次调查依据杜连启和杨艳主编的《海藻食品加工技术》[1]一书中对海带加工品的分类,并结合市场中在售的海带品类,将海带分为7种类型:鲜海带、干海带、盐渍海带、速食海带、海带副食、海带保健食品和其他海带制品等。需要说明的是,速食海带指的是以海带为主要原料经精加工制作的、可以作为菜肴的海带速食品;海带副食指的是以海带为主要原料经精加工制作的、非菜肴的即食食品。

  本次调查的1067份有效样本中,有21位被调查者(约占本次受访者的2%)报告从未食用过海带。这些报告未食用过海带的受访者约有62%为男性,年龄分布在16~35岁之间(M年龄=24.52,SD年龄=5.733),有85.7%以上的受访者的学历在大学专科以上,有三分之二受访者的家庭税前月收入在1万元以下,有三分之二受访者的家庭人均月饮食花费在600元以下,有76.2%的受访者不负责家里买菜,有76.2%的受访者认为自己的做饭水平处于一般水平以下。综合以上情况可以做出以下推测:海带目前已经是广为人知的食品,有绝大部分消费者有食用海带的经历。那些没有食用过海带的消费者基本上都为具有较高学历的、不太会做饭、不负责家庭食物采购的、家庭人均月饮食花费较低的中青年消费者。

  1067份有效样本中,有1046位受访者(约占本次受访者的98%)报告有过食用海带的经历。由于样本在地域上较为分散,因此本次分析将样本以“常住地”为原则分为沿海省份样本(N=478,占样本总量的45.7%)和内陆省份(N=568,占样本总量的54.3%)样本,以对比不同地域消费者在海带购买次数、花费和渠道方面的差异。

  [1] 杜连启,杨艳。 海藻食品加工技术[M]. 化学工业出版社。 2013.

  (1) 消费者海带消费频率

  从总体上来看,不管是沿海省份的消费者还是内陆省份的消费者,月平均购买3次以上的海带品类都是鲜海带、速食海带、海带副食制品。独立样本t检验的结果表明,沿海省份消费者月均购买鲜海带3.74次,内陆省份消费者月均购买鲜海带3.92次,二者没有显著差异(p>0.05);沿海省份消费者月均购买速食海带3.43次,内陆省份消费者月均购买速食海带3.77次,二者没有显著差异(p>0.05);但是内陆省份消费者月均购买海带副食制品3.76次,沿海省份消费者月均购买海带副食制品3.05次,内陆省份消费者的月均购买海带副食制品的次数要显著高于沿海省份消费者(p<0.001)。尽管内陆省份消费者和沿海省份消费者在海带保健制品的月均购买次数上都很少,但是相较于沿海省份消费者的月均购买1.69次,内陆省份消费者的月均购买2.07次,要显著更多(p<0.05)。以上结果表明,对于最受消费者青睐的鲜海带和速食海带,沿海省份消费者和内陆省份消费者的消费频率上是一样(图11-12)。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(13)
  (2)消费者海带消费金额

  从总体上来看,不管是沿海省份的消费者还是内陆省份的消费者,平均每次购买花费最多的海带品类都是鲜海带和干海带。独立样本t检验的结果表明,沿海省份消费者平均每次购买干海带要花费26.9元,内陆省份消费者平均每次购买干海带要花费28.60元,在平均每次购买花费上没有显著差异(p>0.05);但是内陆省份消费者平均每次购买鲜海带要花费30.00元,沿海省份消费者平均每次购买鲜海带要花费26.23元,内陆省份消费者的花费要显著更多(p<0.05)。以上结果表明,总体上内陆省份消费者的海带食用成本要略微高于沿海省份消费者(图13-14)。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(14)
  (3)消费者海带购买渠道

  本次调查依据不同品类海带的特点将消费者购买海带的可能来源分为以下几种形式:大型连锁超市、社区超市、菜市场、网上商城、饭店直点、农户直购、医院或药店、没买过或其他方式购买。

  对于鲜海带而言,消费者主要在菜市场(67.97%)和大型连锁超市(42.26%)购买,有10.42%的被调查者报告没有购买过鲜海带。

  对于干海带而言,消费者主要在大型连锁超市(51.43%)、菜市场(51.24%)和社区超市(40.54%)购买,有6.6%的被调查者报告没有购买过干海带。值得注意的是,有28.49%的被调查者报告通过网上商城来购买干海带。

  对于盐渍海带而言,消费者主要在菜市场(44.36%)、大型连锁超市(35.56%)和社区超市(29.73%)购买,有18.36%的被调查者报告通过网上商城购买,有16.54%的被调查者报告没有购买过。

  对于速食海带而言,消费者主要通过大型连锁超市(51.05%)、网上商城(40.36%)和社区超市(38.24%)购买,有15.58%的被调查者报告从来没有买过。

  对于海带副食制品而言,消费者主要通过大型连锁超市、网上商城和社区超市购买,有13.01%的被调查者报告从没有购买过海带副食制品。

  对于海带保健食品而言,有一半以上(51.43%)的被调查者报告从来没有买过,而购买过海带保健食品的消费者主要是在网上商城(21.7%)、大型连锁超市(17.97%)、和医院(药店)(15.68%)购买。

  对于其他海带制品而言,有41.11%的被调查者报告从来没有买过,而购买过的消费者主要是在大型连锁超市(24.67%)和网上商城(22.47%)购买。

  横向来看,消费者主要在大型连锁超市购买海带副食(52.01%)、干海带(51.43%)、速食海带(51.05%)和鲜海带(42.26%),主要在社区超市购买的海带品类为海带副食(40.54%)、干海带(40.54%)和速食海带(38.24%),主要在菜市场购买的是鲜海带(69.97%)、干海带(51.24%)和盐渍海带(44.36%),主要在网上商城购买的是速食海带(60.63%)、海带副食(40.63%)和干海带(28.49),主要在饭店点海带的海带品类为鲜海带(19.50%)和盐渍海带(11.85%)。消费者基本上很少通过农户直购的形式购买海带(没种品类的购买比例均小于9%),消费者目前还没有买过的海带品类为海带保健品(51.43%),其次是盐渍海带(15.59%)(表5)。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(15)
  综合以上消费者各种海带品类的购买地点和在各购买地点主要购买的海带品类的分析可以看出,对于易于保存和长途运输的品类(如:速食海带、海带副食和干海带),消费者可以通过网上商城这种现代化的商品流通方式来购买,而对于那些不易保存和远距离小批量运输的海带品类(如:鲜海带和盐渍海带),消费者基本上是通过超市和菜市场这种近端流通形式来进行购买。另外,尽管海带具有非常好的营养保健能力,但是调查结果显示,一半以上的消费者没有购买过海带保健品,当然这不仅仅是因为消费者对海带保健品没有偏好,也可能和海带保健品的知名度、种类和功能多样性等海带保健品的生产供应端的现状有莫大的关联。另外,数据分析显示,消费者极少通过饭店点海带的形式来消费海带,海带便宜且营养丰富,这可能是值得关注的一种可能促进海带产业发展的市场机会。

  (4)消费者的海带食用方式

  本次调查将消费者可能食用海带的方式分为以下几种:做汤、凉拌、火锅、休闲零食、炒制、卤制、海带保健品、烧烤等。在多种多样的食用方式中,沿海省份消费者和内陆省份消费者最为喜爱的食用方式都是做汤(沿海省份的受访者有84.1%选择做汤,内陆省份的受访者有83.3%选择做汤)、凉拌(沿海省份的受访者有73.6%选择凉拌,内陆省份的受访者有72.2%选择凉拌)和火锅(沿海省份的受访者有65.5%选择火锅,内陆省份的受访者有71.7%选择火锅)。除最喜欢的食用方式之外,对比结果显示,沿海省份消费者更加喜欢炒海带(沿海省份的受访者有56.1%选择炒菜,内陆省份的受访者有40.5%选择炒菜),而内陆省份消费者更喜欢用海带来做火锅(沿海省份的受访者有65.5%选择火锅,内陆省份的受访者有71.7%选择火锅)(图15-16)。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(16)
  3、消费者海带认知与态度

  (1) 消费者对海带的喜好程度

  对于喜好程度的测量主要是让受访者对“您喜欢吃海带么”这项问题进行评分。其中,1代表非常不喜欢,2代表不喜欢,3代表一般,4代表喜欢,5代表非常喜欢。下图展示了受访者对该项指标评级的分布情况。

  由图中数据可知,有57.2%的消费者喜欢吃海带,而且更是有17.7%的消费者非常喜欢吃海带,仅有1.8%的消费者不喜欢或非常不喜欢吃海带,另外还有23.3%的消费者认为一般。经计算消费者对海带的喜好程度(M=3.90,SD=0.702)较高,因此企业应该对海带消费市场有充足信心,消费者对海带产品是有一定偏好的(图17)。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(17)
  (2)消费者对海带的营养认知水平

  对于消费者对海带营养认知水平的测量主要是让消费者对 “您对海带富含的营养有多了解”以及“与陆生蔬菜相比,您觉得海带在营养方面是否有优势”这两个方面进行评价。其中,1代表一点也不了解/一点没优势,2代表不了解/没优势,3代表一般,4代表了解/有优势,5代表非常了解/非常有优势。图18和图19展示了受访者对各项指标评级的分布情况。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(18)
  由上面两图中数据可知,有48.2%的消费者表示对海带富含的营养了解,有4.9%的消费者非常了解,仅有7.9%的消费者一点也不了解或不了解,另外还有39.1%的消费者认为一般。经计算消费者对海带富含营养的了解程度(M=3.49,SD=0.739)在一般以上。再看消费者对于海带相较于陆生蔬菜在营养方面是否有优势的评价,数据显示有71.5%的消费者认为海带相较于陆生蔬菜在营养方面是有优势的,有10.7%的消费者非常有优势,仅有2.2%的消费者认为一点没优势或没优势,另外还有15.6%的消费者认为一般。经计算消费者认为海带相较于陆生蔬菜在营养方面优势的程度(M=3.91,SD=0.585)较大。因此总的来看消费者对海带的营养方面是有一定了解的,同时也认为海带有自己独特的营养竞争优势,当然也从侧面说明消费者对海带的营养需求更加关注。企业应该注重对海带营养价值的宣传,打造海带营养价值品牌,开发更利于消费者健康的功能食品,在海带产品营养方面牢牢锁住顾客。

  同时我们探究了不同地域之间(即沿海省份与内陆省份)的受访者对于海带营养认知存在的差异。结果显示:沿海省份(M=3.49,SD=.771)与内陆省份在对海带的营养了解上无显著差异(M=3.49,SD=.713,P=.905)。同时沿海省份(M=3.91,SD=.612)与内陆省份对于海带相较陆生蔬菜的优势认同也无显著差异(M=3.91,SD=.562,P=.943)。因此,沿海省份与内陆省份的消费者对于海带的营养认知是几乎没有差异的。

  (3)海带购买的心理动机

  对于海带购买的心理动机的测量主要是让受访者对实用动机(“海带绿色、营养、健康”、“吃海带能够满足我对维生素、矿物质、蛋白质和膳食纤维的需要”、“海带的价格公道,性价比高”、“吃海带有助于疾病预防”),享乐动机(“海带好吃美味”、“消费海带令我愉悦”、“海带包装精美,令我赏心悦目”、“海带广告有吸引力”),象征动机(“食用海带与我健康的生活方式契合”、“食用海带是当前的流行时尚”、“海带能够作为我的馈赠佳品”)这三类动机的具体问题进行评分。其中,1代表非常不同意,2代表不同意,3代表中立,4代表同意,5代表非常同意。图20和表6分别展示了受访者对各项具体指标的均值分布情况以及三大动机的总体均值分布情况。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(19)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(20)

  结合上图和上表中数据我们可以发现,消费者会出于实用动机、享乐动机和象征动机购买海带。其中,从总体上看,实用动机的总体均值得分为4,表明消费者更偏向于海带的实用动机。相比之下,享乐动机和象征动机总体均值得分都小于4,表明消费者对享乐目的和象征目的的重视程度没有实用目的那么高。再从各项目评分来看,实用动机的各个项目的均值都比较高,尤其是“海带绿色、营养、健康”、“吃海带能够满足我对维生素、矿物质、蛋白质和膳食纤维的需要”这两个项目的均值都大于4,表明消费者最为重视海带的营养价值。享乐动机中只有“海带好吃美味”这一项目均值高于4,其余都低于4,并且“海带的广告具有吸引力”这项低于3,表明只有海带在好吃美味这一方面得到了认可,因此总的来说享乐目的不是消费者主要看重的。象征动机中的各个项目的平均分均小于4,表明象征目的也不是消费者主要看重的。因此我们得出:消费者购买海带最为看重的是实用动机,其次才是享乐动机和象征动机。

  这些也进一步说明消费者更加重视海带的实用价值,并且已经意识到了其独特的营养价值,因此,企业可以选择加大对海带营养价值的宣传,开发更利于消费者健康的功能食品,以此扩展国内市场。该结果也从消费者视角为藻类企业海带新产品开发提供了一定的对策依据。

  (4)海带产品的创新性评价

  对于海带产品的创新性的测量主要是让受访者对“市场上现有的海带种类难以满足我的需要”、“我希望有海带新产品或海带新吃法推出”、“我愿意尝试海带新产品或海带新吃法”、“我能够把海带与其他海藻食品区分开”、“对我而言,海带像陆生蔬菜一样不可或缺”这些问题进行评分。其中,1代表非常不同意,2代表不同意,3代表中立,4代表同意,5代表非常同意。图21展示了受访者对各项具体指标评级的均值分布情况。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(21)
  结合上图数据以及计算结果可知,对于“市场上现有的海带种类难以满足我的需要”这一项,均值2.64,标准差0.979。这表明受访者较为认同市场上现有的海带种类是基本可以满足需要的。对于“我希望有海带新产品或海带新吃法推出”这一项,均值4.00,标准差0.778。这表明受访者普遍希望市场上有海带新产品或海带新吃法推出。对于“我愿意尝试海带新产品或海带新吃法”这一项,均值4.19,标准差0.756。这表明受访者普遍愿意尝试海带新产品或海带新吃法。对于“我能够把海带与其他海藻食品区分开”这一项,均值3.73,标准差0.960。这表明受访者基本能够把海带与其他海藻食品区分开。对于“对我而言,海带像陆生蔬菜一样不可或缺”这一项,均值3.67,标准差1.032,这表明受访者基本认同海带像陆生蔬菜一样不可或缺。

  综上我们发现,消费者虽然认为目前市场海带种类基本能够满足需要,但是消费者仍然希望海带有更多的新产品推出,并且消费者普遍表示愿意尝试海带新产品和新吃法,因此企业积极推出产品升级创新,给消费者全新的体验。

  4、总结与讨论

  结合以上分析,本研究共得到以下结论:

  第一,绝大多数消费者曾食用过海带,但仍有部分群体没有食用过海带,这部分群体基本上都是具有较高学历的、不太会做饭的、不负责家庭食物采购的、家庭人均月饮食花费较低的中青年消费者。

  第二,从海带消费量和消费成本来看,沿海省份消费者和内陆省份消费者在海带消费频率方面都普遍偏低。在海带品类偏好方面,相较于海带的其他品类而言,消费者更青睐鲜海带和速食海带。在海带消费成本方面,总体上内陆省份消费者的海带消费成本要略微高于沿海省份消费者。

  第三,从海带购买渠道来看,对于易于保存和长途运输的品类(如:速食海带、海带副食和干海带),消费者可以通过网上商城这种现代化的商品流通方式来购买,而对于那些不易保存和远距离小批量运输的海带品类(如:鲜海带和盐渍海带),消费者基本上是通过超市和菜市场这种近端流通形式来进行购买。

  第四,消费者对于海带的喜爱水平较高,同时也对海带的营养有一定的了解,并且也较为认同海带相较于陆生蔬菜有着自己的独特优势,且沿海省份与内陆省份的消费者对于海带的营养认知没有显著差异。

  第五,消费者购买海带主要是出于实用动机,享乐动机和象征动机较弱。消费者虽然认为目前市场海带种类基本能够满足需要,但是消费者仍然期待海带的新产品或新吃法推出。

  二、海带技术研发进展

  (一)主要技术

  1、北方海带苗种培育技术改进

  完成时间:2018年

  技术来源单位:山东东方海洋科技股份有限公司

  研发团队:国家藻类产业技术体系苗种扩繁与生产岗位团队

  技术要点:目前北方90%以上海带苗种生产企业仍延用上世纪五十年代建立的传统夏苗培育工艺,面临着附着基价格高、处理复杂,育苗周期长,病害多发,机械化程度低,用工多等诸多问题,严重制约了生产效益和育苗稳定性。针对北方环境和设施特点,改进和优化了育苗技术工艺。具体包括:在水处理系统中增加了蛋白分离器和臭氧发生器,改善了水质条件;利用洗刷废水对新海水进行预冷,降低了能耗支出;优化了附着基,研究确定了适宜的管理模式和技术措施,较红棕帘育苗方式增加产能约20%;通过高密度采苗,在幼孢子体大部分生长至4列-8列细胞时进行疏苗,收集并清洗后再次喷洒到新苗帘上继续培育,建立了幼孢子体高效利用技术,可节省前期培养空间60%以上,降低能源成本20%左右;采用定制黑色聚乙烯遮阳网作为室外外层遮光材料,全部取代传统竹帘。该技术较传统工艺缩短育苗周期约15天,生产直接成本降低20%以上,可提高海带苗种生产稳定性和苗种质量,促进北方传统育苗工艺改进升级和产业提质增效。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(22)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(23)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(24)



Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(25)


Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(26)
  2、荣成海带筏式养殖标准化技术

  完成时间:2018年

  技术来源单位:烟台大学、威海长青海洋科技股份有限公司、荣成烟墩角水产有限公司

  研发团队:山东省现代农业产业技术体系藻类产业创新团队

  技术要点:针对荣成海带养殖设施和区间布局不规范,养殖密度缺乏科学指导等问题,团队在合理化密植试验和当地多家企业应用效果基础上,建立了海带筏式养殖标准化技术。该技术主要包括三部分:(1)养殖设施标准化。筏架绠绳采用直径2.4cm的聚乙烯绳,筏架长度80m-100m,养殖高区可适当缩短;浮漂为直径28cm的圆球形浮漂,采用PVC或PE等环保材料制作,根头部分使用30cm或32cm浮漂以增加浮力;吊绳采用直径0.3cm-0.5cm的聚乙烯绳,长度0.5m-1m;养殖苗绳为直径1.3cm的红棕绳或红棕丝与聚乙烯纤维混纺绳,长度2.3m-3.0m,两条苗绳打结系在一起,两端分别固定于吊绳上。使用八字环固定吊绳和专用浮漂卡扣固定浮漂,代替传统人工打结法,可大大提高工作效率。 (2)养殖航道与区间布局规范化。筏架以顺流筏设置为主,30台-40台筏架组成1个养殖小区,4个小区组成1个大区,呈田字型排列,小区航道间距30m-40m,大区航道间距80m-100m。 (3)养殖密度标准化。筏架间距5m-6m,以6m较为合适;夹苗单株株间距(单夹)8cm-8.5cm、苗绳间距90cm-100cm。每亩(指海域面积)夹苗总数控制在8500株-9500株,平均9000株。该技术得到荣成市海洋与渔业局支持,并与浮漂标准化工程结合,在全市推广。 2018年9月-10月,共召开两次培训会,发放规范化建议手册300份,总推广面积超过4600亩。实际应用效果表明:海带养殖密度降低约20%,鲜菜产量增加10%以上,每1000亩养殖效益增加100万元以上。


Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(27)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(28)
  3、冷水褐藻的加工高效利用关键技术

  完成时间:2018年

  技术来源单位:大连海洋大学

  研发团队:褐藻加工岗位团队

  技术要点:虽然我国的褐藻产量占世界的70%以上,但褐藻加工产业的收益率低,褐藻产业仍以初级加工产品为主,缺少新的高附加值产品及高效利用关键技术。针对此问题,研究团队改变了传统褐藻综合利用胶、碘、甘露醇系统,以提取褐藻聚糖硫酸酯为主线,创建了褐藻高效利用关键技术,即提取褐藻聚糖硫酸酯的同时,延长辅助生产线分离提取褐藻胶(褐藻低聚糖与寡糖)、褐藻多酚、海藻渣(膳食纤维和海藻肥)等高附加值产品。团队以褐藻聚糖硫酸酯为主,辅以多种中药食材提取物,制备了两种复配制剂;开展了两种复配制剂对免疫调节及对降血糖疗效的研究;形成了褐藻聚糖硫酸酯药食材复配技术。团队利用微生物酶降解技术,将生产褐藻聚糖硫酸酯的过程产物褐藻酸钠,降解生产褐藻胶低聚糖与寡糖,形成低聚糖与寡糖产品、功能食品和化妆品的基料。提取褐藻聚糖硫酸酯后剩余藻渣的膳食纤维高达75%以上,利用褐藻渣,创新生产了褐藻膳食纤维为主的海带酱和膳食纤维食品,形成了独立的知识产权“富含膳食纤维的海带酱(ZL201210325883.4)”和“富含海带膳食纤维的膨化食品及其生产方法(ZL201210325804.X)”。团队还利用微生物酶降解技术综合利用大量的海带渣生产了海藻肥。该高效利用关键技术是传统褐藻综合利用系统的产值的2.2倍以上。


Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(29)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(30)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(31)

  (二)主要模式

  1、多层次综合养殖模式

  技术来源单位:中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所、中国科学院海洋研究所、寻山集团有限公司

  研发团队:方建光、杨红生、蒋增杰、叶乃好、李长青、常丽荣

  技术要点:根据不同营养级养殖生物的营养需求以及海区的养殖容量,构建2层、3层、3+1层等多种形式的生态养殖模式,并进行各种养殖品种的合理密植、优化搭配,以实现自然环境养分、能量、空间利用率的最大化。

  (1)两层生态养殖模式

  根据海域状况,在不适合投放人工鱼礁的海域,上层进行海带、龙须、裙带等大型藻类筏式养殖,中层吊养鲍、扇贝等海珍品贝类,形成了“藻-扇贝”或“藻-鲍”复合的筏式2层生态养殖模式。

  藻-扇贝复合的筏式生态养殖模式。在75m的筏架上吊挂85绳海带;海带吊绳间吊养扇贝,每台筏架吊挂50笼。

  藻-鲍复合的筏式生态养殖模式。在75m的筏架上吊挂85绳海带;海带吊绳间吊养鲍,每台筏架吊挂24笼。

  (2)三层生态养殖模式

  在适合投放增殖型人工鱼礁的海域,投放人工鱼礁,并底播增殖鲍、刺参等苗种;中层以筏式方式养殖鲍、扇贝等贝类;上层养殖海带、龙须菜等藻类。形成了“藻-贝-参”三层生态养殖模式。该养殖模式上中层按2层养殖模式配比养殖,下层造礁、底播增殖海珍品。

  投放鱼礁主要是3×3×3m的钢制鱼礁;

  底播鲍规格要控制在4cm以上,密度平均为2个/平方米;

  底播刺参规格要达到300头/kg以上,底播密度平均为100kg/亩。

  (3)3+1生态休闲养殖模式

  对海域使用论证中适合建设生态礁的海域底层投放聚鱼型生态鱼礁,中层以筏式方式养殖鲍、扇贝等贝类;上层养殖海带、龙须菜等藻类。形成了“藻-贝-鱼”3层生态养殖,并在此基础上,建设海上平台、海上垂钓等休闲渔业设施,加快产业融合,形成了“藻-贝-鱼”+“游乐购”的3+1生态休闲养殖模式。

  应用规模和效果:“浅海多营养层次生态养殖模式”充分利用养殖系统中不同层次营养级生物间的生态互利性及养殖水域对养殖生物的容纳量,科学整合不同营养级生物,达到了近海生态系统中生源要素的高效、高值利用。目前,公司在桑沟湾及爱莲湾海域已形成“海上生态养殖,海底生态牧场”的格局,应用面积近3000公顷,养殖效益叠加效应明显,生态效益显著,已成为我国乃至世界闻名的生态养殖示范区。

  所产生的效益:

  经济效益:多营养层次生态养殖模式将藻类、贝类、海参和鱼类严格按照一定比例搭配,实现了“减量增收”;海带、龙须菜等藻类亩产由2.08吨提高到2.63吨,增产26.5%;扇贝亩产量由1.56吨提高到2.1吨,增产34.6%;鲍亩产量由2.07吨提高到2.48吨,增产19.8%;综合亩产平均提高26.3%。

  生态效益:多营养层次生态养殖模式对改善海洋生态环境,吸收二氧化碳具有明显作用。据测量统计,公司实施的藻类贝类生态养殖每年的固碳量相当于12万公顷森林一年的固碳量,生物的碳汇作用得到了较好的发挥,彰显该养殖模式的生态服务功能。同时,多营养层次生态养殖由于多种养殖物生态功能互补、营养物质互用,有效的避免了水质的富营养化,以及污染、赤潮情况的发生。根据世界最先进的养殖环境监测系统,挪威MOM-B系统评价结果,桑沟湾和爱伦湾水质经过40多年的养殖,水质一直处于优良状态。海底投放的构件,为海洋生物提供了良好的繁衍生息场所,将有效的保护了水生生物,促进海洋生物资源的增殖和恢复。

  通过底播增殖、放流、海藻床的生态修复建设等,生态环境得到较好的修复,渔获量显著增加。通过对已建设完成的海洋牧场海区生态环境监测记录、渔获物统计调查记录等数据的汇总统计发现,渔获量比2005年增加50%以上。

  2016年,联合国粮农组织(FAO)和亚太水产养殖中心网络(NACA)将桑沟湾综合养殖模式作为亚太地区12个可持续集约化水产养殖的典型成功案例之一向全世界进行了推广。

  社会效益:公司近年来在实施生态养殖的基础上,结合海洋牧场“四个一”工程建设,积极发展休闲渔业,将农业生产主体及休闲观光游憩活动相结合,解决了渔民转业和渔船转产问题,使渔业增产,渔民增收,对现代渔业经济的发展起到示范带动作用;同时,休闲渔业的发展,扩大产品销售范围,提高了产品市场占有率,促进了品牌的打造提升,推动产业融合发展。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(32)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(33)


  2、海带龙须菜轮养模式

  技术来源单位:中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所、山东省海洋生物研究院、寻山集团有限公司

  研发团队:毛玉泽、詹冬梅、李晓波、肖露阳、徐智广

  技术要点:利用海带和龙须菜不同的养殖期,进行海带和龙须菜接力养殖。

  1、每年10月下旬,将海带幼苗海上暂养,经历分苗、切梢后,第二年4月下旬即可开始部分收割。鲜菜加工海带收割一般在5月上中旬,鲜干比达到7:1-8:1即可间收,水温15℃以上可整绳收割。干菜加工海带收割在海区水温达到17℃以上,即可整绳收割。

  2、每年5月中上旬,从福建等南方沿海,选取生长旺盛,颜色紫红、杂藻较少的龙须菜,经清洗、降温处理,通过冷藏保温车(4℃-8℃)运输到北方。在潮流畅通、风浪较小、水温13℃及以上的海区进行暂养,暂养时间为3周-4周。

  3、当水温达到16℃时,开始夹苗。在海带已完成收割的海域进行养殖。经过30天-40天的养殖期,每米苗绳龙须菜湿重达到3kg-4kg(2kg-3kg)时,即可收获。选取部分藻体较粗,颜色紫黑的作为苗种,继续进行分苗养殖,整个生长季节养殖3茬-4茬。

  应用规模和效果:目前海带龙须菜轮养模式应用规模约1.5万亩。海带龙须菜轮养模式利用海带筏架,不需要增加额外的养殖设施,在海带收获后,重复利用海域环境条件,操作方便、节约成本;同时海带和龙须菜接力养殖可以稳定海水营养盐等成分,能较好控制养殖环境,具有明显的经济和生态效益。

  龙须菜产量每亩约2吨-3吨,平均售价2元/kg,平均每亩增产5000元,效益显著。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(34)
  3、海带虾夷扇贝间养模式

  完成时间:2018年

  技术来源单位:中国水产科学研究院长岛增殖实验站

  研发团队:国家藻类产业技术体系长岛综合试验站团队、国家藻类产业技术体系离岸式养殖岗位团队。

  技术要点:长岛拥有“中国海带之乡”和“中国扇贝之乡”美称,海带和虾夷扇贝养殖在当地海洋渔业经济中占有重要地位。但随着近年来养殖密度不断加大,海洋环境变化和劳动力成本逐年增加等原因,扇贝死亡率明显升高,海带和扇贝养殖效益均受到较大影响。大型藻类与滤食性贝类存在生态耦合机制,在生态互利机制基础上,长岛增殖实验站研发团队自2011年开始进行藻贝间养模式的研究,即在一个养殖筏架上的两根相邻海带养殖绳中间挂养虾夷扇贝养殖笼,开展海带与虾夷扇贝间隔养殖。经过几年的探索和实践,建立了成熟的海带与虾夷扇贝间养模式,并于2018年通过专家验收。该模式技术要点:养殖水深10m以上,海带养殖绳长度8m,绳间距1.5m,夹苗间距10cm,养殖筏间距8m;在绠绳上每两根海带养殖绳中间挂养一个虾夷扇贝养殖笼,直径33cm,每个养殖笼16层,海带夹苗时一龄虾夷扇贝(壳高2-3cm)每层25个-35个,第二年3月份虾夷扇贝分苗,每层10个-20个,夏季高温期适当调节养殖笼深度。采取海带与虾夷扇贝间养,不仅可改善海带生长状况,亦可明显提高虾夷扇贝生长速度和存活率。测定结果表明:间养区海带平均长度397.0cm、宽度56.0cm、株重3.1kg,虾夷扇贝壳高5.8cm,存活率为93.0%;非间养区海带平均长度377.0cm,平均宽度51.0cm,平均株重3.0kg,虾夷扇贝壳高5.1cm,存活率为67.0%。相对于非间养模式,间养模式下海带可增产3.0%,虾夷扇贝存活率提高38.8%。 2018年,示范推广该养殖模式600亩,间养区经济效益明显提高,成效显著。
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(35)
Report on Development of my country’s Kelp Industryimage(36)

  三、问题及建议

  (一)海带产业存在的问题

  1、国际贸易环境恶化。我国海带没有国际定价的话语权,国际质量形象也陪衬末席。此外,在欧美等国家的国际贸易市场上的出口关税过高,相较于日韩海带在美国出口的零关税,我国海带在美国出口的关税高达25%,这极大地遏制了我国海带在国际贸易中的市场份额。

  2、政府部门对海带价值缺乏了解。海带能直接吸收尿素、氨基酸、磷酸酯等含氮、磷有机污染物以及木质素、酚类等难降解的有毒物质,甚至能有效吸附重金属,同时,海带的二氧化碳固定能力强,可以利用光和作用固定二氧化碳。然而政府部门对海带的生态价值缺乏了解,对海带产业缺乏重视,甚至有政府部门错误地认为海带养殖会对海洋环境造成污染。

  3、海带企业利润率低。海带企业在种苗研发与人才培养需要长期的资金投入与支持、同时在设备采购、用水用电、人工等方面也耗资巨大,因此海带企业在海带养殖、加工方面成本非常高。但是海带产品存在价格偏低、产品很少打入高端市场等问题。以上因素综合导致海带企业利润率较低。

  4、海带产品竞争力弱,品牌建设有待加强。我国海带产品种类多样化程度低,高附加值的产品较少,海带企业缺乏产品研发能力,产品创新度不够,产品技术含量低,缺乏明显的市场竞争力。目前我国海带产品优质品牌很少,消费者对海带产品广告宣传熟识度低。海带产品品牌缺乏影响力和竞争力,但宣传力度不够,信息沟通渠道严重不畅。

  5、生产设备与加工技术落后,劳动强度大。我国大部分海带企业生产加工设备陈旧落后,企业只能进行一些简单的粗加工,规模化生产的程度不高,我国海带企业加工技术较日韩仍有一定差距。我国海带生产仍以传统方式为主,机械化程度低,人工投入多,劳动强度大,大多数工作人员年龄都高于50岁,面临后继乏人的困境。同时,随着养殖向深海区扩张,劳动强度和危险程度加深,虽然工资水平逐年上升,但农户从业意愿仍然不高,招工难问题突出。

  6、海带产品安全评价和标准化问题突出。我国海带产品安全评价研究工作落后,海带产品标准化相关技术的基础性研究工作不足。对于海带食品而言,零售端散装产品销售没有安全标准,食品质量无法得到保证,影响消费者购买决策。海藻酸盐是重要的食品添加剂,由于作为食品添加剂使用标准滞后,限制了其市场开拓与新产品的研发。对于加工业而言,作为印染助剂的褐藻酸钠因产品标准和检验技术问题无法参与市场竞争。

  7、海带协会的管理与整合能力有待提高。海带行业存在着管理和服务体系不够完善的问题,具体表现为:第一,企业归根结底是追求利益最大化的经济体。海带养殖、加工企业中部分企业过分追求自身利益,从而损害海带养殖加工行业的利益,例如采用不正当竞争手段、利用恶性价格战等行为。第二,行业协会管理能力有待提高,严重制约了行业协会的管理水平。当前海带协会还未演变成具有强大号召力、约束力的行业管理机构,因此,面对海带市场场外交易和恶性价格竞争等种种问题,无法充分进行协调和管理。

  (二)政府扶持与监管

  1、改善贸易环境,扩大国际市场。目前我国海带贸易虽有一定优势,处于贸易顺差,但巨大的贸易额主要是来自于贸易量,贸易单价并不具有明显优势。同时,贸易品种结构比较单一,以初级海带产品为主,深度加工海带产品较少。因此,中国海带产业应当专注于提高海带贸易品种质量,而不依靠粗放型的低价高量贸易模式,积极从原来的初级产品出口转变为深加工海带产品出口,提升中国海带竞争力,拓展海带出口市场。此外,还应当扩大对外贸易市场,积极寻求多元合作,与各贸易国建立稳定、健康、可持续的海带贸易关系,为我国海带贸易创造良好的贸易环境。我国海带进口来源国主要集中于东南亚国家,应抓住“一带一路”的发展机遇,在加固与原有进口来源国的基础上,实施分散进口战略,拓宽我国的海带贸易市场,防止出现少数海带进口来源国对我国海带进口市场的集中垄断现象。

  2、加强海带食品的监管,严厉打击不合格产品。目前海带产品安全评价和标准化问题突出,政府相关部门应当结合海带市场现状,采取强有力的措施对海带生产和加工进行监督,针对安全问题设立严格的行业标准,加强质量监测,以科学的方式证明其营养、保健功能,在国家层面进行权威发布,并打通消费者了解海带营养价值信息的渠道。运用信息技术、建立海带产品的质量可追溯体系,生产让消费者放心的海带产品,维护消费者的切身利益,促进海带产品的优质优价。

  3、加大对海带产业扶持力度。海带企业若想要取得比较稳定和健康的发展之路,先进的技术和大力的资金支持是不可缺少的。我国的政府部门和养殖研究要对改良种质、应用新加工机械、改进栽培技术等进行大力资助与扶持,并加大相关的人力投入来保证海带养殖业的发展。充分发挥政府职能,改善海带养殖、加工的科研环境,从政策、资金等多个方面切实解决海带企业在海带养殖、加工过程中遇到的技术难题。重视优秀人才的引进与培养,使海带养殖与加工方面的优秀人才集聚;给予政策和资金支持,鼓励科研人员进行相关技术研究与创新,树立产学研体系将结合的发展目标,将产学研充分结合作为海带产业发展的推动力,提高相关技术的成果转化率。

  (三)海带养殖加工企业的应对策略

  1、加强海带新产品的研发。海带产业的发展要以满足消费者需求为核心,赢得消费者认可的产品才是真正的好产品。因此,企业应当开发适应市场需求的好产品,追踪市场新变化,将产品开发从“由里向外”思路转变过来,变为“由外向里”的思路,瞄准消费者的需要,不断开发中高端的产品、技术和理念,形成市场——产业的良性互动,让市场利润回流海带产业,以充裕资金促进产业快速发展。

  2、加强海带品牌建设,提高品牌知名度。目前海带产业知名品牌不够多。要着力打造海带的地理标志品牌、区域品牌,提出各个地域的产品特色。品牌的要害是定位鲜明而且单一,实现与众不同。品牌培育起来后,要发挥海带行业协会的功能,防止内部恶性竞争,共同维护品牌。此外,加大品牌宣传力度,结合“互联网+”优势,建立由海带产品消费者组成的网络群体和网络虚拟社区,注意培养网络意见领袖,引导新时代消费群。

  3、加强科技推广,提升产品质量。新时期振兴产业的关键靠科技。海带产业的发展需要发挥科技的支撑作用,找准制约海带产业发展的少数核心技术。在新种开发、良种选育方面,坚持品种培育以市场为导向,紧跟市场需求,以经济和市场指导育种,形成完善的育种养殖体系。在加强机械化程度方面,创建新型养殖模式,加强生产加工设备的研发,利用机械化生产代替人工养殖,减少养殖过程中的劳动力投入,提高资本产出率,解放生产力。在加工技术方面,促进海带产品加工技术,使海带就地商品化,精深加工化,实现产后增值。评估各项海带技术的市场潜力和经济效益,做到创意科技化,科技产品化,产品货币化。

  4、提高从业者素质,加强有效供给。海带产业发展离不开新一代从业者的支撑作用。随着粗放型的海带增长模式,海洋养殖面积逐渐扩大,养殖区域向深海区扩张,劳动难度和强度也进一步加大,劳动成本增加,海带产品价格不理想,海带价格甚至明显下降,打击了海带养殖和加工的积极性。为加大海带的人才引入和产业的良性发展,首先,应当调动海带产业从业者包括生产者、经营者、研发者等的积极性,提高他们的收入水平。其次,应当提升海带从业者的业务素质,加强有关农技部门的队伍建设,培养一批有热情、有能力掌握最新科研技术的有为海带从业人员。最后,健全海带从业人员的培训规划,将各岗位海带从业者分批送入有关高等院校和机构进行培训,加强从业人员的管理、规划和监控能力。发挥人才的力量,实现海带产业的高质量发展。