my country’s Oyster Industry Development Report
By: Date: 2021-02-18 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
  1. Development status of the oyster industry

   (1) Oyster farming situation

  1. Spatial distribution of main oyster producing areas and production

   oysters, commonly known as sea oysters, oysters (oysters), oysters, oysters, etc., are a widespread bivalve molluscs, and more than 100 have been discovered so far Species, almost all coastal countries in the world have production, the output is the highest in shellfish. China has abundant oyster resources and a long history of using this resource. The ancestors in some areas along the southern coast had mastered the technique of planting oysters with bamboo as early as the Han Dynasty, and it has a history of more than 2,000 years. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially since the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy, China’s oyster production has continued to grow. After entering the 21st century, it has shown a rapid and substantial increase. In 2017, it accounted for 83.29%of the world’s total and reached a new high in 2018, reaching 5,139,800 tons. (attachment1). There are diverse populations of oysters in coastal areas of China. Among them, the most commercially used oysters are Crassostrea gigas gigas, Fujian oysters (C. gigas angulata) and Hongkong oysters (C. hongkongensis), while Oyster oysters (C. ariakensis) and Kumamoto oysters (C. sikmea) There is also a certain scale of breeding. Figure 1 shows the distribution of five types of oysters along the coast of China.
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  Figure 1. The main types of oysters are Distribution of China’s coastal areas

  According to the figures given in the”China Fishery Statistical Yearbook”, we have drawn the spatial distribution map of China’s oyster production in 2018 (Figure 2). It is necessary to note that although the”China Fishery Statistical Yearbook” does not provide data on oyster production in Hebei and Tianjin, according to reports from the National Shellfish Industry Technology System Qinhuangdao and Tianjin Comprehensive Experimental Station, oysters are produced in both places. Pacific oyster farming started in Hebei Province around 2017. The current farming area and output are 15,000 mu and 10,000 tons, respectively. Although Tianjin has not carried out large-scale artificial breeding activities, the annual amount of wild oysters has been maintained at about 30 thousand tons for many years, and most of them are sold as semi-finished products to Rushan, Shandong for further fattening.
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  Figure 2. Spatial distribution of China’s oyster production in 2018

   Pacific oyster, also known as Pacific oyster, is commonly known as”sea oyster” in the north. Its spatial distribution extends from the mouth of the Yalu River in the north to the waters surrounding Lianyungang, Jiangsu, and is a coastal area in northern my country The main aquaculture species in 2018 reached 1,241,100 tons, accounting for 24.15%of the country’s total oyster production of 5,139,800 tons that year. Among them, Shandong is the province with the highest production (933,200 tons), accounting for 75.20%of the national oyster production in 2018, followed by Liaoning with a production of 268,800 tons (21.60%), and Jiangsu’s output is only 39,900 tons. Accounted for 3.21%.

  The relationship between Fujian oyster and Pacific oyster is closer than other oysters, and the two can cross smoothly. Therefore, some scholars believe that it is the southern sister species of Pacific oyster. . For a long time, Fujian oysters have been called Portuguese oysters (commonly known as”oysters”). They are mainly distributed in the intertidal and subtidal shallow water areas of Zhejiang, Fujian and Eastern Guangdong in the East China Sea. They are the two places of Fujian and Zhejiang. The main cultured species is also the most productive oyster. In 2018, Fujian’s oyster production increased to 2,117,200 tons, accounting for 41.20%of the country’s total oyster production. Among them, the output of Fujian alone was as high as 1,894,200 tons, accounting for 36.85%of the country’s total oyster output, which was more than twice the total output of 978,900 tons of all other economies outside of Mainland China in 2017 (Annex 1). Zhejiang contributed The remaining 223,000 tons, which may also include a small amount of Kumamoto oyster production (the specific number is unknown).

   Hong Kong oysters, also known as”white meat” and”big oysters” commonly known by southern coastal residents, are mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan in the South China Sea. It may also be seen in some estuaries of Fujian. It is the main cultured species in the coastal areas of Guangdong and Guangxi. Its output is second only to Fujian oysters. In 2018, Hong Kong’s oyster production reached 1,751,800 tons, accounting for 22.21%of the country’s total oyster production. Among them, Guangdong (1.1415 million tons) accounted for 65.16%(which may include some Fujian oysters produced in eastern Guangdong), which also exceeded the total output of oysters in all other economies outside mainland China in 2017. Guangxi contributed 636,100 Tons (36.31%), Hainan’s output is almost negligible, only 3,900 tons.

   near river oysters, because their soft parts are dark brown, fishermen along the coast of southern China call them”red meat”, and they have been widely distributed in coastal estuaries of China in history . In 2017, relevant experts of the National Shellfish Industry System rediscovered the natural population of Oyster Oysters in the Yellow and Bohai Seas. In order to protect this precious resource, the National Shellfish Industry Technology System and the local government reported to the Shandong Provincial Party Committee and Provincial Government, and received instructions from the Provincial Party Secretary. As the market demand for high-end oysters continues to expand, Omi oyster farming activities have also received increasing attention from relevant parties. In addition, it is necessary to clarify that before 2007, the Omi oyster mentioned in the literature was actually a collective term commonly known as”white meat” and”red meat” oysters. It is only in recent years that scholars have defined it as two separate species. Namely”Hong Kong oyster” and”Omi oyster”. Both of them have similar external morphology. Both are large species of Crassostrea. The former is a tropical and subtropical warm water species, and the latter is an estuarine species widely distributed from the northern temperate zone, subtropical to tropical waters. In addition, the anatomical structure of the two is also obviously different, and the shell type of Omi oyster often varies greatly depending on the habitat environment.

  Kumamoto oyster is another common species besides Fujian oyster in the coastal intertidal zone of Fujian and Zhejiang. The two coexist in some sea areas, in the intertidal zone of Nantong, Jiangsu There is also a large number of distributions in the belt, and no trace of it is seen north of Nantong. Kumamoto oyster farming has a certain scale in Zhejiang and sporadic farming in Fujian, Guangxi and Guangdong.

   In addition, there is also a species of Crassostrea nippona (Crassostrea nippona), which is distributed in the waters of Zhoushan, Zhejiang. It also has great potential for industrial development, but it has not yet been developed. .

  According to the data provided by the”China Fishery Statistical Yearbook”, Table 1 lists the total production of oysters in China in 2018 and the production of oysters in various provincial administrative regions and their Contribution to total national oyster production.
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   added that from 2000 to 2018, China’s oyster production increased from 3,292,000 tons at the beginning of the period to 5,139,800 tons at the end of the period. Except for a few years, in general, It is increasing, with an average annual growth rate of 2.52%. During the same period, the production of long oysters, Fujian oysters and Hong Kong oysters increased from 813,100 tons, 1.559 million tons, and 919,900 tons to 1,464,100 tons, 1,894,200 tons, and 1,781,400 tons, respectively, with an average annual growth rate of 3.32%and 1.09, respectively.%And 3.74%. In addition, Annex 1 compares the production of oysters in China and other economies in the world in more detail from 2007 to 2017.

  2, the development status of the oyster industry in 2019

  According to the incomplete statistics of the national shellfish industry technology system, China’s oyster production in 2019 is about 4.5393 million tons. Among them, the production of long oysters, Fujian oysters and Hong Kong oysters were about 975,200 tons, 1.59 million tons (which may contain a small amount of Kumamoto oysters) and 1,965,100 tons (which may contain a small amount of Fujian oysters). Obviously, except for Hong Kong’s oyster production which was higher than 1,781,400 tons in 2018, the production of the other two oysters was lower than the previous year’s level. Nevertheless, looking at the existing data, with the exception of the data reported by the Dalian, Tianjin and Qingdao Comprehensive Experimental Stations, which fell year-on-year, the figures provided by other stations have increased to varying degrees compared with the previous year (Table 2). Based on this, coupled with the actual observations, we speculate that the actual output of the year should be higher than the 2018’s 5,139,800 tons.
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   (2) Oyster processing and trade situation

  1, oyster processing status

   There are 121 oyster processing enterprises in China, mainly located in coastal provinces. Among them, Shandong, Guangdong, Fujian, Liaoning and Guangxi have the most, with 41, 23, 17, 10 and 8 respectively, and the remaining 22 are located in Jiangsu (4), Anhui (4), and Hainan. (3), Beijing (3), Tianjin (3), Hebei (2), Zhejiang (1), Hubei (1) and Guizhou (1). Although the annual output value of China’s oyster processing industry is only 20 billion yuan, the added value created is as high as 12 billion yuan.

   Chinese oyster processed varieties include cold fresh oyster meat, frozen oyster products (half-shell frozen oysters, frozen oyster meat, frozen oyster pre-prepared products), dried products ( Dried oysters), condiments (oyster sauce), canned collections (canned seasoned oysters, canned smoked oysters), casual ready-to-eat products (oyster casual ready-to-eat products, oyster sausage, oyster sauce), nutritious health foods (oyster powder, oyster peptide powder, Oral liquid, capsule) etc. For a long time, the pattern of mainly relying on fresh sales after oyster harvesting has not changed, and the processing volume only accounts for 30-40%of the total oyster output. Among them, frozen processed products accounted for about 50%of the total processed products, followed by seasonings, accounting for about 20%, dried products and nutritious health foods each accounted for about 10%, canned collections and leisure instant products each accounted for About 5%, the comprehensive processing and utilization of oyster shell products are still relatively small.

  2, oyster trade status

  Annex 1 introduces in more detail the trend of China’s oyster trade with the world from 2007 to 2017 and the status of China’s oyster trade in 2018. The following will explain China in 2019. (Excluding China Hong Kong, China Macau, China Taiwan) Oyster import and export situation.

  2.1 Oyster imports

   China Customs data shows that China’s oyster import volume, import value and average import price in 2019 were 4,372.74 tons, 4,218,600 U.S. dollars, and 9,700 U.S. dollars/ton respectively, year-on-year Increased by 6.26%, 4.77%and decreased by 1.41%respectively. Among them,”live, fresh or cold oysters, except for seedlings” is the most important type of commodity. Imports and imports accounted for 82.86%and 90.67%of the total and total imports of the year, followed by”frozen oysters”. ,”Prepared or preserved oysters” and”dried, salted, salted or smoked oysters”. France, South Korea, Japan, Ireland and New Zealand are the top five sources of oysters imported by China, and the most important trade method is”general trade” (Table 3).
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   Table 3 and Figure 3 show that in addition to coastal areas, some inland areas also import oysters from outside the region. In spite of this, apart from Beijing, the largest importers are Shanghai, Guangdong, Shandong and Liaoning along the coast. Among them, Shanghai’s import volume is as high as 1,500 tons.
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  Figure 3. Space for China’s oyster imports in 2019 Points

  2.2 Oyster export

   In 2019, China’s oyster export volume, export value and average export price were 8,119.78 tons, 57,408,100 U.S. dollars and 6,500 U.S. dollars per ton, down 11.09%year-on-year, respectively. 30.52%and 21.84%. Among them, the most important commodity type is”made or preserved oysters”, and its export volume and export value accounted for 72.94%and 91.49%of the total export volume and total value of the year. The United States, Vietnam, Canada, Japan, and Hong Kong are the top five destinations for Chinese oyster exports, and the most important trade method is also”general trade” (Table 4).
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   The United States is the main destination of Chinese oyster exports. China’s oyster exports to the United States accounted for 50.00%of China’s total and total oyster exports in 2018. 65.83%(Annex 1). In 2019, the above proportion dropped to 30.86%and 47.25%respectively. This is because the United States has imposed a 10%tariff on 200 billion Chinese products since September 24, 2018, including Chinese oyster products exported to the United States. In 2019 From May 10, the tariff level has further increased to 25%. Affected by the increase in tariffs and the “export rush” behavior of domestic exporters in the fourth quarter of 2018, China’s export volume, export value and average export price of oysters to the United States decreased to 2,721.43 tons, 27,127,600 U.S. dollars and 10,000 U.S. dollars/ton, respectively. A decrease of 45.14%, 50.13%and 9.09%. Because exporters are difficult to find alternative markets in the short term, and the average price of oyster products exported to the United States is much higher than that of China’s other trading partners, this is the main reason for the decline in China’s oyster export volume, export value and average export price in 2019 .
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  Figure 4. Space for China’s oyster export volume in 2019 Distribution

   It is necessary to explain that all Chinese oyster seedling exports are sold to Vietnam through Fujian. In 2019, Fujian’s export of oyster seedlings to Vietnam increased abnormally, from 19.59 tons in the previous year to 995.72 tons, an increase of 4,982.54%, while the average export price dropped from 15,900 US dollars/ton to only 0.03 million US dollars/ton ( -97.91%), which led to the increase in exports from only US$311,900 to US$331,900 (6.40%). This abnormal phenomenon has had a significant impact on China’s oyster export volume and average export price. Excluding seedling exports, China’s oyster export volume, export value and average export price in 2019 will be 7,824.06 tons, 57,076,200 U.S. dollars and 7,300 U.S. dollars per ton, down 20.98%, 30.66%, and 12.25%from 2018.

   Table 4 and Figure 4 show that China’s oyster exports are in the order of Shandong, Fujian, Guangdong, Liaoning and Zhejiang. Among them, only Shandong exported more than 2,000 tons.

  2.3 Export situation of the three main varieties

   The Yellow and Bohai Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea are the three major production areas of the three major species:Long oyster, Fujian oyster and Hong Kong oyster. Among them, the Yellow and Bohai Sea area includes Jiangsu and coastal provinces and cities to the north, the East China Sea area includes three provinces and cities in Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian, and the South China Sea area includes three provincial administrative regions of Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. In order to analyze the export situation of the three main cultured species, we will summarize the number and amount of oysters exported by the provincial administrative regions in the form of”general trade” in 2019 according to the corresponding sea areas. The results are shown in Table 5a~c.
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  The export volume and export value of oysters in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea ranks first among the three sea areas. In 2019, the export volume, export value and average export price of oysters in the region were 46.611 million tons, 30.414 million US dollars and 0.65 million US dollars per ton, down 24.26%, 25.21%and 1.26%respectively. The main type of export commodities are prepared and preserved oysters, and the main export destination is the United States.

  The export volume, export value, and average export price of oysters in the East China Sea region were 2161.52 tons, US$15,992,200 and US$7,400/ton, an increase of 25.03%and a decrease respectively year-on-year 50.80%, 60.65%. Among them, the main reason for the increase in export volume is the abnormal increase in export volume of oyster seedlings from Fujian to Vietnam. After excluding seedlings, the export volume, export value and average export price of oysters in the East China Sea that year were 11.6580 tons, 15.6601 million U.S. dollars and 13,400 U.S. dollars per ton, down 31.80%, 51.35%and 28.68%respectively compared with 2018. Regardless of the export value or the export volume after excluding outliers, the main types of commodities exported from this sea area are oysters produced and preserved, and the main export destination is also the United States.

   In 2019, only the South China Sea region had a year-on-year increase in the export volume and average export price of oysters in the Three Great Seas. The export volume, export volume, and average export price of the year were as follows 1,579.84 tons, 8,732,200 US dollars and 5,500 US dollars/ton, an increase of 19.04%, 64.13%and 37.88%respectively. The South China Sea mainly exports live, fresh or refrigerated oysters to Hong Kong and Macau, as well as oysters produced and preserved to Singapore and Malaysia. Obviously, the main export commodity types and export destinations of the South China Sea are different from the first two sea areas.

   According to the oyster export situation in each sea area in 2019, the export volume of long oyster is the largest, followed by Fujian oyster and Hong Kong oyster. Since the main export destinations of long oysters and Fujian oysters are the United States, the export volume and value of exports in 2019 have dropped significantly due to the impact of additional tariffs. Hong Kong’s oysters are mainly exported to Hong Kong, Macau and Southeast Asian countries, and have not been significantly affected by the additional tariffs imposed by the United States. Moreover, due to the significant increase in exports to Singapore and Malaysia in 2019, Hong Kong’s oyster export volume and export value have increased against the trend, showing Obviously different from the export situation of the first two major varieties.

  (3) Oyster market and consumption status

  1. Oyster market and price changes

   The price monitoring data of the major domestic aquatic products wholesale market shows that in 2019, despite the general decline in the wholesale prices of other shellfish, the wholesale price of oysters still increased from 12.35 in the same period last year. Yuan/kg increased to 13.46 Yuan/kg, a year-on-year increase of 8.94%.

  The wholesale price of oysters from April 2008 to January 2018 calculated by the combined forecasting model (Figure 5) and the National Agricultural Products Wholesale Market Price Information Network of the Information Center of the Ministry of Agriculture Data, we forecast the trend of China’s oyster wholesale price from October 2019 to September 2020. The output of the model shows that the wholesale price of oysters in China will begin to rise in October 2019, reach a peak in February 2020, and then begin to decline. Based on the model output, we predict that the wholesale price of oysters in China will increase from 9.5 yuan/kg in October 2019 to 10.65 yuan/kg in February 2020, and then decline from this peak to 10 yuan/kg in September of that year. kg (Figure 6).
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   Figure 5. Flow chart of oyster wholesale price combination forecasting model
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   Figure 6. Comparison of the predicted and original value of my country’s oyster wholesale price

   Table 6 summarizes the 2019 average annual oyster origin prices reported by the comprehensive test stations. Obviously, the highest price is the Hong Kong oyster reported by Qinzhou Station (10.20 yuan/kg), followed by the long oyster reported by Dalian Station and Changdao Station, which are 7.2 yuan/kg and 6.9 yuan/kg, respectively, and the lowest price is Qinhuangdao Station The reported long oysters and Fujian oysters reported by Xiamen Station are both RMB 1.2/kg.
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   Figure 7 is drawn based on the data in the aquaculture fishery system from May 2019 to January 2020. Indicates that there is no price data reported in the system). Obviously, the prices of oyster origins reported by each station showed obvious seasonal fluctuations. As far as long oysters are concerned, the peak price reported on Zhangzidao (27.3 yuan/kg) is about one month behind Rongcheng (4.32 yuan/kg) and Qingdao (14 yuan/kg). Except for Shantou Station, the early-stage Fujian oyster prices reported by Ningde and Xiamen stations were higher than those reported in the later stage. In the case of Hong Kong oysters, the trajectory of price changes reported by Qinzhou Station is obviously different from that of Shantou Station and Zhanjiang Station.
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  Figure 7. From May 2019 to January 2020 Changes in the prices of oyster origins reported by comprehensive test stations in the month

  2, oyster consumption intention and structure analysis

   Oysters have a smooth texture and delicious taste, and contain 18 essential amino acids and a variety of trace elements. They have been loved by people from all over the world since ancient times. Today, it is even more expensive luxury in the international seafood market. The wholesale price of a live oyster with a size of 60~100g in the French market is as high as 19.69~20.92 US dollars (FAO, European Price Report, Issue 1/2020, p.15; FAO, European Price Report, Issue 1/2016, p.17). In China, the nutritional, health care and medicinal value of oysters are clearly documented in the”Treatise on Febrile Diseases” in the Han Dynasty and”Compendium of Materia Medica” in the Ming Dynasty. In 2018, the National Health Commission included them in the first batch of”Yishi” in China.”Yiyao” is in the list of health care products.

   The results of a comparative study on oyster production, trade and consumption between China and the world show that from 2007 to 2017, the apparent consumption of oysters in China and the world has increased from 3.579 million at the beginning of the period. Tons and 1.0648 million tons, increasing and decreasing to 4.873 million tons and 978,900 tons in 2017, with an average annual growth rate of 3.34%and -0.84%, respectively. The per capita consumption of oysters in China and the world calculated by apparent consumption are respectively From 2.66kg/person and 0.19kg/person at the beginning of the period to 3.52kg/person and 0.15kg/person at the end of the period, the average annual growth rates were 2.82%and -2.47%. In 2018, China’s apparent consumption of oysters and per capita consumption calculated by apparent consumption further increased to 5.134 million tons and 3.69 kg/person, an increase of 5.35%and 4.87%respectively year-on-year (Annex 1). This shows that, in terms of total volume, China is the world’s largest oyster consumer, and in terms of per capita level, China is a major oyster consumer, if not the largest.

   In 2019, we conducted a market survey of Chinese residents’ oyster consumption willingness. The results showed that 95.84%of the respondents knew about oysters, and 77.32%of the respondents had purchased oysters within the last year; as to whether the types of oysters on the market could be identified, the respondents’ choices were not clear ( 31.38%), unsure (28.07%) and relatively understanding (34.03%); as to”how to judge the quality of oysters”, the proportion of respondents who chose”not at all”,”not very clear” and”unsure” As high as 80.9%(Table 7). This shows that although most Chinese residents have known and experienced oyster consumption and have a relatively strong willingness to consume, the level of awareness is still at the preliminary stage of understanding, which indicates that there is still room for further development in the oyster market.
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   From the perspective of consumer behavior, the most common frequency of Chinese residents buying oysters is”2-4 times a month” and”Once 1-3 months.” The purchase amount is mainly within the range of”1-3kg”, and the single consumption amount is concentrated between 21-100 yuan. Weekends are the peak period of consumption. Parties and daily meals are consumers’ favorite consumption occasions. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets It is the most important sales channel. Barbecue stalls are the most preferred place for consumers to eat out. Fresh whole-shell and fresh half-shell oysters are the most frequently purchased product forms. Steaming and grilling are the two most popular cooking methods. , And the two characteristics most valued by consumers when buying are”freshness” and”taste”.

  (4) Benefits of the oyster industry

  1, economic benefits

   From 2007 to 2017, the output value of oyster farming in China has always shown a steady growth trend, rapidly rising from USD 1.881 billion at the beginning of the period to USD 5.255 billion at the end of the period, with an average annual growth rate The rate (10.82%) is more than 3 times the output (3.35%) (Annex 1).

   In 2019, according to the incomplete statistics of the national shellfish industry technology system, the output value directly created by oyster farming activities was about 22.371 billion yuan, of which the long oyster and Fujian oyster The direct output value created by oyster farming in Hong Kong is 6.025 billion yuan, 28.34 (which may contain part of the output value of Kumamoto oyster farming), and 13.512 billion yuan (which may contain part of the output value of Fujian oyster farming) (Table 2). Taking into account the numerous supporting links including nursery, processing, logistics, raw material supply and sales, the actual output value created by the Chinese oyster farming industry should be much higher than the above figures.

   It is necessary to explain that although China’s oyster processing volume accounts for only 30-40%of the output, the direct output value created is as high as 20 billion yuan. It is almost equal to the total output value directly created by oyster farming activities. Considering the huge production capacity of the domestic oyster industry, the relatively low unit breeding cost (Annex 1) and the considerable benefits generated by oyster processing activities, it is obviously necessary to accelerate the development and promotion of oyster processing technology as a major strategic direction for industrial development.

  2, social benefits

  The oyster industry is an important part of China’s fisheries. Oyster farming is an important activity in China’s coastal areas, and in some remote areas or even the local leading industry. The healthy development of the oyster industry is ensuring national food security, enriching animal protein species, maintaining stability in coastal areas, expanding employment channels, increasing incomes of fish and farmers, expanding exports and earning foreign exchange, inheriting traditional culture, cleaning sea water quality, and sequestering carbon In other aspects, they play an important and even irreplaceable role.

  According to the incomplete statistics of the national shellfish industry technology system, Table 8 lists the permanent and temporary workers directly employed by the Chinese oyster farming industry in 2019. In addition, it is estimated that the direct jobs provided by the oyster processing industry exceed 12,000, and the indirect jobs created by logistics, packaging, and sales related to oyster processing are also more than 10,000.
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   In recent years, Rushan City, Shandong Province, relying on the technology of Rushan Oyster Industry Research Institute, absorbing domestic and foreign scientific and technological strength, through the optimization of breeding mode and product quality improvement, so that oysters have changed from the ugly duckling Become a white swan and gradually enter the high-end market, replacing or partially replacing international high-end brands such as France. The output value per mu has increased by 3-4 times compared with a few years ago. It has realized the transformation of the oyster industry from a yield-efficient type to a quality-efficient type, leading China The technological progress and high-quality development of the oyster industry. In recent years, the output value of Rushan Oyster has ranked first among county-level cities in the country, with an annual output value of 2.4 billion yuan, accounting for 28%of the city’s total agricultural output value.”Rushan Oyster” has become a well-known brand in the industry. The development of Rushan oyster farming industry has also led to the rise of oyster purification and processing, e-commerce and other supporting industries. Currently, there are more than 100 oyster purification plants and 10 processing companies. The annual processing of oyster products is 20,000 tons, and the products are sold at home and abroad.全产业链从业人员2万余人,为该市重要的富民产业,已成为我国农业“一县一业”的典型,乳山已经成为国际闻名的“牡蛎之乡”。




















  浅海牡蛎-海带-海参多营养层次综合养殖模式。该模式标准筏架长100 m,海带绳间距/牡蛎笼间距1.15m,每个筏架海带绳数/牡蛎笼数87绳/43笼,筏架间距5.3m。与常规养殖方式相比,标准化养殖区海带的养殖密度降低了33.43%,收获时单棵海带湿重增加了47.74%,出成率提高14.8%,劳动力成本降低10%,经济效益提高57.85%;综合养殖的单体牡蛎由苗种时的平均6.25g/粒增重到收货时的124.73g/粒。浅海贝藻标准化生态养殖模式综合效益提高了131.1%。多年来的实践结果表明,该养殖模式综合经济效益提升幅度稳定在40%以上。

































  作者:慕永通 张树成

  除非另有说明,本报告引用数据来源于联合国粮食与农业组织(FAO)渔业与水产养殖统计软件(FishStatJ)、联合国商品贸易统计数据库(UN Comtrade)、世界银行、《中国渔业统计年鉴》和中国海关总署。本报告图表和文字中出现的“中国”仅指中国大陆,不包括中国香港、中国澳门和中国台湾地区,而“世界”则泛指除中国大陆以外,向FAO报告其牡蛎生产和贸易数据的其他所有经济体(国家和地区)。






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my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(31)
my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(32)



my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(33)
  图4.1. 2018年中国牡蛎产量的空间分布

my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(34)



my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(35)
my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(36)
  图4.2 2018年中国牡蛎进口量的空间分布



my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(37)
my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(38)
  图4.3. 2018年中国牡蛎出口量的空间分布


my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(39)


my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(40)
my country’s Oyster Industry Development Reportimage(41)