In 2020, the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences will thoroughly implement the spirit of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, adhere to the “four aspects”, and focus on fishery resources and ecology. A series of new achievements and breakthroughs have been made in the fields of environment, seed engineering and healthy aquaculture, aquatic product processing and quality safety, which have made important contributions to leading and supporting industrial transformation and upgrading and promoting the green and high-quality development of fishery. A total of 12 important scientific research progresses were selected after the recommendation of various scientific research departments and expert evaluations, and two of them were selected as the major scientific research progress of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences in 2020.
Selected by China Fisheries Science Two major achievements in scientific research at the institute level
1. Analyze the trend and mechanism of the movement ability of flagellate algae under climate change
Assessing and predicting the impact of climate change on aquatic organisms and their ecosystems is a challenging international frontier scientific issue. For the first time, the innovation team for the creation and utilization of marine algae germplasm analyzed the negative effects and mechanisms of water acidification on the motility of microalgae from the perspective of flagellar motility and regeneration ability, and expounded the potential impact of changes in motility on the evolution of microalgae populations for a systematic study Changes in the biodiversity pattern of water ecosystems under the conditions of climate change provide new research ideas and important theoretical basis. The study found that the 6-year indoor subculture and field meso-scale experiments of polar ice algae, halophilic salt algae and freshwater Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed that the acidification of water body caused by CO2 significantly reduced the movement of the three flagella microalgae Rate, and affect the regeneration ability of flagella. Under the interaction of Ca2+ signal regulation and phosphorylation regulation, the movement ability of flagellated microalgae is greatly reduced. Related results were published in the international authoritative journal Nature Climate Change.
2. A new species of Chinese prawn multi-character aggregation”Huanghai No. 4″ was cultivated
The seed industry occupies a leading strategic position in the aquatic product industry chain. The seawater pond ecological aquaculture innovation team used independent innovation to cultivate a new species of Chinese prawn”Yellow Sea No. 4″, and carried out industrialization and application in coastal areas of my country with improved species as a carrier and matching methods. Based on the Chinese shrimp”Huanghai No. 1″ and”Huanghai No. 3″, the Chinese shrimp”Huanghai 4″ has been bred for high pH stress tolerance, fast growth and high survival rate after 5 consecutive population selections. No.” new variety. In 2020, 120 million healthy young shrimp seedlings will be cultivated, and multi-nutrient-level ecological aquaculture will be used to promote more than 10,000 mu in the main shrimp breeding areas in China such as Jiangsu, Shandong, Hebei and Liaoning. The average individual body length at harvest is 15 cm, The body weight is 43.2 g, and the yield per acre is increased by 14-20 kg compared with other commercial varieties, and the effect of increasing yield is significant. The new species of Chinese prawn”Huanghai No. 4″ won the”Excellent Product Award” at the 22nd China International High-tech Achievement Fair in 2020.
Selected in the Yellow Sea Aquatic Research Ten major scientific research progress at the institute level
1. Innovated fishery resource adaptability evaluation technology
In response to the existing problems in the assessment and management of fishery resources, the Yellow and Bohai Sea Fishery Resources and Ecological Innovation Team constructed a technical system for the assessment of fishery resources adaptability and established the Chinese shrimp eDNA Biomass assessment technology, eDNA detection sensitivity can reach a detection rate of 10 copies/μl in natural waters, and realizes”shrimp traces”. It has been successfully applied to the analysis of fish biodiversity in the Bohai Sea. This technology may be a traditional fishery resource trawl Investigations bring about changes; a multi-objective fishing quota allocation strategy for mitigating fishery conflicts in the Bohai Sea has been proposed, a variety of fishery resource temporal and spatial dynamics synchronized optimization assessment techniques have been innovated, and an evaluation model based on discontinuous fishery resource surveys and fishery production data has been constructed It realizes the full use of fishery output data and intermittent survey data, improves the accuracy of fishery resource assessment, effectively supports the scientific conservation and management of national and regional fishery resources, and provides a new perspective for resolving international fishery disputes.
2. Systematic interpretation of the carrier effect of microplastics in fishery waters on organic pollutants and potential pathogenic microorganisms
Marine microplastic pollution has become a major global environmental problem. Analyzing the characteristics of microplastics pollution in typical marine fishery waters and cracking down on the carrier effect of microplastics has become an important scientific issue in the process of marine environmental governance. The Yellow and Bohai Sea Fishery Ecological Environment Evaluation and Bioremediation Innovation Team analyzed the pollution characteristics of microplastics in the waters of Sanggo Bay, and estimated the existing amount of microplastics in the waters of Sangou Bay. The typical types of microplastics in the breeding area were used as the research object to study polystyrene. The combined toxic effect of ethylene microplastics and decabromodiphenyl ether on Chlamys farreri scallops, it was found that the carrier effect of microplastics on decabromodiphenyl ether exceeded the scavenging effect, thus enhancing the bioconcentration of decabromodiphenyl ether in scallops; The self-developed microplastics in-situ research device studied the formation process of microplastics surface biofilms in fishery waters. It was found that a large number of potentially pathogenic Vibrio bacteria were attached to the microplastics surface in summer, and the enrichment mechanism of Vibrio on the microplastics surface was initially explored. . The research results are of great significance for clarifying the fishery environmental effects of microplastics. Relevant results were published in international authoritative journals such as Environmental Pollution, Science of the Total Environment and Marine Pollution Bulletin.
3. Independently developed my country’s first fish disease resistance breeding gene Chip”Fish Core No. 1″
In my country’s fish farming industry, there are problems such as frequent disease and lack of disease-resistant and high-yield improved varieties. There is an urgent need to establish efficient and accurate disease-resistant genome breeding technology to cultivate disease-resistant High-yielding fine varieties. The marine fish genomics and molecular breeding technology innovation team completed the whole genome sequencing, fine mapping and re-sequencing of the whole genome of 1099 individual Paralichthys olivaceus in the early stage, and independently designed a site screening strategy and integrated disease resistance. Genes and related SNP loci, and finally selected about 50,000 (50K) SNP loci evenly distributed in the whole genome to make a gene chip, which ensures the accuracy of the estimation of the genome breeding value; the evaluation and verification of the”Fishcore No. 1″ chip Genotyping effect, and applied to the selection and breeding of Paralichthys olivaceus against bacterial disease genome. The development of the 50K”Fish Core No. 1″ chip for Paralichthys olivaceus fills the gap in gene chips for disease-resistant breeding of fish in my country, and provides technical support for the application of genome selection technology in the breeding of Paralichthys olivaceus. Relevant results were published online in Engineering, a selected journal in the China Science and Technology Journal Excellence Action Plan-Leading Journals.
4. Break through the key to the “breeding, propagation, and promotion” of independent improved prawn species Technology
In order to solve the problem of the lack of improved species of Litopenaeus vannamei in our country, and the problem of the degeneration of the germplasm of Litopenaeus vannamei and the dilemma of fewer excellent characters, Litopenaeus vannamei and China The shrimp genetic breeding innovation team introduced multiple batches of Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus chinensis germplasm resources from different countries and regions, and constructed a core breeding population with rich genetic variation. Optimized the measurement mode of excellent economic traits such as WSSV resistance, growth and low temperature tolerance of shrimp, broke through the technical bottleneck of low heritability traits determination, and realized the accurate determination of multiple important economic traits and stress resistance traits in different culture modes. The evaluation has broken through the key technology of self-cultivating new species of SPF shrimp. This year, the Litopenaeus vannamei industry has supplied more than 210,000 high-quality species of shrimp and more than 28 billion larvae. The contribution rate of improved varieties of China’s main shrimp production areas is 37%, and the coverage rate is 68%. The above results won the first prize of the Fanli Science and Technology Award of the Chinese Fisheries Society in 2020 and the second prize of Qingdao Science and Technology Progress Award, laying the foundation for technology and species for building a modern seed industry system for shrimp breeding and promoting green and sustainable development. Qualitative basis.
5. Draw a fine map of the greenfin horse-faced fish genome to create a large-scale Efficient breeding technology system
As an important emerging species in the marine aquaculture industry in my country, the problem of large-scale breeding of its seed and the establishment of an efficient breeding model has not been effectively resolved. . The breeding and protection team of rare marine organisms carried out the survey and evaluation of the germplasm resources of the greenfin pufferfish, constructed the core breeding group, optimized the collection and hatching technology of fertilized eggs, and significantly increased the hatching rate; broke through the reproduction control technology and realized the broodstock The artificial control of the gonadal development process improves the spawning synchronization rate and fertilization quality of the broodstock group, and realizes”reproduction on demand”. The technical bottleneck of the difficulty in opening the hatchlings of the newly hatched larvae was solved, and the large-scale cultivation of high-quality seedlings was realized; the use of nanopore sequencing technology (Nanopore) and chromosome conformation capture technology (Hi-C) completed the creation of a fine map of the genome of the greenfin pufferfish , Contig N50 reached the highest level of fish genome at present, laying the foundation for the breeding of fine varieties. In terms of aquaculture models, a variety of aquaculture models have been established, such as factory farming, land-sea relay, north-south relay, offshore-distant sea cage farming, etc., to ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This research has enriched the species of marine fish farming in my country and created new economic growth points.
6. Clarify the”feed-fish body” fatty acid flow of farmed fish Relationship
farmed fish products are currently the main source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA. However, the precise flow of fatty acids from feed to fish during aquaculture is not very clear. In response to this problem, the innovative team of marine aquaculture animal nutrition physiology and metabolic regulation has constructed a database of fatty acid composition of “feed-fish body” of cultured fish, and quantitatively evaluated the fatty acid composition from feed to fish body by constructing a series of mathematical models. Circulation process; At the same time, the value of environmental factors such as the initial fish weight, nutritional level, feeding cycle, feed fat level, salinity and temperature in the breeding process, and the evaluation parameters of the”feed-fish body” fatty acid relationship were further analyzed. The precise quantitative evaluation of these factors affecting the flow of fatty acids from feed to fish is realized. Relevant research results provide important methodological innovations for fatty acid circulation and fatty acid nutritional quality evaluation of farmed fish. The relevant results are published in the international authoritative journal Progress in Lipid Research.
7. Determine the main pathogen of the”glass seedling” as a large-scale shrimp disease Emergency response provides theoretical basis
is aimed at the large-scale “translucent post-larva disease (Translucent Post-larva Disease) which caused the closure of more than 50%of the litter TPD)” disease problem, the marine shrimp epidemiology and disease prevention and control innovation team responded in a timely manner, and carried out joint research with the innovation team of Litopenaeus vannamei and Chinese shrimp genetic breeding, and took the lead in identifying a highly virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VpTPD). ) Is the pathogen that caused the disease. It is clear that VpTPD infection mainly causes acute lesions of prawn hepatopancreas and intestinal epithelial cells, which in turn causes the rapid death of infected larvae. Epidemiological studies revealed that the disease first appeared sporadically in South China shrimp farming areas around 2018-2019. In the spring of 2020, it was rapidly spread with the transportation of shrimp seedlings and spread to coastal areas such as East China and North China. The disease was initially identified. Prevalence in major shrimp farming areas along the coast. The emergency prevention and control plan was submitted to the national fishery authority in a timely manner, which provided theoretical and technical support for the decision of the authority.
8. Research and develop new environmentally friendly cage facilities to promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional cage aquaculture
For the traditional cage culture in Ningde, Fujian Province, the facilities are simple, poor wind and wave resistance, dense fishing arrangements, frequent breeding diseases, and reduced breeding benefits The land-sea relay aquaculture innovation team developed a”big set of small” square plastic floating table-top cages and HDPE”plate + environmental floating ball” fishing rafts, and optimized the method and quantity of cage facilities in the sea area. Bell Company, Ningde Fufa Company, Fujian Minwei Company and other units have cooperated to complete the commercial production, promotion and application of new types of cages and fishing rafts, and built a”seawater cage aquaculture industry upgrade model demonstration base in Sanduao, Ningde City””. In 2020, nearly 80,000 traditional cages will be upgraded in Jiaocheng District of Ningde City, covering an area of approximately 1.6 million m2. Through the development of new facilities and the construction of new models, the ability of breeding facilities to resist wind and waves has been improved, and the problem of”white pollution” in traditional cage aquaculture has been solved, and it has become a model project for the”Upgrade and Reconstruction of Offshore Fishing Raft Farming Facilities” project in Ningde City.
9. Use molecular network high-resolution mass spectrometry to break through shellfish toxin esters Technical Difficulties in Identification of Chemical State Components and Toxicology Evaluation
Shellfish toxin has multi-component and highly toxic characteristics, and is a research hotspot in the international community. The shell algae quality and safety evaluation and prevention and control technology innovation team took Prorocentrum lima (DSTs toxin-producing algae) distributed in the coastal waters of my country as the research object, using molecular network high-resolution mass spectrometry technology to analyze the toxin-producing profile of the target toxin-producing algae. Esterified derivatives of 24 related toxins and 1 isomer of Dinotoxin-1 were identified, and 15 of them were isolated and identified for the first time. Innovatively constructed the separation and identification of esterified DSTs components, toxicological evaluation methods and related research models, which can expand the exploration and evaluation of new esterified toxins of shellfish toxins; discover and identify the existence of DSTs in Prorocentrum lima The form and toxicity provide a technical and theoretical basis for the reassessment of the toxicity of DSTs and the scientific development of risk prevention and control. The relevant results were published in the international authoritative journal Environmental Science & Technology.
10. Breakthrough in new artificial horseradish peroxidase and nail removal Key technologies for rational design of base enzymes
Biopolymers such as lignin and cellulose are abundant in nature. The complexity and stability of the structure hinder the sustainable development and utilization of these biological resources. The marine biological enzyme engineering innovation team used structural biology, genetic engineering, protein engineering and other technical methods to develop new artificial horseradish peroxidase and demethylase based on marine functional proteins such as sperm whale myoglobin and cytochrome P450, making a breakthrough The limitations of natural enzymes are solved, the difficulty of precise regulation of enzyme efficacy is solved, and the efficient catalysis of guaiacol oxidation and biodegradation of lignin derivatives is realized. Through site-directed mutagenesis, a mutant β-glucosidase with greatly improved glucose tolerance was constructed, effectively solving the problem of inhibition of lignocellulose hydrolysis products. Relevant research results were published in important international journals ACS Catalysis, Catalysis Science & Technology.