Development Trends and Policy Recommendations of the Beef and Yak Industry in 2021
By: Date: 2021-02-18 Categories: industrynews Tags: ,
  1. The characteristics and problems of the beef and yak industry in 2020
  1.1 Basic Features
   my country’s resource endowment and the economic iron rule of minimum cost determine the “small group and large scale” in the breeding stage and the “small capacity and large output” in the slaughter and processing stage. It is suitable for beef cattle (beef cattle, yak) in my country at this stage. , Water buffalo, dairy cow by-products), the basic national conditions of the industry, the fattening farms (households, enterprises) that live according to the cow producing area, roughage resources and environmental conditions, objectively formed the pattern of “decentralized meat sources” and population with Chinese characteristics The livelihood needs of the people scattered in rural areas, which account for more than 36%of the country, are its foundation.
   Under the background of abundant currency liquidity, in 2020, beef cattle and yak breeding and beef consumption will be”prosperous in production and sales”. The price of cattle and meat has risen at the same time, but due to the increase in various costs, the net income of the whole line will be reduced. The increase was slightly better than in 2019.
   In 2020, the number of beef cattle inventory, beef production and the number of people engaged in cattle breeding will decrease. The sudden”new crown epidemic” and the outbreak of a new cow disease, bovine nodular skin disease, caused huge losses to the industry, and at the same time increased the metabolism of business entities in the industry chain. The number of households (fields, enterprises) raised per household (scale of scale), the number of households (fields, enterprises) that have newly entered the industry, and the number of households (fields, enterprises) exiting the industry have increased, but the latter “leave the group” The resulting decrease in columns is more than the increase in columns of the first two. The comprehensive and profound impact of the new crown epidemic on the industry, the “shock” blocking of the “smuggling of live cattle and beef”, the drive of comparative benefits among industries, the pressure of rising resources and environmental costs, the new development of cow beef and under-fat local beef Consumer demand is a major factor.
   In 2020, the price inversion of Mavericks and Fat Cattle will further intensify. Insufficient cattle sources and upside down prices have caused the fattening time to be extended from an average of 300-330 days in 2019 to 330-360 days, and the slaughter weight has increased from 650-700kg to 700-750kg or more.
   The price inversion between calves and fattening cattle truly reflects the insufficient production capacity of cows (small stock and low reproductive efficiency)-insufficient supply of calves and strong demand for beef-the market urges fattening cattle to increase- -Supervise and increase beef production. What is reflected is the market-oriented back-feeding and pulling behavior of cow breeding carried out by the four nodes of the fattening, slaughtering, sales and consumption industry chain, which is far more powerful and energy than the policies of”seeing the calf and replenishing the mother”. However, the price inversion phenomenon has not been alleviated under the long-term joint adjustment of the market and policies, but has increased year by year, indicating that in addition to rigid demand factors, there may be other factors that require deep attention.
   The”overcapacity” of facilities and equipment for raising, slaughtering and processing cows and fattening cattle has increased. Some slaughter companies,”beef cattle industrial parks”, and breeding companies have over-designed and invested too much capacity. They are either in a difficult situation because they cannot reach production because of”not enough to eat”, or they are dragged down by excessive investment in fixed assets and”ironing is still waiting for their own hard work.””And”construction is started, and completion is dismantled”, adding new excess capacity.
   The impact of the “new crown epidemic” further proves that in small and medium scales (cow breeding, fattening, slaughter, processing, and sales), minimize the use of resources, local production and utilization of resources, products close to the family or dining table, and rapid adjustments. The physique that adapts to changes in production and market conditions, and the industrial form and model of modern business tools are the most vital and competitive.
   In 2020, the epoch-making inclusive measures against the”new crown epidemic”, the victory in the fight against poverty, and the rapid and comprehensive popularization of modern information tools in business and life have given birth to”cooking provinces, diversified products, and tastes.””Individualization, customized billing” and other characteristics, new needs of human culture. This new contradiction between insufficient supply of”serviceability and differentiation” and increased demand for”individualization” has further aggravated the basic contradiction between rigid beef demand and insufficient supply, resulting in a further shortage of beef and meat sources, and the linkage of meat prices. The overall increase in cattle prices has contributed to the increase in imports of live cattle and beef. Foreign beef has become an important part of my country’s beef market.
   Broad and vigorous support for policies such as industrial finance, technology, tax reduction and fee reduction in 2020 will further improve the technological level and competitiveness of my country’s beef cattle and yak industry, which is reflected in the cost-saving and efficiency-increasing capabilities such as increased efficiency and increased yield The quality and price-performance ratio of beef products that are strengthened and”straight to the family table” are still higher than those of imported beef products.
   my country’s beef cattle and yak industry in the”double cycle” faces the following long-term competitive pressures:
  a. Interactive competition among domestic counterparts;
  b. On the one hand,”standardization” can improve efficiency and output, on the other hand, it leads to”de-specialization” and”homogenization” of products. The latter forms a”standardized price” in a single market, thereby making products”high-quality but not cheap” and”not popular”. In the large domestic and international double-circulation market environment, the competition of standardized products formed by the latter will kill each other, which will impair the ability and effect of the former.
  c, the market game of alternative products in other industries (pig, poultry, mutton, etc.);
  d, Zhengguan imported products (germplasm resources, commercial live cattle and beef) full-line game;
  e, the industrial erosion and threatening competition of smuggling live cattle and beef;
  f, threatening competition of low-quality beef;
  g, the vicious competition of fake beef;
  1.2 Production area changes
  The beef cattle industry is shifting to the southern, western, and northeastern production areas in a broad sense. The characteristics are as follows:
  First, the local government has upgraded and increased the height and intensity of the development of the beef cattle industry. Positioning the beef cattle industry as a pillar industry in the rural revitalization strategy following poverty alleviation and alleviation, some provincial and local governments have issued specific and feasible policies.
  Second, the industrial strategic layout and realization ability to adapt to market demand has been further enhanced. It is manifested in the awareness of”breeds and their functions” and the awareness of improving the core competitiveness of the market. On top of the development of the original breeds, the local cattle industry will be further vigorously promoted to strengthen the industrial characteristics. At the same time, the cattle breeds will be increased according to local conditions to enrich the product varieties and satisfy Market demand.
   Third, the awareness that the size of the population of the cow and beef cattle industry determines the strength of the beef cattle industry has deep-rooted, and governments at all levels have achieved widespread agreement. According to their own conditions, local governments have introduced specific policies to support the increase and retention of cows, and have increased the construction of basic conditions in insurance, technology, trading markets, and disease prevention. This is actually to retain the working population of the beef cattle industry at a deeper level and to promote its expansion. It is a specific measure to implement the rural industry revitalization strategy aimed at enriching the people. It is a major step to develop the beef cattle industry and stabilize and strengthen the people’s livelihood through the development of the beef cattle industry. Actively act.
   Fourth, industrial investment with large capital or large capital.
  The western and northeastern production areas are the main production areas for calves and fat cattle in the central and southern production areas. The central part is the main production area for fattening and slaughter. The southern beef cattle production area is backed by a large beef consumption market, with strong production capacity and abundant sources of roughage, coupled with the three-dimensional natural environmental protection function of mountains and terraces and the powerful natural purification ability of the environment, the most development potential, and the development of the beef cattle industry has been Start to enter the stage of accelerating power.
  Yak and cow farming is mainly based on individual grazing, which is still an important means of production and living for herders. The increase in yak industrialization has been substantially affected by the ceiling effect of resources and environment. Yak fattening has become the consensus of the industry. The fattening farms live on forage resources. Under the environment of accelerating technological progress and increasing demand for beef, the transfer to low-altitude, semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas is accelerating.
   The modern yak slaughtering and processing technology is rapidly popularized, and the types and quality of yak products, consumption, and sales radius are rapidly increasing and expanding. The market demand for yak meat has spawned many brand enterprises and brand products, but the traditional way of yak meat consumption in Tibetan areas has not been affected. As a result, yak meat has differentiated into two product groups for the inland market and the traditional market in Tibetan areas.
  1.3 Benefits and safety
   In 2020, the annual cattle price varies greatly due to regions, breeds and their hybrid generations and growth, body weight, months, age, body appearance, seasons, and the severity of the”new crown epidemic prevention” situation. The market price of fattening cattle is 28-40 yuan/kg, calves (including male and female) 50-65 yuan/kg, pregnant fertile cows 18-40 thousand yuan/head, and young non-pregnant cows 11-20 thousand yuan/The price of bulls increased by 30 to 35,000 yuan per head, which is different from previous years. The price of beef in the wholesale market rose from RMB 71.53/kg in January 2020 to RMB 87.32/kg in December, and the price continued to increase.
  Due to the simultaneous increase in cattle prices, feed prices and various costs, the price of calf fattening is severely upside down. The price of foreign beef does not allow domestic beef to further concession in the price of slaughter and fattening, so the net income of the industry is higher than 2019 Although there was an increase in the year, the increase was not large.
  1.4 Industrial Technology
  1.4.1 The field of genetic breeding and reproduction
   In 2020, there will be 36 breeding bull stations with beef bulls, 3,403 beef bulls, 39 breeds 3178 ordinary cattle, 50 yaks 3 breeds, and 175 buffalo breeds. Refined 44 million doses, with an output value of over 450 million yuan. The main body of frozen semen production is Simmental, Limousin, Charolais and Angus. It is estimated that the national annual demand for this cross breed of bulls is about 100,000, and the annual output value exceeds 1.5 billion yuan. The breeding system with core breeding farms, bull breeding stations, technology extension stations and artificial insemination stations as the main body has been further improved. There are 17,555 heads of 44 core breeding farms, of which 12,419 are basic cows, covering 21 breeds including local breeds, introduced breeds, cultivated breeds, buffalo and yak.
   The supplementary investigation of cattle genetic resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has entered the final stage. New resources such as Yushu yak have been discovered, and a national survey of livestock and poultry genetic resources is planned. Carried out beef tasting of some local breeds to provide technical basis for accelerating the protection and utilization of local cattle breeds. The virtuous circle model of”use to promote insurance, and to guarantee the combination of use” has been further strengthened. The beef cattle data transmission system has been further improved, and the scope of application of beef cattle whole genome selection technology has been continuously expanded.”National Beef Cattle Genetic Improvement Plan 2020-2035″ will be released soon. New breeds of beef cattle such as Qinchuan beef cattle, Lilu cattle, hornless Xianan cattle, Yanhe cattle, Zhangye beef cattle, brown beef cattle, Huaxi cattle and other new breeds of beef cattle breeding and genetic improvement Continue to advance. The domestic beef cattle core population supply rate has increased to about 35%, and the imported germplasm has declined. In terms of core provenance, the proportion of bulls produced by biotechnology such as embryo transfer has increased.
  1.4.2 Feed and nutrition field
   The impact of the “new crown epidemic” and the increase in raw material prices and profitability drive farms (households) to pay more attention to the development and utilization of local, low-quality and low-cost feed resources, and actively invest in technology to improve quality, save costs, and increase efficiency . Relying on the National Beef Cattle and Yak Industry Technology System, the open database of beef and yak feed nutrition value (http://www.rnfeeddata.com) further improves and provides technical support. The nutritional needs of different cattle breeds such as Jinjiang Yellow Cattle, Grassland Red Cattle and Xia Nan Cattle during the fattening period and lactation period were determined. Through big data, we analyzed the correlation between the nutrition supply of beef cattle and the input and output of fattening, slaughter and division, feedback and correction of the nutrition supply level of beef cattle feeding, and reached a preliminary conclusion:the one-sided pursuit of daily gain does not mean that it can improve the profitability and profitability of the whole process. Level. Differentiated market demand has further promoted the differentiation and formation of low-cost differential fattening technology systems and industrial models for cattle breeds such as Yiling cattle, Junlian cattle, Yunling cattle, Yanhuang cattle, Datong yak, Angus, Simmental, etc. . In the face of rising cattle prices and continued shortage of cattle resources, the Group attaches great importance to the management of cow perinatal feeding and promotes the integrated mother-child breeding technology to form a diversified technical support system suitable for retail households, moderate-scale households, and large-scale companies to breed cows. Integrated high-altitude pastoral area yak with calf supplementary feeding technology, yak stiff cattle rejuvenation and compensation growth nutrition regulation technology, semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral area yak seasonal feeding and staggered slaughter technology, low-altitude agricultural area yak feeding and fattening technology in different places, etc. Further expand with market demand.
  1.4.3 Disease prevention and control field
   There are 10 products for cattle that have obtained the new veterinary medicine certificate in 2020, including 2 live brucellosis vaccines (A19-△Vir B12 strain) and 2 bovine mansillosis inactivated vaccines (A1 type M164 strain) New vaccine, 1 diagnostic kit (Mycoplasma bovis loop-mediated isothermal amplification kit) and 7 chemical drugs (hydroxyclozamide bulk drug, hydroxyclozamide suspension, etc.), of which one, two and three The new veterinary drugs are 1, 5 and 1 respectively. At the same time, a variety of vaccines and diagnostic products are close to maturity. For example, the combined inactivated vaccine for bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza type 3 for bovine respiratory disease syndrome has entered the product review stage for new veterinary drug registration. The vaccine has entered the preliminary review stage of the new veterinary drug registration certificate. New-onset cow disease-bovine nodular skin disease broke out in many provinces and caused huge losses, but emergency immunization with goatpox vaccine can effectively control the spread of the epidemic and greatly reduce losses.
  1.4.4 Slaughter, processing and quality control field
  The sudden”new crown epidemic” has had a major impact on the operation of my country’s beef cattle slaughtering and processing industry. At the beginning, the catering industry was shut down and traffic was blocked, resulting in poor sales and no cattle to kill. After the epidemic is basically controlled, the state encourages all kinds of enterprises to resume work and production, and releases various dividends such as increased loans and tax reductions to enterprises involved in the national economy and people’s livelihood to help them overcome difficulties and support their development. However, because slaughter and processing is the most intensive link in the industry chain for the use of manpower, logistics, and capital, the flow of people, logistics, and capital is limited or lacking to a certain extent, which has caused enterprises to start operations and production capacity is still low. In order to break the situation of restricted sales, slaughter and processing companies are paying more and more attention to community sales, high-end orders, direct supply of processing raw materials and online sales. Some companies’ online transaction volume is 100%to 150%of last year.
   As the import cold chain is blocked, the African swine fever and the epidemic situation have slowed down, and the beef cattle industry has ushered in an opportunity of the times. The beef cattle slaughter field is upgrading the technology and capabilities in slaughter, production management, beef quality and safety, etc., to meet the new needs of diet under the new situation and improve the industry’s ability to withstand risks. Pretreatment and deep processing of meat products and by-products, microbial control, pre-slaughter management and fine segmentation, and maturation have become the supporting technologies of the processing chain. Traditional maturation, tenderization, packaging, product development, quality assurance, testing, early warning and other fields, It is innovating and upgrading by introducing or developing new technologies.
  1.4.5 Facility equipment and environmental control field
  Facilities and equipment have been continuously improved, and product categories have increased, especially the level of feed processing machinery and equipment has been further improved. The overall equipment stability still needs to be improved, and the forage collection and storage machinery in mountainous and hilly areas is missing. Pay attention to the regulation of the beef cattle breeding environment, and expand the scope of measures to improve animal welfare such as wind walls, thick bedding, and constant temperature drinking water. The development trend of yak house feeding is obvious, and the production efficiency of yak is effectively improved through technologies such as supporting warm sheds and supplementary feeding in cold seasons. In terms of intelligent breeding, management methods such as mobile terminal APP, WeChat applet, and automatic TMR feed processing technology for feeding, weighing and formula control have emerged. Information processing technology aimed at improving the efficiency of analysis and application began to be applied. Manure maturing and returning to the field and organic fertilizer production and sales have become the norm.
  1.5 Industrial Policy
   In 2020, national-level beef and yak industry-related policies will continue to implement the”vegetable basket project”,”subsidies for improved varieties”,”vaccine subsidies,””basic cow expansion subsidies,””standardized cattle farm construction subsidies,” and”guarantee Such policies as “plant subsidies” and “subsidies and rewards for farmers and herdsmen”.
   Local governments have successively introduced subsidies with different standards in the areas of basic cow herd expansion, cattle breeding insurance, industrial poverty alleviation and green development, combined with the actual development of the local beef and yak industry. The promulgation of local policies has played an important role in promoting income growth, targeted poverty alleviation and industrial development of beef cattle farmers and enterprises in various regions. For example (just an example, there are more provinces, cities, prefectures and counties whose policies are not all listed):
   In 2020, the Yunnan Provincial Government issued the”Several Measures to Support the Accelerated Development of the Beef Cattle Industry in Yunnan Province”, through”stock rewards”,”supporting the expansion of high-quality breeding-age cows”,”additional plant silage corn promotion and application”, Supporting measures such as “big financial policy support”, “increasing agricultural machinery purchase subsidies”, “strengthening breeding land security”, “beef cattle breeding project guidance services”, “strengthening beef cattle slaughter operation supervision”, “establishing and improving supervision and coordination system”, etc. The beef cattle industry has accelerated development.
   Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, issued the”Chifeng City Beef Cattle Industry High-Quality Development Implementation Plan (2020-2022)”, through a series of high-quality beef cattle promotion system, basic cow expansion increase, intensive barn feeding and fattening, and the promotion of leading enterprises. The project promotes the development of the beef cattle industry in the region.
   Heilongjiang Province issued the”Heilongjiang Province 2020 Farmers and Herdsmen Subsidy and Reward Policy Implementation Plan”, and continued to implement farmers and herdsmen subsidies and rewards in 15 pastoral and semi-pastoral counties (cities) including Dumeng, Lindian, and Zhaoyuan The policy is to subsidize the investment in new or expanded cattle houses, purchase of machinery and equipment, and improvement of the utilization of manure resources in farms with more than 100 beef cattle.
  Huadian City, Jilin Province issued the”Implementation Opinions on the Development of Huadian Beef Cattle Industry” and the”Implementation Plan of the Beef Cattle Industry Development Project in Huadian City in 2020″, in accordance with the overall requirements of the combination of planting and breeding, the cycle of agriculture and animal husbandry, and the prosperity of the industry. The overall design and arrangement of beef cattle industry development and policy guarantee have been made.
   In 2020, Huaping Town, Zunyi City, Guizhou Province, issued five major policies, including”seeing mothers to replenish calves”,”standardized farm infrastructure construction subsidies”,”utilizing winter fallow soil to grow grass subsidies”, and”epidemic support” to boost beef cattle Industrial Development.
  2. Development trend of beef cattle and yak industry in 2021
  2.1 Beef cattle inventory, beef production and industrial development model
   The strong demand for beef consumption in my country is the driving force for the continuous development of the beef cattle and yak industry. Under the background of abundant currency liquidity and policies to support the development of the beef cattle industry, the momentum of”prosperous production and sales” will continue in 2021. In areas that rely on the beef cattle industry to achieve poverty alleviation, the implementation of”grain reforms” and the areas where beef cattle (beef) are transferred out of large counties, and the areas that rely on the beef cattle industry to implement rural revitalization and the”one county, one industry” strategy, under the promotion of policies , Will partially increase the stock of beef cattle including cows and beef production.
   On the whole, the status of the industrial base of cows will be further valued and improved. However, it will be difficult to significantly increase beef cattle in the short term until the “price upside down of calves and fat cattle” is structurally alleviated and the factors that erode the development of the beef cattle industry are eliminated. Stock quantity and beef production.
  Under the new pattern of dual-cycle development, regardless of breeding or slaughtering, processing and sales, the main body of production and operation will further pursue details, pay attention to step by step and save costs and increase efficiency in all links. This is the survival of resource constraints and various competitive conditions. The inevitable choice is also the way to form a profit model. The level of scale will be further improved under the promotion of policies, but large enterprises are facing excessive depreciation costs and credit costs, increased labor and environmental costs, and rising prices of main feed ingredients erodes the efficiency of production and sales, and pressures on profitability. Small-scale farmers and small-to-medium-scale pastures have low production costs and flexible management, and are easy to purchase and store at a low price and use diversified but nutritious feed resources that are more competitive in the market.
  The objective environment has forced the slaughter and processing links to accelerate the pace of transformation and upgrading, and accelerate the extension to the back end of the industrial chain. Increasing the added value of products by transforming primary products into deep-processed products such as quick-frozen prepared products and cooked meat products is the main trend to stabilize the level of profitability and ability.
  Yak grazing and breeding is still the main form of production, and small and medium-scale yak farmers are the main body of yak breeding. Yak breeding and ecological protection are equally important, and the stock of yak will stabilize. With the development and diffusion of technologies and models such as staggered feeding in sheds, low-altitude and remote fattening, the breeding area will shift to areas with superior forage resources, and the slaughter and meat production of yak will further increase steadily. An industrial model of organization of production, large-scale breeding, and standardization of products to promote yak meat products to mid-to-high-end markets in the interior is taking shape.
  2.2 Variety pattern changes
   Due to strong policy guidance, the recycling mode of local resources protection and utilization of beef cattle and yak has been strengthened. For 5 to 8 varieties, a pattern of combining resource protection and utilization and integrating development and innovation has been initially constructed. However, the overall variety pattern has not changed much, and the production structure is still dominated by hybrids (approximately 79%), supplemented by local cattle, yaks, and buffalo (approximately 21%). In the hybrid population, the stocks are the descendants of Simmental, Charolais, Angus, Limousin and other imported breeds and Chinese cattle, with Simmental hybrid cattle as the main body. The production model using hybrid vigor has been strengthened, and the proportion of introducing a third variety into the progressive hybrid population to improve production efficiency has increased, but the regional system and long-term planning need to be strengthened.
  2.3 Farming costs and benefits
   The continuous advancement of”grain conversion” and the development and utilization of regional low-cost feed resources will continue to support the continuous improvement of feed conversion rate and beef quality from the technical level, further reduce breeding costs, increase single-head yield and breeding benefit. The poverty alleviation effect of the beef and yak industry, and the construction of breeding cow bases and shelf cattle bases in poverty-stricken areas will further show the effect of stabilizing cattle sources. In semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas, yak feeding at staggered peaks and high-efficiency yak-feeding and fattening models in low-altitude agricultural areas will continue to expand. Plateau pastoral areas and low-elevation agricultural areas will complement seasonal production and breeding resources, and the effect of reducing ecological pressure on yak pastoral grasslands will be Gradually appear. The improvement of the yield level and the further extension of the industrial chain will promote the improvement of the economic efficiency of beef and yak breeding.
  2.4 Disease and prevention and control
   In terms of major disease control, in addition to foot-and-mouth disease and bovine brucellosis, the immune prevention of foreign diseases-bovine nodular skin diseases will become the norm. Frequent cases are still dominated by bovine respiratory syndrome, calf diarrhea, and cow reproductive disorders. In terms of prevention and control technologies, in addition to continuing to develop single-disease vaccines to fill the gap, the development of multi-linked multivalent vaccines has begun to attract attention. In terms of diagnostic technology, multi-link rapid inspection and on-site diagnostic technology for pathogens will become research hotspots. Health warning technology based on body temperature and behavior will be further developed and applied. The application of new materials and artificial intelligence will promote disease prevention and control technology. The rapid upgrade. With the deepening of the policy of restricting the use of antibiotics, the role of traditional Chinese medicine and probiotics in disease prevention and treatment has further increased. The”Biosafety Law of the People’s Republic of China” will be implemented on April 15, 2021, and the establishment of biosafety standards for large-scale cattle farms will receive attention.
  2.5 Slaughter and processing
  Affected by the”new crown epidemic”, the beef cattle and yak slaughter and processing industry will pay more attention to beef quality and safety issues, and further implement quality control from the pasture to the table. Combined with policies that restrict the trans-regional transfer of livestock and poultry, and restrict or ban the trade of live livestock and poultry in cities and towns, slaughter and processing enterprises will further concentrate on the main beef cattle producing areas, and improve the slaughtering and processing capacity and processing technology level of the main beef cattle production areas.”Animal transport” gradually changed to”meat transport”.
  The country actively advocates the “improvement of the distribution system, and implements the policy of “entering the city into the market” of chilled meat through centralized slaughter, production and sales docking. However, it needs to be tailored to improve the livelihood and consumption needs of the counties, towns and villages The above-mentioned policies make the policies more convenient and beneficial to the people, and implement the national strategy of industrial rejuvenation and promotion of urban and rural consumption.
  ”Chilled” beef will be a product form that is strongly promoted and supported, mainly to solve the problem of”remote consumption”, which is characterized by high cost.”Hot fresh” beef has a long history of traditional cooking and consumption in my country, and is a scientific product form with Chinese characteristics. It is mainly used for”on-site consumption” and is characterized by low cost. There is no difference in the nutritional value of the two, and the taste and flavor are also different because of the difference in cooking skills. How to make the two not only meet the needs of people’s livelihood, but also form a joint force to enhance the competitiveness of the industry is an examination question in related fields.
  The slaughter and processing industry will actively change the processing structure and varieties of beef products, increase the deep processing ratio of beef and by-products, increase the variety of colors, and develop products that meet consumer demand and the shelf life and logistics characteristics of online and offline products.
  2.6 Facility and environmental control
  The standardization and large-scale process of beef cattle breeding will continue to accelerate, and the transition from traditional tethered breeding mode to free-range breeding mode will continue. The fenced breeding area will gradually expand, the quality of beef cattle breeding equipment will continue to increase, the variety will gradually increase, and the level will continue to improve. The research and development of intelligent beef cattle breeding has been strengthened, and the continuous integration of breeding equipment and information technology has improved the level of beef cattle industry. The fattening model of yak husbandry, breeding, farming, and breeding scattered pen yards has accelerated, and supporting facilities and equipment for house feeding have been continuously improved. The value-added organic fertilizer and the virtuous cycle of agriculture and animal husbandry will be the main channels of environmental protection measures for beef cattle farms.
  2.7 Industrial Policy
   In 2021, the national-level beef and yak industry policy will continue the relevant policies in 2020, and increase investment through agricultural production development funds to support the protection of beef and yak germplasm resources and breed selection and other technological research and development efforts to promote beef cattle The development, transformation and upgrading of the yak industry. Through the promotion of”grain conversion” and”combination of planting and raising”, support the collection, storage and planting of high-quality forage materials, support the cycle model of planting and raising represented by the beef cattle industry from the policy level, and support the regions represented by straw silage and liquor lees The land and breeding supporting policies for the efficient use of sexual by-product resources have planned to continue to promote the construction of cows carrying calves and reproductive cow herds in poverty-stricken areas, forming high-quality and distinctive shelf cattle bases and promoting effective poverty alleviation for farmers. Combining with the actual needs of industrial development, we will continue to implement subsidies for improved varieties, support the promotion of improved varieties, issue recommendations on basic beef cattle subsidies as soon as possible, and cooperate with the Ministry of Finance to further study and improve relevant financial support policies.
  3. Suggestions for the development of beef cattle and yak industry in 2021
  3.1 Demonstrate the responsibility and responsibility of the animal husbandry and veterinary industry in major countries, and take the first step in the”new infrastructure of animal husbandry and veterinary business”.
   my country’s modern network coverage and information transmission, big data, and digitalization and other technical means have already had the ability to support the foundation and condition of the animal husbandry and veterinary business in the”hardware”. One of the major foundation and condition construction projects of the animal husbandry and veterinary business is the construction of a big data system aimed at covering various livestock and poultry industries, including business entities, industrial animals, working population, changes in production areas, full traceability, consumer markets, commodity demand, and policies The collection and analysis of measures, feedback, improvement and other information at any time, as well as the further application of digitization of this information. The development and construction of my country’s animal husbandry and veterinary business needs to be synchronized with the digital age. This article calls it”the new infrastructure of animal husbandry and veterinary business”. The construction of a big data system for the beef and yak industry is just one of them.
  Under the background of upgrading from a single large market to a domestic and international double cycle, the”New Infrastructure for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Business” can carry out forecasting, early warning, supervision and monitoring for production and consumption, scientific use and allocation of various resources, and precision Efficiently carry out high-quality decision-making and regulation management, and carry out various services at all levels and fields. In particular, it is worth mentioning that the first-line production and operation entities that directly participate in the big-cycle competition will seamlessly share the latest achievements and various supports of the digital age in terms of technology, operation, market, and information.
  ”New Infrastructure for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Business” is a strategic choice to take advantage of the strengths of my country’s technology and methods, avoid the shortcomings of resource, environment, and cost constraints, and lead development. If it is put into construction, many major problems and various”last mile” problems are likely to be specifically alleviated and resolved with the commissioning of”new infrastructure”.
   It is recommended that the”New Infrastructure for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Business” be established as a national policy, and special research should be conducted from the perspective of strategy and feasibility. Legislate the”Law on Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Big Data System”, formulate guidelines and routes, from the main branch to the branch, according to the priority of needs, the order of the division of labor between the central and local governments, time and phases to orderly and effectively promote the construction.
  3.2 Adjust and improve subsidy policies, and formulate support policies for the development of beef cattle and yak industries in accordance with local conditions.
   Lower the threshold requirements for beef cattle farmers and breeding enterprises to enjoy the corresponding subsidy policy, and introduce a long-term loan and loan benchmark interest guarantee system for beef cattle. Encourage banking financial institutions and financing guarantee institutions to include breeding pens, large-scale breeding machinery, live beef cattle, beef cattle breeding insurance policies, and land management rights into the list of acceptable collaterals, and explore the implementation of relevant mortgage loan trials. Encourage breeding insurance for breeding cows and beef cattle to reduce breeding risks. Conscientiously implement the subsidy policy for the purchase of agricultural machinery, and implement the necessary supplements for the automatic feeding, waste treatment and forage production required for beef cattle production.
   With the changes in the traditionally divided beef cattle production areas in Northeast, Central Plains, Northwest and Southwest, the development of emerging advantageous production areas, as well as the follow-up effects of non-plague and resistance reduction, the price of corn-based feed grains has risen , The price of cows and calves has risen, but it has not reached the actual increase in the amount and effect of beef cattle breeding. Therefore, the beef cattle and yak industry policies should be formulated separately, and the scope of breeding land should be delineated according to the industrial planning and environmental carrying capacity, and the breeding land should be treated as the same as the land for food cultivation from the policy level. In accordance with regional policies, the development of low- and medium-yield areas for grain production is prioritized as a key area for the adjustment of the planting industry structure and the reform of grain and feed, and a modern planting and breeding cycle area. Classified subsidies are implemented according to different production areas and different scale groups.
  Through”one county, one industry” and rural revitalization, develop family ranches based on 3-50 cows and moderate scale farms in the southwestern region, and implement universally beneficial breeding cows that”see the calves for the mothers” He Jia Niu base county policy. Establish and improve the guiding policies for feed recycling of non-grain by-product resources such as straw and dregs in advantageous areas. In the Northeast, Northwest and Central Plains regions, promote standardized and large-scale beef cattle fattening, encourage the establishment of smart pastures, improve fattening efficiency and beef quality, vigorously promote the cultivation of forage corn, oat grass and other forage materials, and ensure the supply of forage materials nearby. , To realize the circular development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Increase the technological research and development and policy support of the beef cattle and yak industry, and thoroughly solve the”stuck neck” technical problems and the”poor effects of policy lacking” that restrict the development of my country’s beef and yak industry.
  3.3 Promote and improve the beef cattle genetic improvement plan, and establish a stable long-term beef cattle breeding mechanism.
At the infrastructure level, build a national beef cattle breed performance testing station to support nationwide hybrid production; at the technology research and development level, expand the size of breeding populations and performance testing groups, and accelerate the progress of population genetics; at the project support level, it is recommended that the Ministry of Science and Technology, agriculture and rural areas The Ministry will provide long-term and stable special support for key varieties.
  Improve the management methods and supervisory mechanism of relevant national beef cattle core farms. Promote the issuance of the National Beef Cattle Genetic Improvement Plan 2020-2035 and the formulation of its implementation plan, increase the support for the implementation of the genetic improvement plan in various provinces and regions, and form the Seed Industry Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the Animal Husbandry Bureau and the Local Breed Improvement Station And other levels of guidance and implementation systems, so as to form a national chess game of systematic selection and scientific improvement, so that the national-level improvement plan takes root.
   In response to the needs of my country’s main beef and yak producing areas, on the basis of improving the existing organizational structure, speed up the establishment and improvement of the joint breeding system, and comprehensively improve the level of the national seed industry. On the basis of vigorously supporting and guiding technology research and development, improving relevant laws and regulations, and building a quality and safety system, speed up the launch of the”Livestock Breeding Law” and related supporting laws and regulations, and establish a long-term mechanism for beef cattle breeding as soon as possible at the legal level , To ensure the continuity and stability of beef cattle breeding.
  3.4 Increase investment in research and development of cattle disease prevention and control technology, strengthen the construction of biosafety system, and promote the healthy development of the cattle industry.
   Today is a critical time for the formulation and launch of the”14th Five-Year Plan”. The research and development of cattle disease prevention and control technologies and products are weak, costly, and difficult, and are in a complex situation such as unremoved old diseases, new diseases constantly appearing, and multiple pathogens co-producing diseases. It is urgent to increase investment at all levels to jointly promote technology and Product development and industrialization transformation. Such as new vaccines for bovine brucellosis, bovine nodular skin disease, bovine respiratory syndrome and digestive system syndrome, multi-linked multivalent vaccines, safe and efficient cattle drugs, multi-linked rapid inspection technology and early warning技术的研发等,为保障肉牛业健康发展、食品安全和公共卫生提供技术支撑。贯彻实施《生物安全法》,建立和完善基于生物安全风险因子分析与防范、制定生物安全标准和计划、早期预警和诊断、科学免疫和精准治疗等相结合的生物安全体系,促进肉牛牦牛养殖业健康发展。
  3.5 结合牛肉消费特点,形成中国特色的生产、销售及配套的品质安全保障模式。
  我国肉牛产业可以从肉类市场消费特点(热鲜肉比例较大、副产品消费旺盛等)倒推我国肉牛生产与屠宰加工的模式和特点,研发与之对应的冷却、分割、副产物加工方案,形成中国特色的牛肉屠宰加工模式。
  新冠疫情改变了牛肉的消费模式和消费者食品安全认知,在稳定其他销售方式的同时,积极拓展社区团购销售、线上交易比例。应充分利用大数据、区块链、物联网技术,建立从饲养、待宰、屠宰加工、批发、物流配送和销售终端的互联互通平台,倡导不同地域、企业的数据互通和复用,以发挥互通平台的最大效率。在实现传统工业3.0的基础之上(如精准追溯、自动控制),结合人工智能、传感器技术实现牛肉生产过程控制,初步探索牛肉安全、品质控制由自动向智能的转变。
  新冠疫情为公共卫生安全的维护敲响了警钟,在屠宰加工领域,应重视牛肉产业链中关键食源性致病微生物(如STEC)及其生物学特性(耐药、毒力等)等基础数据的持续监测、维护,开展全链条食品安全风险评估,提高占位和认识的高度,从设施设备、人员、资金等各方面进一步强化牛肉安全的管理和控制。
  3.6 加大肉牛生产设施设备投入,提高经济效益与劳动效率。
  使用设施设备和配套技术可提高产能10~30%,需进一步重视设施设备配套和环境控制对提高肉牛生产性能和工人劳动效率的作用。在养殖户层面,应加大技术培训与技术普及范围,引导转变意识。在国家层面,应加大设施设备和配套技术研发的支持力度,尤其智能养殖实用化技术的研发与应用转化。国家和各级地方政府应继续加大对合作社和家庭农场农机补贴力度和覆盖范围,支持中小型设施设备及技术的转化推广,对于肉牛标准化生产、提高整体生产水平具有重要意义。同时对有机肥生产及施用的政策支持,促进农牧良性循环发展,减小环境污染压力;加强面源污染的研究,为解决散栏饲养的土地问题提供依据。
  (执笔:曹兵海、张越杰、李俊雅、王之盛、郭爱珍、刘继军、罗欣)