1 Overview of my country’s mutton industry development in 2020
Affected by the new crown pneumonia epidemic, in 2020, the enthusiasm of production and operation entities in all links of my country’s mutton sheep industry to expand reproduction has been frustrated. However, due to the transformation of residents’ consumption, the demand for beef and mutton continues to increase, coupled with the fact that the production capacity of pigs has not been fully restored due to the impact of African swine fever, the demand for mutton substitution is relatively strong, and the country has successively introduced a series of guarantees and promoted the development of the livestock industry. After May 2020 Meat sheep enterprises basically resumed work and production, and the pace of production continued to accelerate in the second half of the year. The overall development of the mutton sheep industry throughout the year improved.
1.1 Lamb prices continue to run at a high level, with relatively stable fluctuations
According to the monitoring data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the monthly average price of the national mutton market (hereinafter referred to as mutton price) in 2020 will continue to maintain a high level, which is significantly higher than the level of the same period in 2019. The month-on-year growth in the first half of the year will remain above 14%, The gap gradually narrowed in the second half of the year. From January to December, the price of mutton increased from 81.2 yuan/kg to 83.3 yuan/kg, an increase of 2.6%, which mainly experienced three stages of”N” type fluctuations:① From January to February, it rose from 81.2 yuan/kg to 82.3 yuan/kg kg, an increase of 1.4%; ②From February to June, it fell from 82.3 yuan/kg to 78.2 yuan/kg, a decrease of 5.0%; ③From June to December, it rose from 78.2 yuan/kg to 83.3 yuan/kg, an increase of 6.5%(Figure 1 ).
1.2 Lamb production capacity continues to increase, but the growth rate slows down
From the perspective of the slaughter volume, from 2011 to 2020, the number of goats slaughtered in my country has increased from 262.322 million to 31 9.410 million, an increase of 21.8%, with an average annual growth rate of 2.2%. Among them, the growth rate has slowed down in the past five years, with an average annual growth rate of 1.6%; in 2020, affected by the epidemic, the period of concentrated slaughter in my country will be extended, and the number of slaughtered sheep will only increase by 0.8%compared with 2019. According to monitoring data from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the fourth quarter of 2020 has the largest increase in slaughter volume. The cumulative slaughter volume has increased from January to May and declined from June to December. From January to December, my country has accumulated new lambs, sold lambs and sold lambs. The number of shelf sheep showed a downward trend year-on-year. From the perspective of the stock volume, from 2011 to 2019, the stock of sheep in my country showed a trend of first increasing, then decreasing and then gradually recovering. The overall increase from 286.6642 million to 300.721 million, an increase of 4.9%, and an average annual growth rate of 0.6%. Among them, in 2015 reached the peak inventory of 31.743 million. From the perspective of the slaughter rate, the sheep slaughter rate from 2011 to 2020 has shown an overall upward trend, increasing from 0.9 to 1.1. Among them, the breakthrough 1 from 2017 indicates that the production capacity of mutton sheep in my country has been continuously increasing. From the perspective of mutton production, from 2011 to 2020, my country’s mutton production has shown an overall growth trend, increasing by 20.1%, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Among them, the growth rate has slowed in the past five years, with an average annual growth rate of 1.3%; in 2020, the growth rate of mutton production has declined, only an increase of 1.0%over 2019 (Table 1).
1.3 The import volume of lamb has dropped significantly
Since China’s accession to the World Trade Organization, my country’s total import of lamb has continued to grow, and the import growth trend has turned in 2014. In 2014, affected by the sudden domestic small ruminant epidemic, the flow of live sheep was restricted, sales were blocked, consumer confidence fell, demand plummeted, prices of live sheep and sheep products fell, domestic and foreign price differences were further compressed, and the comparative advantage of imported mutton fell . In 2015 and 2016, my country’s mutton imports fell for two consecutive years. In 2016, the import volume was 220 thousand tons, a decrease of 22.2%from 2014. In 2017, due to the shortage of sheep sources and the reduction of mutton supply, domestic sheep prices gradually rebounded, and mutton imports gradually recovered. By 2019, mutton imports reached a peak of 392,000 tons, and the average annual growth rate from 2017 to 2019 was as high as 21.3%. In 2020, due to the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, mutton imports have dropped again. According to data released by the General Administration of Customs, my country’s mutton imports in 2020 are 365,000 tons, a year-on-year decrease of 7.0%, a significant drop. Considering that my country’s import sources are too concentrated (the total import volume of Australia and New Zealand accounts for more than 95%of the total import volume), in the future, import channels should be expanded to reduce risks.
1.4 Lamb consumption decreased first and then recovered steadily
In recent years, with the continuous transformation and upgrading of residents’ meat consumption structure, the consumption demand for mutton continues to grow. From 2011 to 2019, the domestic consumption of mutton per capita of Chinese residents increased first and then decreased, from 1.1 kg/person to 1.2 kg/person, an increase of 18.3%, and an average annual increase of 2.1%. Among them, the consumption of mutton began to decline after the price of mutton rebounded in the second half of 2017, with an average annual decline of 6.0%. According to the per capita mutton consumption and population data, it is estimated that the total domestic mutton consumption in the country will increase from 1.419 million tons to 1.739 million tons from 2011 to 2019, a total increase of 22.6%, with an average annual growth rate of 2.6%. Among them, the total domestic consumption in 2017 has declined overall, with an average annual decline of 5.7%. At the same time, in recent years, with the transformation of residents’ lifestyles, the amount of food stored at home has been declining, and dining methods such as hot pot have emerged, and outdoor consumption of mutton has continued to increase. From 2011 to 2019, my country’s apparent consumption of lamb ① increased from 4.055 million tons to 5.266 million tons, an increase of 29.9%, and an average annual growth rate of 2.9%. Affected by the new crown pneumonia epidemic, catering consumption across the country has dropped significantly. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, the national catering revenue in 2020 decreased by 16.6%compared to 2019. Among them, the growth rate in October turned positive for the first time during the year. By the fourth quarter, catering revenue increased by 0.2%year-on-year, and the quarterly catering market scale returned to the level of the same period last year. At the beginning of 2020, the consumption of mutton was sluggish, especially the outdoor consumption of mutton dropped significantly. With the gradual control of the domestic epidemic, markets, supermarkets, and various catering companies have resumed operations, and residents’ out-going catering consumption has basically resumed. As the weather turns cooler in autumn and winter, seasonal consumption of mutton continues to increase. (Note:① Apparent consumption=domestic production + import volume-import volume.)
1.5 Lamb exports further decline
Although my country is a large producer and consumer of mutton, it has insufficient self-sufficiency, few exports, and relatively limited export categories. Goat meat is the mainstay. The export market is mainly aimed at Asia, including Hong Kong, China and Macau, China. From 2001 to 2006, my country’s mutton exports showed an upward trend as a whole, and then began to decline. Although there was a slight rebound in 2010, the overall mutton export still maintained a relatively obvious downward trend. From 2011 to 2019, my country’s mutton exports dropped from 8 118.0 t to 1 954.3 t, a decrease of 75.9%, with an average annual decrease of 16.3%. In 2019, a certain proportion of my country’s mutton will be exported to countries such as Arabia, Jordan and Vietnam. In the first half of 2020, it will mainly be exported to Hong Kong, China and Macau, China. A very small amount will be exported to Arabia. It is expected that mutton exports will continue to decline in 2020.
2 my country’s mutton sheep industry technology research progress in 2020
2.1 Breeding technology
① Continuous selection and breeding of new breeds raised in houses. With the gradual transformation of the mutton sheep industry’s production method from grazing to semi-house feeding and shed feeding, attention has been paid to the breeding of new breeds of lamb-raised sheep, which is reflected in the wider use of small-tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep as breeding materials to cultivate shed-raising Highly prolific new varieties, among which the breeding results of”Duogao No. 3″ are remarkable. ② Breeding and utilization of introduced varieties. Continued selection and breeding of introduced breeds have formed core groups such as Boer goats, Dober sheep, Charolais sheep, etc.; By using the introduced breeds to cross local breeds, new breeds (lines) such as Luzhong mutton sheep and Huanghuai mutton sheep have been successfully cultivated; Introduced breeds of East Frisian, Suffolk, Doper and Australian white sheep produce embryos for cryopreservation. ③Continuous selection and optimization of local breeds, and approved new breeds such as prairie short-tail sheep. ④ Developed a batch of automatic measurement equipment and breeding software, created some phenotypic database platforms, genetic parameter evaluation and molecular breeding platforms, and initially formed a breeding technology platform and an industrialized technology support platform.
2.2 Nutrition and Feed Technology
①The effect of supplementing rumen amino acids in low-protein diets on the growth performance, slaughter performance and digestibility of mutton sheep. Studies have shown that reducing the crude protein level of fattening Duhan hybrid meat ewes by 1 to 4%and supplementing rumen lysine, methionine, threonine, arginine and urea can increase dietary protein Utilization rate, and will not reduce the growth performance, slaughter performance and meat quality of fattening mutton sheep. ② Research on new technology of lamb breeding performance. Established a lamb early weaning stress model to fully reveal the mechanism of weaning stress in terms of growth, nutrient digestion and utilization, intestinal microbes and immune function; explore the effects of Bacillus licheniformis and resveratrol on alleviating early weaning stress in lambs And explore the mechanism of their action from the aspect of intestinal barrier function. ③The effect of different feeding methods on the performance of fattening sheep. Set up an ad libitum group and a restricted feed group to study the effects of different feeding levels on the production performance, meat quality, muscle amino acid group and fatty acid formation of mutton sheep, and explore the best way to feed fattening sheep with pellet feed. Studies have shown that proper feeding restriction in the lamb fattening process can effectively improve the economic benefits of breeding. ④Development of extruded straw feed and its influence. Studies have shown that, due to high feed intake and high nutrient intake, extruded straw microbial fermentation feed can increase the daily gain and carcass weight of lambs to varying degrees. After economic benefit analysis, the extruded straw microbial fermentation feed with urea added has the highest profitability and is more suitable for popularization and application in actual production. ⑤Study on the development law of sheep gastrointestinal microbe Analyzing the changes of microbial diversity in the rumen of lambs with age and the relationship between microbial diversity and growth performance, the results show that rumen microbes change with the age of lambs. Among them, 3 and 45 days after birth are the main nodes of community changes, and changes in bacterial community affect the changes in rumen metabolites. ⑥The effect of grape polyphenols on sheep rumen in vitro fermentation parameters and microbial flora. Studies have shown that glucan can inhibit the number of Vibrio cellolytic butyricum, filamentous succinobacterium, rumen amylophilus, protozoa and methanogens, and promote rumen cocci to increase the pH of the fermentation broth, reduce butyric acid, gas production and Methane production, realizing the regulation of in vitro rumen fermentation, provides a scientific basis for the development of functional feed additives. ⑦Study on the effect of adding grape seed proanthocyanidins to the diet on the performance and immune performance of lamb. Studies have shown that adding an appropriate amount of grape seed proanthocyanidins to the diet can improve the growth performance and slaughter performance of lambs, improve muscle quality, and enhance immunity, providing a scientific basis for the development of functional feed additives. ⑧ Research on the production technology of reed feed. Based on the advantages of reed feed resources in southern Xinjiang, the development of reed silage production technology has solved the key technical problems of reed feed.
2.3 Disease control technology
① Epidemiological investigation of mutton disease and research and development of diagnostic technology. Research and development of epidemiological investigations and diagnostic techniques for PPR and brucellosis, and conduct epidemiological investigations of Peste des petits ruminants in parts of Xinjiang, Qinghai, Yunnan and other provinces, and in Xinjiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, Tibet and other provinces An epidemiological investigation of brucellosis has been carried out in parts of the district. ② Development of rapid detection technology for brucellosis. Established a CD150/SLAM-based PPRVELISA detection method, developed a Brucella antibody gold-labeled test strip based on recombinant BP26 protein, and developed DuplexRPA with a sensitivity of 4×100 copies of B.melitensis and 5×100 B.abortus Copy and found that VirB7-11 may be an important rifampicin resistance gene in B. melitensis.
2.4 Slaughter and lamb processing technology
① Conducted research on the molecular mechanism of early energy metabolism and protein post-translational modification in mutton sheep to regulate the quality of mutton, revealing that protein post-translational modification regulates stiffness by regulating the activity of key enzymes in energy metabolism, and then negatively regulates mutton quality Molecular mechanism. ②The research on the quality characteristics of mutton at different stages after slaughter was carried out, and the meat quality characteristics of mutton sheep at the four stages of rigidity, rigidity, maturity and spoilage were analyzed. ③ Carried out the research on precise preservation technology of cold fresh lamb, and developed technologies such as ultra-fast cooling to inhibit stiffness, ice temperature/ultra-ice temperature storage, freezing to inhibit stiffness, new packaging preservation, and dry maturation. ④ The research on the segmentation technology of mutton segmentation robot was carried out, and the robot segmentation technology and intelligent segmentation technology equipment were initially established. ⑤Developed the industrialized processing technology of traditional lamb products, developed the industrialized processing technology of traditional air-dried lamb products and superheated steam combined with infrared light wave roasting technology, proposed and carried out the research of 4R lamb products (ready-to-eat, instant hot, instant cooking, instant preparation) . ⑥Developed high-value processing technologies for sheep blood, sheep bones, and sheep fat, developed efficient extraction of chondroitin sulfate, processing of liquid sheep’s tail oil, and preparation of functional active peptides, and proposed and developed 3S mutton products (ie, specific populations, Special environment, special medical purposes) research. ⑦ Carried out research on the detection technology of antibiotic residues in mutton, and developed a high-sensitivity and rapid detection technology for multiple antibiotic residues based on immunochromatography. ⑧ Carried out research on rapid detection technology of mutton quality and portable near-infrared detector for multi-quality fresh mutton.
2.5 Production and environmental control technology
① Focusing on the environmental parameters and environmental control of the mutton sheep house, Chinese researchers have developed an Internet of Things-based mutton sheep breeding base environmental monitoring system, and an online management system for mutton sheep breeding and breeding on the mobile phone. In response to new requirements, code optimization was performed on the display and function pages of the built mutton sheep environmental monitoring system, and the sampling points of environmental parameters at different heights in the sheep shed were fitted. ②For producers in pursuit of economic benefits, they feed animals with high-energy diets to increase daily gain, which leads to serious metabolic disorders and decreased meat quality. Research has found that adding spirulina to high-energy diets can increase animal growth. Performance, and improve the lipid metabolism disorders caused by high-energy diets, and provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of spirulina in sheep feed. At the same time, combined with the results of feed utilization of rape straw in the previous study, the fermentation operation procedure is simplified, which is convenient for the application and promotion of fermented rape straw in actual production. ③By treating sheep testicular stromal cells (LCs) with HT-2 toxin in vitro, it was found that on the one hand, HT-2 toxin caused ROS, disrupted cell mitochondrial function, inhibited the expression of genes related to testosterone synthesis, and finally inhibited the production of sheep LCs. Testosterone secretion; on the other hand, HT-2 toxin inhibits the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, causes the apoptosis and autophagy of LCs, and inhibits the proliferation of LCs, and ultimately affects the secretion of testosterone. Later, I tried to use melatonin for rescue, and found that melatonin at a concentration of 10 nmol/L could effectively alleviate the cytotoxicity of HT-2 to sheep LCs. The research has guiding significance for the formulation of environmental toxin control programs. ④ Carry out the research and development of facilities and equipment such as sheep manure composting fermentation, organic fertilizer return to the field, soil ecological restoration, mobile sheep sheds that can be cleaned, and pasture planting, summarize and condense research and development results and carry out demonstration and promotion. ⑤ Further research and develop new automation and intelligent equipment. The developed double or multi-storey sheep house solves the limitation of the land and makes full use of the space. Sheep houses with modular slab house structures will be popularized and applied in modern mutton production; successively developed and tried intelligent mechanical equipment such as automatic lamb feeding devices, automatic sheep shed disinfection devices, self-propelled stirring and feeding machinery, and sheep dung rapid fermentation devices. .
3 Problems in the development of my country’s mutton sheep industry in 2020
The continuous increase in sheep prices in the past two years reflects to a certain extent that the growth of my country’s mutton market supply has not kept up with the growth of consumer demand, and the overall supply of mutton market is tight. This situation is related to factors such as the scale, standardization, and industrialization of the mutton sheep industry, as well as the constraints of resources and the environment, and the weak foundation for industrial development. Especially under the impact of the sudden incident of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the import of mutton has decreased, and the price of sheep has repeatedly reached new highs, and the shortcomings in the development of the industry have been further magnified.
3.1 The degree of industrial scale is low, and the rate of implementation of advanced technologies is low
At present, the scale of my country’s mutton sheep industry is still relatively low. In 2017, the number of farms (households) with more than 100 sheep in the country accounted for only 3.1%of the total number of sheep farms in the country. It is expected that for a long time in the future, small-scale farms (households) with less than 100 animals will still be important participants in the production of mutton sheep in my country. However, the low level of scale is not conducive to the popularization and promotion of advanced technologies such as breed improvement, forage matching, medicine and epidemic prevention, which not only limits the improvement of production efficiency, but also is not conducive to the decrease of average cost, and also contributes to disease prevention and animal product quality and safety. Bringing huge hidden dangers and exacerbating the contradiction between small production and large markets.
3.2 There is a shortage of grass-roots professional and technical personnel, and the construction of the technical personnel team urgently needs to be strengthened
The current grassroots working environment, nature of work and salary are not attractive enough for high-level mutton breeding technicians. Farmers in rural areas, especially in remote mountainous areas, have few opportunities, difficulties, and high costs to obtain scientific breeding methods and management concepts. Their technical requirements for raising sheep cannot be effectively met. Farmers can only rely on experience to breed, which often results in sudden animal diseases. Deal with it in time, and the problem of high sheep mortality occurs frequently. During the 2020 new crown pneumonia epidemic, some sheep farms and companies have no local veterinarians, and veterinarians in other places cannot see the doctors on the spot. They can only adopt oral transmission or remote video methods. They cannot accurately diagnose and give appropriate treatment plans. The sick sheep die The situation has increased.
3.3 The links of the industry chain are loosely connected, and the whole industry chain has weak ability to resist risks
At present, the mutton sheep industry chain has been extended. Some large-scale sheep farming enterprises have formed a vertical integration model of”production plus marketing”. However, in general, the entire industry chain of mutton sheep in my country has not yet been fully opened up. The production and operation method of”walking on one leg” has a weak ability to resist risks in the industrial chain, and a problem in one link will cause the entire industrial chain to become disconnected. On the one hand, a large proportion of small and medium-sized farmers will connect with slaughter and processing enterprises through low-qualified middlemen such as “erdao dealers”. Once there is an emergency such as an epidemic, such middlemen can easily “retire”. The risk of disconnection between production and processing is more borne by farmers and enterprises, which is likely to cause instability in the mutton supply market. On the other hand, a large number of slaughter and processing enterprises have low technical level and scale, and their sales channel expansion capabilities are relatively low. At the beginning of the outbreak in 2020, some companies”dare not produce” because they”cannot sell” mutton, and the risk of unsalable live sheep has been passed on to farmers.
3.4 The regional basic input guarantee and reserve system is incomplete, and the ability to resist risks is weak
In the early stage of the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia in 2020, due to the interruption of”logistics” and”people flow”, it is difficult to transfer goods in a short period of time. In addition to insufficient local reserves, various farms (households) have experienced shortages of varying degrees. The problem of food shortage has seriously affected the efficiency of breeding. At the same time, because county and township veterinary drug and feed stores cannot open in time, the outsourcing and transportation of veterinary drugs, vaccines, and disinfection supplies are difficult, which has greatly affected the implementation of the spring epidemic prevention plan.
3.5 Lamb products are highly substitutable, and the product sales model is single
Affected by consumption habits, mutton products are highly substitutable compared to meat products such as pork and poultry. The price of lamb is relatively high and the proportion of outdoor consumption is relatively large. Once the prices of pork and poultry drop, the substitutability of lamb will be further strengthened. At the beginning of the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia, domestic consumption of mutton, outdoor catering consumption and gift consumption all experienced a “cliff-edge” decline. Major mutton procurement and catering companies such as Haidilao, Xibei, Xiabuxiabu, etc. have encountered difficulties in their operations due to the epidemic. Residents are hoarding rice noodles, vegetables, pork, poultry, etc., but there is no obvious enthusiasm for buying lamb. Although online mutton sales have increased in 2019, the absolute number is still relatively small, and the overall mutton consumption market is still not optimistic.
4 Prospects for the development trend of my country’s mutton sheep industry in 2021
4.1 Lamb market supply will remain tight
Compared with domestic mutton supply (ie domestic production), the overall volume of foreign mutton supply (ie foreign imports) is relatively small, but the proportion of foreign mutton supply in the total supply has been increasing, from 1.4%To 7.5%, this also means that the self-sufficiency rate of mutton in our country is declining (from 98.9%to 92.6%). In 2021, as the development of the domestic epidemic is gradually brought under control, driven by technological innovation, national policy guarantees, and high market prices, the overall domestic supply of mutton will continue to increase, but the increase will not be very obvious, mainly due to the slower adjustment of the industrial structure. Slow, and the influence of restrictive factors such as longer feeding cycle of mutton sheep and environmental resource constraints is still significant. At the same time, according to the relevant provisions of the free trade agreements between my country and Australia, New Zealand and other countries, the import tariffs on mutton will be further reduced, and Australia and New Zealand will have more advantages in price. With the deepening of the”Belt and Road” strategic cooperation relationship, Countries along the “Belt and Road” may enter the list of source countries for mutton imports, and my country’s mutton import channels are expected to expand; coupled with the steady increase in consumer demand for imported mutton, the import volume of mutton in 2021 will be relaxed Or it will turn from decline to rise. In general, the supply capacity of my country’s mutton market will increase in 2021, but the overall growth rate is not large, and there are still many uncertainties in imports.
4.2 Lamb market demand will continue to increase
With the further recovery and improvement of live pig production capacity in 2021, pork prices will fall. From January to December 2020, the monthly price of pork in the fair market will drop from 53.8 yuan/kg to 49.6 yuan/kg, a decrease of 7.8%. The substitution effect of pork will be weakened. It is expected that in 2021, the consumption demand for mutton of Chinese residents will increase only slightly. From the perspective of my country’s mutton export situation, compared with domestic production, my country’s export of mutton is very small in absolute quantity. Exports have been declining slowly for many years. It is expected that my country’s mutton export volume will maintain a steady and slight decline in 2021. In general, my country’s mutton market demand will rise steadily, residents’ outdoor consumption may increase significantly, and mutton exports have changed little, but both are vulnerable to emergencies.
4.3 The room for price increase of lamb is limited
The price increase in the mutton market in my country in the past two years is mainly due to the imbalance of market supply and demand. According to the previous analysis, the demand side of the mutton market in my country will grow rapidly in the short term, but the supply side is still tight. This imbalance of supply and demand will continue in 2021. It is expected that the overall mutton price will continue to run at a high level in 2021. Considering that the market price of mutton in 2020 has reached a historical peak, or is close to the ceiling level, and after a whole year of recovery, the supply of mutton will increase year-on-year, so the overall price in 2021 may fall.
5 Recommendations for promoting the development of the mutton sheep industry in 2021
In the context of the gradual normalization of domestic epidemic prevention and control and the unclear development trend of foreign new crown pneumonia epidemics, the development of my country’s mutton sheep industry in 2021 should still adhere to the basic principle of”self-sufficiency first and import second” to further improve The scale and degree of industrialization will promote the continuous development of the industry in the direction of green and high quality, and guarantee the quantity and quality of the supply of the mutton market in my country.
5.1 Further establish and improve the breeding system of improved varieties, and promote the”seed industry revitalization” strategy of the meat sheep industry
One is to excavate our country’s existing mutton sheep breed resources, appropriately introduce foreign fine breeds, and use precision breeding techniques to cultivate new specialized mutton sheep breeds suitable for my country’s natural conditions. The second is to learn from the advanced technology and experience of domestic and foreign mutton sheep industry and breeding, carry out integrated innovation and technology transformation, and formulate breeding and feeding management technology and quality control standards suitable for my country’s ecological environment and breeding mode. The third is to strengthen the construction of seed industry projects in accordance with market changes and cultivate excellent varieties that can meet market demand in a timely manner.
5.2 Improve the conversion rate and implementation efficiency of science and technology, and improve the scientific level of breeding
One is to increase the feed conversion rate by accelerating the formulation and promotion of mutton sheep breeding standards and the nutritional parameters of conventional feed; by increasing scientific and technological investment in the breeding environment and disease prevention, efforts to reduce the fatality rate and increase the yield. The second is to expand the scale of production while improving the ecological environment deteriorated by overloading and overgrazing in the pastoral area. On the basis of stabilizing the number of breeding, popularize the technology of house-feeding and half-house-feeding to improve production performance; For the problem of increased costs, the model of grazing and breeding in pastoral areas and farming and fattening can be promoted in the interlaced area of agriculture and pasture. The third is to make full use of crop stalks, vigorously promote ammoniated and other coarse feed processing and modulation technologies, develop special feeds and feed additives for mutton sheep, and change the structure of traditional feed formulas. Promote grassland improvement, artificial grass planting and grass field rotation in pastoral, semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas. Speed up the establishment of modern forage product production and processing demonstration bases and promote the development of the forage product processing industry.
5.3 Further optimize the industrial layout and clarify the regional development positioning
It is necessary to comprehensively consider factors such as the comparative advantages, ecological carrying capacity, slaughter and processing, and residents’ consumption capacity of the superior production areas of mutton sheep, and coordinate the overall situation and adjust the local development direction. For the superior production areas of the Central Plains, while maintaining its production capacity, efforts should be made to reverse the decline in regional meat sheep production, and appropriate policy incentives and production technical support should be given to areas with degraded meat sheep production capacity. For the advantageous production areas in the middle-east agro-pastoral interlaced zone, we should focus on stimulating the advantages of pastoral areas in Inner Mongolia, explore the production potential of mutton sheep in the three eastern provinces, base on its rich agricultural resources, actively promote mutton sheep breeding, and improve the scale and standardization of mutton sheep industry. For the predominant production area in Northwest China, due to its fragile ecological environment, it is not suitable to continue to expand the scale of breeding due to the constraints of natural resources. It is urgent to guide farmers to change the concept of”large quantity” and encourage them to”raise less and intensively.” For the superior production areas in the southwest, we must continue to increase the advantages of local varieties, actively explore and utilize them, and at the same time improve the market layout and open up the Southeast Asian and South Asian mutton markets.
5.4 Effectively coordinate both domestic and foreign market resources to form a diversified import pattern
Considering the long time required for industrial transformation and upgrading, in the short term, we should also aim to ensure stable market supply and increase imports of high-quality and high-priced mutton products. Further explore a more scientific and diversified import pattern. On the basis of stabilizing the import of mutton from the two major source countries of New Zealand and Australia, consider the countries along the “Belt and Road” such as Kazakhstan and Mongolia as supplementary countries for import sources. Risks caused by concentration. At the same time, we must also pay attention to the quality of imported mutton, and ensure the quality and safety of imported mutton while appropriately enriching imported mutton categories.
5.5 Improve the regional production material emergency reserve system, and promote the establishment of risk early warning and emergency response mechanisms
First, local governments should combine local animal husbandry production capacity to establish a storage system for commonly used inputs such as forage and veterinary drugs within a reasonable area to improve the public service mechanism for emergency response to the epidemic. The second is to encourage farmers and enterprises to make breeding plans, increase input reserves, extend the time of input reserves, and increase the scale of input reserves. The third is to continuously strengthen the popularization of epidemic prevention and control knowledge, improve the prevention and control awareness of field staff, and strictly do prevention and control work in daily production, and cooperate with management departments to jointly do aquaculture risk monitoring work.
5.6 Promote the construction of grassroots animal husbandry professionals and service system
One is to attract livestock professional and technical talents to take root in the grassroots by appropriately increasing remuneration and increasing the allocation of professional infrastructure, promote the construction of regional livestock professional talents, and improve the offline technology promotion service system. The second is to develop and improve the online technical service platform for animal husbandry, build a small program for the compilation of practical knowledge such as breeding, disease prevention and control, and improve the convenience of sheep (farm) households to obtain online technical services. ) User technology adoption efficiency and satisfaction.
5.7 Broaden sales channels and enrich product categories
Although the new crown pneumonia epidemic has a greater adverse impact on offline sales, it also brings opportunities for the expansion of online sales channels. In the future, the sales of the mutton industry should explore the establishment of a diversified structure, strive to open up the boundaries of online and offline sales, and actively expand online and offline sales channels. In particular, it is necessary to innovate online sales channels and promotion methods for mutton products, and strengthen e-commerce And the construction of cold chain logistics. At the same time, it will further enrich the types of mutton products, and increase the added value of mutton products while meeting the diverse consumption needs of consumers.
Acknowledgements:This article is written on the basis of the summary materials of the National Meat Sheep Industry Technology System. It is the result of the collective collaboration of experts in various positions and the head of the test station. Thank you!