According to customs statistics, in 2020, Tianjin Port imported 702,000 tons of dairy products, an increase of 16.6%over the previous year (the same below); the value was RMB 11.53 billion, an increase of 11.6%; The average import price was 16,000 yuan per ton, down 4.3%.
1. Main features of dairy imports at Tianjin Port in 2020
(1) The volume of dairy imports at Tianjin Port increased month-on-month in December, while the average price fell. In 2020, the monthly dairy imports at Tianjin Port will be relatively flat. In December, Tianjin Port imported 68,000 tons of dairy products, an increase of 30.9%year-on-year and an increase of 0.3%month-on-month; the value of 960 million yuan, an increase of 7.5%year-on-year, and a decrease of 5.7%month-on-month; average import price It was 14,000 yuan per ton, down 17.9%year-on-year and down 5.9%month-on-month.
(2) Mainly imported through general trade. In 2020, Tianjin Port imported 612,000 tons of dairy products through general trade, an increase of 24.2%, accounting for 87.2%of the total dairy imports (the same below) at Tianjin Port during the same period.
(3) Mainly imported from the European Union and New Zealand. In 2020, Tianjin Port imported 288,000 tons of dairy products from the European Union (27 countries, excluding the United Kingdom), an increase of 35.6%; imports of 228,000 tons from New Zealand, a decrease of 8.1%; the two together accounted for 73.5%.
(4) Private enterprises and state-owned enterprises are the main importers. In 2020, state-owned enterprises at Tianjin Port imported 280,000 tons of dairy products, an increase of 34.4%; private enterprises imported 269,000 tons of dairy products, an increase of 1.7%; the two together accounted for 78.2%.
Second, the main reason for the above characteristics of dairy imports at Tianjin Port recently
(1) Domestic market demand is strong, and dairy imports increase. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of the living standards of the Chinese people, the consumption of dairy products has increased year by year; affected by the African swine fever epidemic in recent years, the supply of domestic livestock products has been in short supply. As a high-quality protein nutrition product, the consumption demand for dairy products has increased. enlarge. In addition, my country’s stable control of the new crown epidemic has increased residents’ enthusiasm for consumption, and the proportion of dairy products in daily consumption has gradually increased. In recent years, my country’s casual catering and baking industry has developed rapidly, with an average annual growth rate of up to 20%. As an important raw material, the demand for dairy products has further expanded.
(2) Domestic consumption upgrades, demand for high-quality milk sources has stimulated an increase in dairy imports. Imported dairy products, with their high brand effect and quality assurance, liquid milk, baby powder, cheese and other products occupy an important position in dairy consumption and their proportion is steadily increasing. Domestic consumers are increasingly eager for high-quality and diversified milk fat products. At the same time, factors such as the accelerated upgrading of the dairy product structure, the rapid development of second and third-tier cities, the growing middle class, urbanization and the transformation of the consumer economy, etc., are all driving the growth of my country’s dairy consumption demand. After the implementation of my country’s”comprehensive two-child” policy, it will bring an increase of 1.79 to 1.96 million in my country’s annual birth population, and there is a large market for new infant milk powder. The arrival of a new wave of birth peaks and the Chinese people’s tendency to choose imported dairy products have promoted a further increase in dairy imports.
(3) Insufficient domestic dairy production capacity, imports to make up for the market gap. At present, the domestic dairy farming industry is still gradually phasing out retail investors. In the process of transforming to a large-scale and mechanized model, the production capacity of domestic dairy companies continues to shrink, and the production of fresh milk will continue to decline, resulting in an increase in overall dairy imports.
(4) As my country continues to open up to the outside world, and the structure of mature foreign industries is superimposed, the price of imported dairy products has fallen further. The trade facilitation between my country and the European Union and the free trade agreements signed with New Zealand, Australia and other countries have unblocked the channels for consumer products such as dairy products to enter my country. In the free trade agreement between my country and New Zealand, tariffs on dairy products have been reduced to zero. Coupled with the mature industrial structure of exporting countries, it has formed a higher price advantage and further enhanced the motivation to enter the Chinese market.
3. Current issues worthy of attention and related suggestions
(1) The risk of over-importing dairy products is worthy of attention. Since the production cost of domestic raw milk is much higher than that of major foreign dairy producing countries, domestic dairy companies have become increasingly dependent on imported dairy products. At the same time, affected by the epidemic and other reasons, international dairy companies have gradually overcapacity, leading to further reductions in dairy prices and the domestic dairy industry. Over-reliance on imported milk sources, and at the same time there is a risk of over-imported dairy products.
(2) The safety level of domestic dairy products is constantly improving, but consumer trust still needs to be improved. In recent years, as my country’s dairy imports continue to increase, the quality of imported dairy products has become increasingly prominent. According to statistics, in 2019, the State Administration for Market Regulation issued a notice involving 3 batches of unqualified infant formula milk powder, and it is difficult to count the”problem products” sold through overseas shopping channels. On the contrary, the safety supervision of domestic dairy products has been continuously strengthened, the quality and safety level has been greatly improved, and the main quality and hygiene indicators have reached the level of developed countries. However, the consumer confidence of domestic consumers has not increased simultaneously with the improvement of the quality and safety of domestic dairy products. Consumers still lack confidence in domestic dairy products, and still have selective preferences for imported milk sources and imported dairy products, which stimulates dairy imports. Continue to grow.
(3) The new crown epidemic is still spreading globally, and it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of imported dairy products. Since the fourth quarter of 2020, the country has continuously detected the new coronavirus in imported frozen products. my country has established a strict new coronavirus risk monitoring system for imported cold chain products to prevent the new coronavirus from entering my country through the cold chain. With the development of the foreign epidemic situation and more understanding of the new coronavirus, there is a possibility that the new coronavirus will be imported into my country through ordinary imported goods. Especially in the recent Tianjin Daqiao Road epidemic-related ice cream incident, preliminary investigations have been carried out by imported Ukrainian raw material whey powder, which fully proves that imported dairy products are at risk of contamination by the new crown virus. Dairy products, especially cold chain imported products, need to strengthen epidemic surveillance to ensure safety.
For this reason, it is recommended that the first is to strengthen the monitoring and early warning of the import volume and price of dairy products, pay close attention to the production and price changes of domestic and foreign milk sources, and to prevent low foreign prices The influx of dairy products impacts the domestic industry, and we must be alert to the domestic milk shortage; the second is to strengthen the food safety inspections of imported dairy products to prevent problematic dairy products from flowing to the food market and endanger the health of the people; the third is to promote the transformation and upgrading of China’s dairy industry to reduce production costs , Improve the quality and quality of domestic dairy products, boost consumer confidence in domestic dairy products, and promote the sustained and healthy development of the domestic dairy industry.