Current vegetable production management technical opinions
By: Date: 2021-02-13 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
   Since October last year, Zhejiang Province has experienced continuous autumn and winter droughts and two ultra-strong low-temperature cold waves. Vegetable production has been greatly affected. The beginning of spring has passed and the temperature has gradually warmed up. All localities must earnestly pay attention to the safety of vegetable production and epidemic prevention and control, pay close attention to weather changes, strengthen technical guidance for vegetable production, and adopt effective measures to strengthen management to prevent continuous drought, low temperature damage and possible occurrences. Even under the influence of disastrous weather such as rain and rain, increase the output and quality of local vegetables and ensure a balanced and stable supply of vegetables.
   One is to strengthen the management of on-field vegetable production. Strengthen the management of vegetable temperature, humidity, fertilizer and water in greenhouses, implement standardized production technical measures, and focus on heat preservation and drought prevention; clear ditch and drainage on rainy days, reduce humidity in the shed, control the application of nitrogen fertilizer, and cover dry straw in the greenhouse if possible, starting at night Insulation function, dehumidification effect during the day; strengthen pruning and leafing, spotting flowers and fruits, erecting and hanging vines, enhancing plant resistance, preventing excessive growth, and improving early yield. Open field vegetables should be cultivated and topdressed in a timely manner to promote early development, ditch drainage to prevent stains, and harvest mature vegetables in time. In continuous rainy days, open fields and facilities for vegetables should strengthen drainage and reduce field humidity. Greenhouse vegetable production bases must open deep trenches outside the greenhouses to ensure that the trenches are connected, the rain stops and the water is dry, reduces the humidity in the shed, promotes the stable growth of the root system, and prevents the accumulation of water or rainwater from causing waterlogging in the field and affecting vegetable growth.
   The second is to plant seedlings and transplant them in time. It is necessary to seize the recent sunny and good weather, promptly use the high temperature around noon to sow and cultivate strong seedlings, and timely transplant seedlings, such as solanace fruit, melons, beans, and green leafy vegetables, to stabilize spring and summer vegetable production and fill the market supply gap . In fine weather, the inner membrane of the melon and vegetable seedling shed should be uncovered early and late. After the temperature rises, it should be ventilated and cooled in time to avoid burning the seedlings. In the case of continuous rainy weather, use the uncovering film when the temperature is relatively high at noon to see the light; Continuous low temperature, rainy and weak light weather should be artificially supplemented with light to increase temperature to cultivate strong seedlings to prevent seedlings from lengthening and freezing damage; for seedlings that are older and crowded due to weather or artificial reasons, they should be appropriately cooled and water controlled Or row thin seedlings and transplant them as soon as the weather improves. Prepare the ground in advance before transplanting, add organic fertilizer, and according to the weather forecast, catch the cold tail and warm head weather in time, plant in time, adopt middle shed and small arch shed, multi-layer covering, heat preservation and moisturizing closed shed management for about 7 days to promote early onset The roots survived early. In case of sudden sunny and good weather after continuous rain, it is necessary to prevent the shed from heating up for a short period of time to cause damage to the seedlings. According to the temperature in the shed, ventilate around 9-10 in the morning to maintain a suitable temperature in the shed. If the plants lose water and wilt, spray water on the leaves and cover the shading with shading nets or non-woven fabrics to promote the plants to return to normal conditions as soon as possible.
  The third is to expand fast-growing leafy vegetables appropriately. At the beginning of this year, affected by low temperature and freezing damage, the area of ​​leafy vegetables in various places decreased. It is necessary to actively guide vegetable farmers to adjust production plans, rationally arrange crops, and timely sowing and transplanting seedlings to ensure the normal production and market supply of spring and summer vegetables, especially leafy vegetables. It is recommended that vegetable bases with empty sheds should appropriately expand the production scale of leafy vegetables in the near future and rush to sow a batch of fast-growing leafy vegetables, such as bolting-resistant common cabbage (green cabbage), lettuce, amaranth, water spinach (water spinach), and other varieties. The plantar water will be sown in mid-to-late February. Multi-layer mulching is used for heat preservation. Water and fertilizer management will be strengthened. Vegetables will be supplied to the”spring light” market from April to May after bolting and changing crops of local vegetables and other varieties.
  Fourth is to strengthen the prevention and control of pests and diseases. Focus on the prevention and control of damping-off, blast, gray mold, downy mildew, powdery mildew, blight, sclerotium, root rot and other diseases, and pest control of aphids, red spiders, snails, etc. Priority is given to the use of agricultural control measures, and when necessary, the use of counterpart chemicals for control, and attention should be paid to prevent pesticide residues from exceeding the standard. In rainy weather with high humidity, spraying pesticides should be minimized. Fumigants, powders, and food attractants can be used for prevention and control, but fumigants should be used with caution on seedlings to prevent phytotoxicity. The spraying of the agent should be carried out in the sunny morning after the temperature rises and the humidity decreases. After spraying, proper ventilation is used to promote the drying of the leaves as soon as possible. At the same time, the dead branches, yellow leaves, diseased leaves, and diseased fruits should be removed in time and moved out of the shed for centralized treatment.
   The fifth is to implement disaster prevention and mitigation measures. In early spring, the climate is changeable, and disastrous weather such as cold spring, strong wind, continuous rain and rain is prone to occur. It is necessary to pay close attention to weather changes, prepare emergency plans for extreme weather prevention, implement disaster prevention and mitigation technical measures, and make every effort to ensure safe vegetable production. Earlier drought-affected fields, especially coastal tidal flat saline-alkali soils, have increased salinity. It is necessary to seize the recent rainfall favorable weather to irrigate and replenish water in time, apply water-saving technologies such as spray irrigation and straw mulching to increase moisture content, and irrigate to wash salt. At the same time, pay attention to prevent the adverse weather effects such as low temperature damage and cold spring.