2020 Beef Cattle and Yak Industry Technology Development Report
National Beef Cattle and Yak Industry Technology System
(released on January 31, 2021)
1. Overview of international beef production and trade in 2020
1, international beef production
In 2020, the total global beef production based on carcass conversion was 60.431 million tons, a decrease of 1.211 million tons from 2019. Countries (regions) with production exceeding one million tons are (ten thousand tons):the United States (1237.4), Brazil (1010.0), the European Union (27 countries) (780.0), China (678.0), Argentina (318.0), Mexico (209.0), Australia (208.5), Canada (131.0).
2. International beef consumption
The global beef consumption in 2020 is 59.105 million tons, a decrease of 481,000 tons from 2019. Countries (regions) with beef consumption exceeding one million tons are (ten thousand tons):the United States (1261.0), China (951.5), the European Union (27 countries) (775.0), Brazil (760.0), Argentina (238.5), Mexico (187.0) ), Japan (131.0), Canada (104.8).
3. International beef trade volume
In 2020, the total global beef trade volume was 19.581 million tons, of which 10.441 million tons were exported and 9.140 million tons were imported. Compared with 2019, the total beef trade volume has decreased by 131,000 tons, the export volume has decreased by 451,000 tons, and the import volume has increased by 32 million tons.
The countries (regions) with beef exports exceeding 300,000 tons in 2020 are (10,000 tons):Brazil (255.0), Australia (142.5), the United States (131.4), Argentina (81.0), New Zealand (61.0), Canada ( 50.0), Mexico (36.0), European Union (27 countries) (35.0).
The countries (regions) with beef imports exceeding 200,000 tons in 2020 are (10,000 tons):China (275.0), the United States (156.3), Japan (85.0), South Korea (53), Hong Kong (43.0), the European Union (27 countries) (30.0), Canada (24.0). (The above is based on USDA”World Markets and Trade”)
II. Overview of domestic beef production and trade
1. Domestic beef cattle production and beef production
In 2020, the annual number of slaughtered beef cattle will be about 29.2 million, the total carcass output will be about 7.4 million tons, and the net meat output will be about 6.37 million tons. The average carcass weight of slaughtered beef cattle is about 255 kg/head. Among them, the average carcass weight of hybrid cattle is about 342 kg/head in the fattening farms with higher fattening technology, and the average carcass weight of medium and large local cattle is about 264 kg/head. Southern The average carcass weight of local small cattle is about 164 kg/head, and the total output value of beef cattle is about 554 billion yuan. In 2020, about 3.7 million yaks will be slaughtered nationwide, with an average carcass weight of about 128kg/head, carcass output of about 480,000 tons, net meat output of 390,000 tons, and an estimated yak output value of 33.9 billion yuan. (Calculation of Beef Cattle and Yak System)
2. Domestic beef trade
The total beef import and export trade volume (excluding beef offal and other products) is about 2,118,400 tons, an increase of 458,700 tons over the same period in 2019. The total beef import and export trade volume is US$10.180 billion, and the trade deficit is US$10.178 billion. The net beef import volume (2.1182 million tons) was 1.28 times that of the same period in 2019 (1.6593 million tons), an increase of 458,900 tons from 2019.
The total amount of beef imports in 2020 is 2,118,300 tons, the import value is 10.179 billion US dollars, and the average import price is 4.81 US dollars/kg. Among them, fresh or cold bone-in beef imported 876.06 tons, with an import value of 12.1291 million U.S. dollars; fresh or cold boneless beef imported 47,860.67 tons, with an import value of 395,512,300 dollars; frozen bone-in beef imports with 295,163.04 tons, and an import value of 765,138,700 dollars; Frozen boneless beef imported 1,773,416.52 tons, with an import value of 900,377,300 US dollars; frozen carcass and semi-carcasses imported 977.63 tons, with an import value of 2,541,700 US dollars.
96.65 tons of beef will be exported in 2020, the export value will be 757,400 US dollars, and the average export price will be 7.84 US dollars/kg. Among them, fresh or cold bone-in beef, fresh or cold boneless beef, frozen whole and half-head beef are not exported; frozen bone-in beef exports are 4.55 tons, with an export value of 29,900 US dollars; frozen boneless beef exports are 92.1 tons, The export value was 727,500 US dollars. There are 4 provinces (cities) exporting beef (tons), namely Shanghai (49.62), Beijing (25.99), Jilin Province (12.04), and Guangdong Province (8.99).
There are 29 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) importing beef in 2020. There are 24 (tons) with a total annual import volume of more than 1,000 tons, namely Shanghai (508146.33), Tianjin (324423.89), Shandong (243844.62), Guangdong (192954.93), Jiangsu (172362.45), Beijing (160546.02), Anhui (115619.22), Liaoning (78030.13), Fujian (57788.91), Hunan (57512.33), Zhejiang (40513.52), Heilongjiang (34231.98), Chongqing (31395.09), Henan (26973.63), Hubei (18408.96), Jilin (12327.72), Hebei (10633.08), Sichuan (10286.22), Inner Mongolia (6980.87), Xinjiang (5226.49), Shaanxi (2671.43), Hainan (2269.82), Gansu (1669.25), Shanxi (1467.16). (The above is based on the General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China http://www.customs.gov.cn)
3. Progress of international beef cattle industry technology research and development
1, the field of genetic breeding and reproduction
Beef cattle industry developed countries continue to promote the breeding of this breed, pursuing the high genetic level of breeding cattle and the maximization of breeding income, and the breed production performance continues to improve. Not only that, the hybrid production between varieties aimed at taking advantage of hybridization is also an important research content. The breeding value (EPD) comparison table between multiple varieties will be released within 1 to 2 years for commercial production plants to select high-efficiency hybrid combinations. While beef cattle industry developed countries are perfecting traditional breeding techniques, the discovery of genes for main traits of beef cattle is also one of the key contents of international research.
With the introduction of the American Agricultural Animal and Food Gene Editing Act, gene editing seems to be gaining momentum in beef cattle breeding. Techniques such as egg collection, in vitro fertilization and cloning of young animals are the key research contents of the reproductive discipline. In particular, the development of in vitro fertilization and cloning technologies has accelerated. The application of embryo transfer technology has accelerated the propagation efficiency of excellent germplasm. The intelligent collection system for beef cattle breeding data has been further developed in the past year, accelerating genetic progress. The application scope of whole genome selection technology in beef cattle breeding is gradually expanding, especially the application of genome selection technology in early selection is more extensive, which improves breeding efficiency. Affected by the”new crown epidemic” and changes in the international trade environment, the United States, Australia and many other countries have slowed down their sales of germplasm to the Chinese market.
2. Feed nutrition field
Beef cattle feed nutritional value evaluation continues, such as tropical legumes, palm kernel cake, cashew nut processing by-products, genetically modified soybeans, forage Brassica plants (summer radish, rape, kale and Swedish cabbage), etc. Carry out research on the nutritional needs of beef cattle, promote precision feeding, and gradually deepen the research on the nutritional needs of vitamins and mineral elements, and gradually establish a prediction model for the growth of specific beef cattle such as zebu. Pay attention to the development of low-cost feed resources and reduce the cost of breeding, such as adding sheep bean by-products, sweet peas, and slow-release urea to reduce costs. Pay attention to the research of feed processing and utilization technology, use mixed lactic acid bacteria inoculation to improve the quality of whole-plant corn silage, and use microorganisms and biological enzyme preparations to process the neutral detergent fiber of roughage. Improving the feed conversion efficiency of beef cattle has always been a hot spot. For example, in North America and Europe, the remaining feed intake is used to evaluate the digestion, growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of beef cattle, and the use of yucca extract to improve beef cattle growth and feed efficiency, and feed use in the early stage of calf feeding Fermented products increase the feed utilization rate of calves after weaning.
Pay attention to the impact of breeding mode on the health of cows and calves, strengthen the nutritional metabolism and body condition scores of cows during calving and pregnancy, and grazing cattle before pregnancy has little effect on embryos but may increase pregnancy failure risk. To study the contribution rate of nutrition, environment and disease to the growth of calves. The lack of copper will reduce the copper content in the liver. The low calcium to phosphorus ratio in the diet will stimulate the bone calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The frequency of concentrate addition will affect the performance and metabolism of grazing cattle. Impact.
Pay attention to beef cattle breeding and environmental protection. The addition of urea or rapeseed meal to tropical pastures can improve rumen fermentation mode and reduce methane emissions. Use algae supplements, tea saponin, slow-release nitrates, and goldenrod extracts to reduce beef cattle The production of methane in farming.
Improving beef cattle production performance and improving meat quality has always been the focus of research, including energy sources and feeding levels, stage feeding mode affects beef cattle production and beef quality, etc., using omics methods to study the relationship between beef cattle breeds, rumen microbes and body nutrient deposition, Pay attention to the effect of functional feed additives on beef cattle production performance and meat quality, such as adding vitamin A, yeast, zinc propionate, resveratrol, etc. to improve production performance, carcass characteristics and beef quality.
Based on the above research and the use of Internet technology, develop smart pastures to strengthen the construction of big data, and then support the development of the beef cattle industry.
3. Disease prevention and control field
In 2020, the World Organization for Animal Health reported the bluetongue disease, cattle foot-and-mouth disease and cattle nodular skin disease. The World Organization for Animal Health has reported 111 bluetongue cases, mainly types 8, 16, and 4; 18 cases of type 8 bluetongue occurred in Belgium and Switzerland; 72 cases of type 4 bluetongue were mainly in Greece An outbreak in Macedonia; 20 cases of type 16 bluetongue disease mainly occurred in the North Aegean region of Greece. In 2020, 29 cases of cattle foot-and-mouth disease were reported, mainly O-type, A-type, SAT 2 and SAT 3, of which SAT 2 was the main type, and most of them occurred in Asian and African countries such as Myanmar and South Africa. In 2020, 14 cases of bovine nodular skin disease were reported, most of which occurred in Nepal, Russia and other countries, with Nepal being the main epidemic area.
In terms of the development of vaccines for cattle, nanoparticle-based vaccines have become a substitute for traditional vaccine upgrades. Nanoparticle vaccines can contain multiple antigen payloads and have the ability to protect proteins from degradation; in addition to this; In addition, synthetic nanoparticle vaccines can be targeted for delivery by intranasal, aerosol or oral administration, and can also induce mucosal immunity. The aerosolized Staphylococcus aureus lysate can effectively stimulate the innate immune response in the lungs of calves. Intranasal vaccination of calves does not reduce the mortality or incidence of respiratory syndrome, but it can significantly improve the weight gain rate of 17 days or older calves after transportation.
In the development of diagnostic technology for cattle, the droplet digital PCR detection method does not require DNA extraction and can distinguish E. coli samples containing stx genes. [email protected]
nanostructures can enhance the ability of bacteria capture and have high sensitivity when detecting E. coli samples. Recombinase polymerase amplification technology can directly, sensitively and accurately detect 4 BRD pathogens, drug resistance genes and binding elements in deep nasopharyngeal swabs.
Looking for non-antibiotic disease control methods is also a hot spot for disease prevention and control. The combined use of PD～L1 antibody and COX～2 inhibitor has a good effect on the treatment of mycoplasma infection in calves. Soy isoflavones and tea saponin can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and the formation of its biofilm. Lysozymes PlySs2 and PlySs9 in Streptococcus suis prophages from serotypes 2 and 9 can lyse all Streptococcus uberis isolates and can be used as a candidate substitute for antibiotics in the mammary gland.
4. Facility equipment and environmental control field
Foreign beef cattle factory production has developed rapidly, and the mechanization, automation and scientific rate have been improved in terms of feed processing coordination, manure removal, drinking water and disease diagnosis. Equipment for silage harvesting, forage harvesting and storage, automatic fault detection and early warning, simplified maintenance, and unit operations are constantly improving the overall equipment operating efficiency. The actual operating efficiency of the wrapped silage machine represented by Orkel has exceeded 40. Tons/hour. Farming facilities and management pay more attention to improving the degree of intelligence, reducing the output of human resources, and starting to carry out informatization and intelligent management of key areas and key links, such as using an intelligent data collection system to build a large-scale breeding system, and relying on the estrus of smart collars Detection, nutrition control and smart partition doors, etc.
Breeding cows are basically grazing and reared, and calves are weaned from the traditional 7 to 8 months of age to the early weaning of 2 to 3 months of age. In terms of environmental control, research is mainly focused on nutrition regulation technology and animal welfare improvement with the goal of reducing emissions, using online monitoring of greenhouse gas in cattle farms and Internet data transmission to realize remote evaluation of the effects of different types of diets in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and cleaning The impact of changes in manure and activity space on the welfare and production performance of beef cattle, thereby optimizing feeding management and increasing benefits.
Research on the treatment and utilization of manure from foreign cattle farms still focuses on energy utilization, supplemented by resource utilization. In the energy utilization of cow dung, research has focused on trying to use different types of fermentation substrates and additives to improve the quality and output of biogas and reduce waste gas emissions. In terms of resource utilization, mainly through improving composting conditions and the use of conditioners to reduce the loss of nitrogen fertilizer and greenhouse gas emissions. For example, studies have found that adding vermiculite in the composting process can achieve the effect of nitrogen preservation, promote maturity and improve it to a certain extent. The calcium and magnesium concentration of the product.
5. Processing and quality control field
In the aspect of beef cattle slaughtering and processing, further study the relationship between animal management and stress during the slaughter process and its impact on meat quality. Research uses ultrasonic waves and shock waves to improve beef tenderness by accelerating maturity and changing muscle structure. Research the maturation time, maturation type on the meat quality and the formation mechanism of beef meat color under different pH limit and its influence on the quality.
The thawing characteristics and mechanism of frozen beef in a high-voltage electric field were studied. In the processing of beef products, the effects of probiotics on the quality of fresh beef sausages and fat substitutes on the quality of emulsified intestines were studied. The digestion and absorption of beef and functional products have received attention. Some scholars have studied the effect of vacuum cooking technology on improving the quality and digestibility of beef, as well as promoting the production of antioxidant peptides in cured beef through ultrasonic treatment and adding dandelion.
In terms of beef quality control, the use of natural extracts, bacteriophages, ultra-high pressure, pulsed radiation and fence technology to inhibit microorganisms and prolong shelf life has attracted attention in the prevention and control of beef microorganisms. The effects of new packaging materials such as bacterial cellulose, nano silver and bacterial nano cellulose composite, gelatin/chitosan nanofiber/zinc oxide nanocomposite film on the shelf life and quality of beef were evaluated. The effect and mechanism of exogenous enzyme tenderization and endogenous enzyme on meat tenderness have been further explained. Metabonomics has been applied in studying the mechanism of black cut meat and beef taste presentation, while proteomics has determined the biomarkers of pre-slaughter stress, intermediate and high pH beef, and meat color.
In terms of beef safety and rapid detection, rapid non-destructive testing technology is still a hot research topic due to its high sensitivity, high accuracy, and high efficiency. Based on spectral technologies such as Raman spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectroscopy, it can predict beef adulteration, shearing force, cooking loss, intramuscular fat, freshness, microbial level and other characteristics, which improves the use of spectroscopy technology in rapid nondestructive detection of beef The practical value. A PCR technique was established to quickly detect the growth kinetics of microorganisms, pathogenic bacteria, beef components, and meat adulteration in beef. Developed an electrochemical composite beef umami taste detection electrode and an electronic nose based on a colorimetric sensor, improved the detection capability of the electronic nose by improving signal processing, and applied the electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to beef quality control.
6. Industrial economy field
In 2020, the international beef cattle industry economic research will mainly focus on the relationship between beef cattle production and the environment, beef cattle feed efficiency, production factors and business production relations. In terms of the relationship between beef cattle production and the environment, comparing the four environmental dimensions (greenhouse gas, ecotoxicity, erosion, and biodiversity) shows higher ecotoxicity and impact on biodiversity, and predicts the effects of different production scenarios. In the future, beef production and environmental impact, it is found that in Argentina, beef production may increase by 15%without significantly increasing the environmental impact of the sector (Carlos Gonzalez Fischer, David Bilenca, 2020). A review was made from the aspects of grassland management, animal supplementary feeding, the environment and the socioeconomics of grassland intensification (Abmael da Silva Cardoso, Eliéder Prates Romanzini, 2020). In terms of beef cattle feed efficiency, simulation analysis shows that the positive effect of SRU on LWG and FE improves profitability by reducing feed costs and reducing the emission intensity of beef production (Saheed A. Salami, Colm A. Moran, 2020). In terms of the relationship between production factors and operating production, the use of spss 18.0 software for chi-square analysis shows that the size of the operating area has a significant relationship with the operating scale, and the operating scale, variety, feed, medicine, labor, etc. are related to the production and operation of beef cattle in Binjabara District There is a significant relationship. (Julia Marisa, and Sukma Aditya Sitepu, 2020). In addition, the quantitative SWOT matrix analysis results show that the long-term development of beef cattle diversification or innovation can be achieved through the application of feed processing technology, reproduction technology and waste treatment technology (Sutrisno Hadi Purnomo, 2020).
4. Development of domestic beef cattle industry technology research and development
1, the field of genetic breeding and reproduction
The protection of genetic resources has been improved. In 2019, the supplementary investigation of resources in Qinghai and Tibetan areas initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has been basically completed. The protection of resources has been strengthened. The preservation of cattle genetic material is still dominated by frozen sperm and embryos. It is also a more common and effective preservation method, and the preservation technology of spermatogonial stem cells is under development. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is deploying the third resource survey.
The preparation of the”National Beef Cattle Genetic Improvement Program (2020-2035)” has been started and the first draft has been formed. Steady progress has been made in the construction of a technical support system for the beef cattle seed industry. The computer network system for collecting and uploading phenotypic data is basically complete, and the scale of the database is increasing day by day, which strongly promotes joint breeding. After full demonstration, the Chinese Beef Cattle Selection Index (CBI) has been improved, and it is weighted by four traits:body size score, birth weight, weaning weight, and 18-month-old weight, which better reflects the current beef cattle breeding industry in my country Market demand. The molecular breeding technology system has progressed rapidly, and a beef cattle genome selection index and technology platform have been constructed. The scale of promotion and application will reach more than 1,200 in 2020, and it is expanding to a multi-breed genome selection system. The development of new breeds of beef cattle and the genetic improvement of populations has made significant progress, and the systematic selection and breeding of new breeds such as Lilu cattle, hornless Xianan cattle, Yanhe cattle, Zhangye beef cattle, brown beef cattle, and Huaxi cattle are proceeding in an orderly manner. While researching the selection technology, preliminary progress has been made in the selection and matching technology.
In the aspect of reproductive biotechnology, the industrialization of OPU+IVF technology has achieved good results, and the OPU+IVF technology system has been further optimized, laying the foundation for industrialization. The application of comprehensive reproductive technology on large-scale cattle farms has increased the reproductive survival rate of cow populations in radiation areas by nearly 4%.
The technology research and development of the beef cattle seed industry in 2020 reflects the following main characteristics:First, the technology’s ability to support the seed industry has been significantly enhanced. As the application scope of genetic evaluation technology and genome selection technology continues to expand, the promotion effect on the seed industry has become more and more obvious, and the results of genetic evaluation have a significant impact on the price of sire and frozen semen. The second is the gradual expansion of the scale of joint breeding. The Yunling cattle, hornless Xianan cattle, Zhangye beef cattle, beef brown cattle, Angus cattle, and Huaxi cattle that are being bred or selected for improvement have all established and gradually improved the joint breeding system, which has increased the selection intensity and speeded up heredity. Progress provides an effective guarantee. The third is to accelerate the industrialization of reproductive biotechnology. The efficient and rapid propagation system represented by bull sex control semen (SS) + artificial insemination (AI) and cow genome selection (GS) + live egg collection (OPU) + in vitro fertilization (IVF) + embryo transfer (ET) has been further improved This effectively alleviates the long-term dependence on imports for the leading breeds of beef cattle germplasm resources.
2. Feed nutrition field
Beef cattle feed nutritional value evaluation system has gradually formed, supplemented and summarized the feed evaluation methods, forage nutritional value index system, etc., and constantly supplemented and improved the nutritional value of beef cattle and yak feed based on the national beef cattle and yak industry technology system. The open database has been expanded to more than 1,500 forage samples. The research on the nutritional requirements of beef cattle continues to advance, mainly focusing on the nutritional requirements of beef fattening cattle and cows during lactation, including the requirements of energy, protein, and minerals.
In the face of rising prices of major feed ingredients, reducing breeding costs is still the focus of research. We have developed silage-used sorghum, marigold, Flammulina velutipes chaff, cotton stalk, cottonseed, whole oats and other feed resources to improve the quality and efficiency of technology , Comparatively studied the effects of regional forage resources such as sweet corn cob silage and Broussonetia papyrifera fermented feed on the rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility, slaughter performance and meat quality of beef cattle.
In the face of the diversified development of beef cattle breeding production mode and the requirement of non-resistant feed, it pays more attention to the safety of input products, and evaluates the impact of feed raw material types, origins and processing on feed anti-nutritional factors. Natural mineral materials, synthetic amino acids, The influence of active ingredient content of live bacteria preparations, enzymes and other additive feed ingredients.
Affected by”non-pest disease”,”new crown epidemic”,”beef demand” and”cattle shortage”, low-cost cow breeding and high-quality calf breeding have become research hotspots. The whole-stage nutrition regulation research on Angus cattle breeding, focusing on mother-child integrated breeding technology, research on dietary energy level, glucose metabolism, perinatal cow hormone levels, lactation, postpartum body condition recovery and calf growth and development Influence, strengthen the dietary nutritional requirements and feeding management of cows during the perinatal period. Attach importance to the establishment of big data on the whole feeding process of beef cattle, collect the relevant data of the whole process of nutrition supply, fattening, slaughter and division, and feedback and correct the nutrition supply level of beef cattle feeding. Continue to develop the effects of dietary energy level and breeding environment temperature and humidity index on the growth performance and meat quality of fattening beef cattle.
Combining the methods of transcriptome, proteomics and metabolomics, the effects of different castration treatments of local yellow cattle on the differential deposition of rumen microbes and body nutrients of beef cattle were studied to promote low-cost and differentiated feeding of beef cattle. Attaching importance to animal welfare and environmental protection, starting the construction of models related to beef cattle behavior, body size assessment and nutritional supply, promoting the construction of smart pastures, and promoting beef cattle breeding to save feed, water and reduce emissions.
Developed supplementary feeding technology for female yak and yak calf in plateau pastoral area, developed yeast products and glutamine to promote the development of the gastrointestinal tract of yak stiff cattle, improve the nutrition regulation technology of rumen microbial composition, and relieve low altitude The nutrition regulation technology of yak damp heat stress in the agricultural area in summer has expanded the promotion and demonstration of the technique of seasonal yak feeding in semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas, and the technique of yak feeding and fattening in low-altitude agricultural areas. Gradually form a combination of cattle sources in the pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with forage resources in surrounding agricultural areas such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Chongqing, and build a three-dimensional green yak industry development model based on complementary resources at different altitudes.
3. Disease prevention and control field
The Biosafety Law was promulgated in 2020 and will be implemented in 2021. This law provides a legal basis and guarantee for the biosafety regulations and implementation of farms in my country. Cattle farm biosafety quantitative assessment and pasture risk assessment technology have been developed. The national standard for cattle farm biosafety has been approved and one local standard for cattle farm biosafety has been formulated.
In 2020, my country reported 3 cases of cattle foot-and-mouth disease and 7 cases of cattle nodular skin disease. Bovine respiratory syndrome and bovine digestive system syndrome are still important diseases affecting the healthy development of cattle breeding. Viral diarrhea and persistent Pasteurella infection in Tibetan yak still have serious impacts on yak health; in recent years, yak infectious keratoconjunctivitis and clostridium yak have attracted much attention.
In terms of the development of vaccines for cattle and therapeutic antibodies, the live brucellosis vaccine (A19-ΔVirB12 strain) and the inactivated bovine mansillosis vaccine (A1 type M164 strain) have obtained the new veterinary drug registration certificate; completed The clinical trial of the Mycoplasma bovis live vaccine has been approved and the new veterinary drug registration certificate has been applied; the combined inactivated vaccine for bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza type 3 has reached the product review stage of the new veterinary drug registration application; completed cattle A to B types Preclinical study of a bivalent inactivated pasteurella vaccine.
In terms of the research and development of diagnostic reagents for cattle, the Mycoplasma bovis loop-mediated isothermal amplification kit won the first class new veterinary drug certificate. Completed the preparation and application of new veterinary drug certificate materials for the Mycoplasma bovis competition ELISA antibody kit; improved the registration materials for the gG ELISA antibody detection kit for bovine infectious rhinotracheitis; completed the research and application of the ELISA detection technology for the antibody of Bovine Pasteurella multocida Clinical verification; the indirect ELISA antibody detection kit for Babesia bovis and Babesia bovis has been established; the development and intellectual property application of the PCR detection kit for pathogenic E. coli in yak have been completed.
There are a total of 10 cattle products that have obtained the new veterinary drug certificate in 2020, including 2 vaccines, 1 diagnostic reagents and 7 chemical drugs. Bovine vaccine live brucellosis vaccine (A19-△Vir B12 strain) and bovine mannellosis inactivated vaccine (A1 type M164 strain) were approved for new veterinary medicine certificates; diagnostic reagent Mycoplasma bovis ring-mediated isothermal amplification kit was obtained Approval of new veterinary drug registration certificate; the main target is the chemical drug oxyclozamide, oxyclozamide suspension, carbetocin, carbetocin injection, ketoprofen injection, rifaximin Breast injections and compound amino acids were approved as new veterinary drugs. The aforesaid new veterinary drug products for cattle include 1 new category I veterinary drug, 5 new category II veterinary drugs, 1 new category III veterinary drug, 1 new category IV veterinary drug, and 2 new category 5 veterinary drugs. In 2020, there are a total of 70 new veterinary drug products registered in China, including 34 biological products (including vaccine products and diagnostic reagents), 25 chemical drugs and 11 Chinese veterinary drugs. Traditional Chinese veterinary medicine has a good effect after the breeding end is fully banned. The development of traditional Chinese veterinary medicine and the development of traditional Chinese veterinary medicine are expected to contribute to the development of the beef cattle breeding industry.
4. Facility equipment and environmental control field
Domestic beef cattle breeding has generally changed from the traditional tethered breeding mode to the free-stall rearing mode, while the yak free-stall fenced fattening farm focuses on the promotion of pastoral breeding, high breeding and low breeding mode. By adjusting and optimizing the structure of the herd, supporting high-efficiency warm sheds, effective supplementary feeding in cold seasons, and nutrition regulation technologies, the population reproduction rate has been greatly increased, effectively promoting the weight gain of shelf cattle, and shortening the feeding period to 1 to 2 years.
In terms of breeding technology, reducing the construction cost of beef cattle houses in the cold northern regions and improving the beef cattle breeding environment are still hot research topics. The use of windshield walls, thick bedding, and constant temperature drinking water in sports fields have been proven to be effective in improving animal welfare. Environmental control focuses on the solution to the contradiction between ventilation and heat preservation of the cowshed in winter. It has studied the automatic control of mechanical ventilation, heat recovery ventilation, and assisted litter breeding and constant temperature drinking water technology to comprehensively solve the winter environmental problems of the northern cowshed.
In terms of breeding facilities and equipment, the level of domestic equipment has been greatly improved, and the types of products have increased. Feeding and breeding equipment, such as TMR, drinking water equipment, and Baoding equipment, can basically meet the needs of breeding. The level of forage collection and storage equipment such as the economical and applicable bundling and filming machine has been further improved.
In terms of smart farming, management methods such as mobile terminal APP and WeChat applet have appeared. The automation technology of feeding, weighing and formula control of TMR feed processing has begun to be applied. The domestically-made smart collars can already monitor the movement trajectory, disease characteristics, physiological conditions, location range, etc. in real time.
In terms of treatment and utilization of manure from cattle farms, the focus is on researches related to the production of bedding for cattle manure, reduction of the negative effects of compost products, improvement of manure utilization efficiency, and co-digestion of biohydrogen production. In the treatment and utilization of yak manure, the effects of yak manure compost with different proportions on the nutrient leaching and aggregate weight structure of desertified soil, and the effect of grass-livestock interaction on the structure and function of the alpine ecosystem are mainly clarified.
5. Processing and quality control field
In terms of quality control of fresh beef, research focuses on the effects of natural extracts, ice temperature technology, slightly acidic electrolyzed water ice, plasma activated water, low-voltage electrostatic field on the shelf life of beef, and edible composite film and antibacterial The application of packaging film in beef preservation has received attention.
has developed low-fat and healthy composite beef offal patties, beef ketchup, roasted buffalo beef with sand tea, and low-sodium sauce beef. It revealed the effects of NO on beef pH, total protein solubility and water holding capacity by activating AMPK, and explored the mechanism of calpain-activated protein affecting beef maturation. Metatranscriptomics is used to analyze the relationship between the differential transcription and metabolic pathways of microbial genomes at different storage periods and the succession of microbial communities, and proteomics is used to study the myoglobin content and derivative state transformation during storage.
In terms of rapid detection of hazards, hyperspectral imaging technology is used to predict beef pH, beef moisture content and distribution, and beef ball adulteration detection. Using diffuse reflectance visible spectrum non-destructive detection of raw beef myoglobin, air pulse and structured light imaging to detect beef tenderness, COI sequence DNA micro-barcoding technology to identify cooked meat adulteration.
In the mass spectrometry analysis, the 12 kinds of β-receptor agonists, 9 kinds of sterol hormones, and 30 kinds of food-borne stimulant drug residues in beef were rapidly detected simultaneously by LC-MS/MS method. The electronic nose and fuzzy mathematics are used to establish the quality evaluation method of pastrami. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to identify bovine-derived components and their contents in meat products. A double antibody sandwich ELISA method for detecting E. coli O157:H7 was established.
6. Industrial economy field
In 2020, the domestic beef cattle industry economic research field will mainly focus on beef production and industrial development, the impact of new crown pneumonia on beef cattle production areas, economic benefits, ecological environment, slaughter and processing, etc. In terms of beef production and industrial development, the status quo and countermeasures of beef cattle industry development in Yibin Junlian, Wushan County, Weishan County, Eshan County and other places are analyzed. In terms of the impact of the new crown pneumonia on the beef cattle production areas, investigations were conducted in the main beef cattle production areas on the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic on the beef cattle industry, the rescue measures adopted, and the subsequent resumption of production. In terms of economic benefits, combined with the beef cattle breeding situation in the main beef cattle production areas in my country, a rough analysis of the existing beef cattle breeding models and benefits is carried out, in order to provide a certain reference for beef cattle breeding and propose countermeasures for the rapid development of my country’s beef cattle industry. In terms of the ecological environment, how to make my country’s beef cattle breeding industry begin to develop in the direction of technology, how to apply and promote the key technologies of green ecological and efficient breeding, and how to better promote the sustainability of beef cattle breeding under the premise of green environmental protection Research on development and other aspects, and put forward relevant suggestions to improve the economic benefits of the breeding industry and promote the development of the regional economy. In terms of slaughter and processing, analysis and research are carried out through hypothetical analogy to explore the relationship between the slaughter rate of fattening cattle and the price of live and carcass, so as to provide reference for promoting beef cattle slaughtering and processing enterprises to price based on quality.