[Thirteenth Five-Year Tour] Science and Technology Support of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Series 8:Poultry and Eggs
By: Date: 2021-01-12 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
   Since the reform and opening up, my country’s egg production has increased by nearly 12 times, accounting for 39%of the world’s total production, becoming the world’s largest egg producer and consumer. The total protein provided by eggs accounts for about 21.9%of the total protein provided by my country’s livestock products. They are an important source of high-quality protein food for residents. It is of great significance to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of the high-quality egg production chain.

   Since the 13th Five-Year Plan, my country’s laying hen industry has achieved remarkable results in standardized scale breeding, breeding of improved breeds, feed nutrition, disease purification and prevention and control. The breeding system of fine varieties of layer hens has basically been completed, and 3 new high-yielding layer hen breeds and 4 new characteristic layer hen breeds have been bred, which greatly meets the needs of consumers for the quantity and quality of egg products, laying a foundation for increasing the market share of domestic breeds basis. The level of standardized large-scale breeding has continued to improve, and hundreds of national standardization demonstration farms for layer breeding have been created. The proportion of large-scale layer breeding increased from 34.6%in 2008 to 76.2%in 2018. Through the collaborative innovation of industry, university and research, it has effectively promoted the transformation and upgrading of the layer industry.

   During the”13th Five-Year Plan” period of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, a new breed of laying hen was bred and passed the national examination, namely”liyuan oil egg chicken”. This breed is based on making full use of the excellent characteristics of the well-known local breed Beijing Youchi, such as excellent eggs, meat quality and unique appearance, and appropriate introduction of the blood of high-yielding laying hens. A new breed of special laying hens.”Liyuan Oil Egg Chicken” has strong adaptability, stable production performance, high survival rate, good egg quality and good breeding efficiency. The accuracy rate of the product generation feather speed self-separation sex is over 99%. The hens are short and small, with food-saving advantages. They lay 225-242 eggs at 72 weeks of age, with an average egg weight of 50-52 grams, and the feed-to-egg ratio of 2.72:1 to 2.80:1 during the laying period. Egg quality indicators such as egg yellow color, egg yolk ratio and Hastelloy unit reached an excellent level. Related achievements won the”2019 Beijing Science and Technology Award First Prize” and the”Dabei Agricultural Animal Breeding Award”.

   In terms of collection and evaluation of laying hen resources and research on breeding technology, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences has introduced 4 pure lines of high-yielding laying hens, which fills up the pure breeds of chickens from abroad. The resource bank is blank, providing excellent materials for the breeding of high-yield and characteristic laying hens. Among them, Luodao Red, White Laihang and Columbia Rock are the important components of the major brands of laying hens in the international market, while Hengban Rock has the dual advantages of high yield and reed feathers, which is a breeding and hybrid advantage for Chinese specialty brand chickens. Research has important value. Utilizing the internationally leading chicken frozen semen preservation technology independently developed by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, we have carried out multiple methods of seed preservation for precious resources. A complete diallel cross test population was constructed by introducing pure lines and local varieties, and the combining ability of each line was estimated using single-factor analysis of variance and fixed-effects model. Binary and ternary hybrid populations were constructed. According to the quality traits, the appearance characteristics and production performance of the offspring were screened for 3 advantageous matching combinations, including 1 high-yield and high-quality type and 2 high-quality dual-use types. The molecular mechanism of heterosis for important economic traits was analyzed, which laid an important theoretical foundation for the utilization of heterosis. In addition, carry out research on molecular regulation mechanisms of important economic traits and mining of molecular markers to accelerate the progress of genetic selection and breeding. A laying hen breeding platform with four cores including genetic resources, trait selection and breeding technology, hybridization technology and information-based breeding has been constructed, laying an important foundation for the continuous breeding of new breeds according to market demand.

   During the”13th Five-Year Plan” period, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences launched research on key production technologies for the entire industry chain of new breeds of laying hens. The joint enterprise takes the key technical problems existing in the development of the industry as a breakthrough point, carries out research on reproduction technology, feed nutrition, disease prevention and control, and product processing, and has formed efficient breeding of breeders, healthy breeding, energy-saving and efficient production, and intelligentization Organic welfare breeding and other related technical regulations.

   According to the characteristics of new breeds, special compound feed has been developed to improve the overall health of commercial chickens, improve the quality of eggshells in the late stage of laying, and the rate of eggshell damage Reduced by about 2 percentage points. The optimization of feed formula saves 22-25 yuan per ton of feed. The production cost of every 10,000 commercial chickens is reduced by about RMB 2 million. In response to the widespread problem of excessive immune burden on egg (breeding) chickens, a special immunization program for a new breed of Beijing oil chicken has been developed to save costs and increase efficiency. By improving the environment, strengthening the immunization process, strengthening the monitoring of immunization effects, and after long-term continuous exploration, under the premise of ensuring the health of the flock, the number of immunizations for the egg (breeder) chickens has been reduced from the original 24 times to 10 times. The cost is reduced by 1.37~1.96 yuan. It has realized scientific immune burden reduction, reduced the use of vaccines and the stress response to chickens, and improved the overall health of the chickens. In response to the market’s requirements for the quality and performance of local breeds such as Beijing Youji, the impact of the new LED light source on the growth, development, reproduction and welfare of the industrially produced Beijing Youji and other characteristic layers and broilers was systematically studied. Optimized the intensity, rhythm and spectrum parameters, and proposed a unique lighting technology plan, which is different from the traditional free-range mode, but also different from ordinary layers and broilers. The promotion and application of LEDs and the optimization of lighting schemes have saved 56,000 to 61,000 kWh and 0.91-10,400 kWh per 10,000 eggs (breeders) and 10,000 broilers. This technology has inspired and led the extensive research and application of LED lighting technology for ducks, pigs, dairy cows, sheep and other livestock and poultry, helping to improve the quality and efficiency of the livestock and poultry breeding industry and transform and upgrade. In view of the uncontrollable quality of free-range chickens and the pollution to the ecological environment, the intelligent control of standardized farming and forest free-range farming are organically combined to create an intelligent welfare farming mode, improve product quality and added value, and build demonstrations 1 base. Drive the development of the entire industry chain with terminal products, and create well-known brands such as”Hundred Years of Liyuan”.

   At present, through the models of”research institutions + leading enterprises + cooperatives + farmers” and”research institutions + extension institutions + demonstration bases + farmers”, Beijing Youji New The key technology of breed and industrial upgrading was promoted to 22 provinces and cities across the country, and the laying hens accounted for 15%of the same kind in the country. The domestic high-quality breeds effectively guaranteed the supply of high-quality laying hens in my country.