[Thirteenth Five-Year Tour] Science and Technology Support of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Series 11:Vegetables
By: Date: 2021-01-12 Categories: foodtechnology Tags: ,
  ”Where the herbs can be real is known as vegetables, and those that can be ruined are called vegetables”. Vegetables are the basic food for human survival and development. . my country is the world’s largest producer and consumer of vegetables. The vegetable industry is the pillar industry of my country’s agricultural and rural economy. It plays a pivotal role in poverty alleviation, rural revitalization and rural development.

   my country’s vegetable sown area in 2019 was 20.87 million hectares, with a total output of 721 million tons and a unit yield of 34.5 tons/ha. The total output value exceeded 2 trillion yuan. Compared with 2015, the sown area increased by 1.26 million hectares, an increase of 6.4%, the total output increased by 55 million tons, an increase of 8.6%, and the yield increased by 1.8%. During the”Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, the layout of vegetable planting has been optimized, the production of cold and cold vegetables has accelerated, and the supply of vegetables in summer and autumn has increased. The degree of planting mechanization continues to rise, from 20%during the”Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period to 25%, while the degree of intelligence and automation continues to increase. The annual average vegetable import volume of my country is 372,000 tons, the annual average import value is 720 million US dollars, the annual average vegetable export volume is 10.983 million tons, the annual average export value is 15.24 billion yuan, and the trade surplus is 14.52 billion US dollars, which is nearly an increase from the”Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period. 50%. At the same time, my country’s seed imports are declining year by year, the coverage of independent varieties has increased to 87%, and the share of independent varieties such as cabbage, tomatoes, and radishes has been rising.

   During the”13th Five-Year Plan” period of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, more than 100 new vegetable varieties have been registered, leading the new direction of vegetable breeding and promoting the renewal of vegetable varieties in my country Replacement. Among them, 5 new varieties of cabbage resistant to fusarium wilt and early maturity were cultivated, and 1.066 million mu were promoted and applied in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Inner Mongolia and other places. The coverage rate of new varieties reached 37.5%, and they were radiated to Gansu, Shaanxi and other regions, which significantly reduced The harm of fusarium wilt and the amount of chemical pesticides. 8 new cucumber varieties with high quality and multi-resistance were bred, and the new direct economic benefit was 9.161 billion yuan. Among them, the greenhouse cucumber”Zhongnong No. 16″ has a unit price of 0.4 yuan-0.6 yuan per kilogram higher than other varieties. The greenhouse cucumber”Zhongnong No. 26″ broke through the bottleneck of comprehensive disease resistance and poor quality of greenhouse cucumbers, and increased the yield by 24.6%compared with the original main varieties.”Zhongnong No. 26″ is the variety with the largest greenhouse planting area in Beijing, Liaoning, Tianjin and other provinces and cities, accounting for more than 50%of the cultivated area, and more than 80%of the total area of ​​protected cucumber cultivation in western and southern Liaoning. The annual benefit per mu can reach 100,000 yuan. Nine new Chinese cabbage varieties of the medium white series with disease resistance, high quality, high yield and storage resistance were bred. Among them, the orange red heart and Baojian varieties lead the domestic market, increasing the variety and quality of the vegetable market and improving the quality. The 9 medium white series have accumulated 3.75 million mu was promoted, and the economic benefit was 2.25 billion yuan. 21 new varieties of red miscellaneous and IVF series of excellent tomatoes were bred, with a cumulative economic benefit of 4.003 billion yuan and export revenue of 1.279 billion US dollars. Among them, the new variety”IVF1678″ can extend the processing period by 8-10 days, effectively alleviating the peak delivery period. The new variety”IVF3302″, high-yield, high-quality, durable in storage and transportation, has become my country’s main processing tomato variety, accounting for more than 40%of the early-maturing market. Breeding the first batch of domestic first batch of new epidemic disease-resistant pepper mild mottle virus disease (PMMoV) and tomato spotted wilt virus disease (TSWV), more resistant, high-quality new generation of sweet (hot) pepper series of 6 new varieties, filling my country’s resistance to PMMoV The gap between TSWV-resistant sweet (spicy) varieties has overcome the difficult problem of high quality and disease resistance genes.”Zhongjiao 105″ accounted for 80%of the sweet peppers transported to the north of southern dishes such as Guangdong Hainan,”Zhongjiao 106″ accounted for 70%of the alpine vegetable micro peppers in Central China, and”Zhongjiao 107″ accounted for 60%of the early maturing facility sweet pepper cultivation in North China. As of 2019, a total of 4.75 million mu of new varieties of sweet pepper series have been promoted across the country, creating an additional economic value of 1.777 billion yuan, and an average annual economic benefit of 296 million yuan for the society.

  In terms of basic vegetable research, the Institute of Vegetables and Flowers has led the development of a variety of vegetable crop genome framework maps and genome-wide genetic variation maps, revealing important gardening such as vegetables and fruit trees. The genetic mechanism of crop agronomic traits has established an efficient molecular breeding technology system based on genome-wide selection. To clarify the molecular mechanism of cucumber sex determination, fruit length and bitterness formation; to analyze the molecular mechanism of tomato fruit hardness and tomato flowering regulation; to clarify the mechanism of action of the leaf bulb and root/stem expansion of Brassica vegetables. At the same time, through studying the functional genomics, pathogenicity and catastrophe mechanism of important vegetable diseases and insect pests, the mining and utilization of vegetable disease and insect resistance gene resources, the analysis of the resistance regulation mechanism of pathogens and main pests, the research results are the development of new green pest control technologies, The formulation of an effective comprehensive management strategy has laid a theoretical foundation. The series of original achievements have published 25 high-level papers in top international journals such as Nature Genetics, Plant Cell, Nature Plant, and PANS. The research on vegetable genomics in my country has achieved a leap from following to leading, and pushing my country’s vegetable basic biology and plant secondary metabolism regulation mechanism research field into the international advanced ranks.

   During the”13th Five-Year Plan” period, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences deployed the power of the whole institute to carry out innovative research on the green development technology integration model around the entire vegetable industry chain, and build a The regional vegetable green development technology leads the green development direction of my country’s vegetable industry and promotes the high-quality development of the vegetable and flower industry. Pioneeringly created a green leek maggot prevention and control technology system with”sunlight high temperature film” as the core and”food attractant” and”black sticky board” as a supporting system. The prevention effect reaches 100%without any chemicals.%, completely overcome the harm of leek maggots and the persistent diseases of”poisonous leek”. Increase the qualified rate of leek products in the demonstration area from 30%to 97%. Applied engineering and biological principles, created hygienic, stable traits, light-weight seedling substrates to completely replace soil seedling technology, porous conjoined seedling trays and planters supporting each other’s vegetable fully automatic precision seeding technology, high-density tray seedlings High-efficiency regulation and control technology for the growth of strong seedlings that matches the growth period of vegetable seedlings under the conditions, establishes a Chinese vegetable intensive seedling cultivation technology system with significant characteristics of”saving, intensive, and centralized”. For the first time, the key water-saving technology of the low-pressure drip irrigation system for non-arable land greenhouses, the intelligent greenhouse irrigation control and management system, and high-efficiency planting modes suitable for different ecological non-arable land characteristics have been constructed. Demonstration and promotion in the Gobi, desert and coastal sandy land in the northwest have helped more than 100,000 poor farmers and 300,000 rural people lift themselves out of poverty due to the use of non-arable land to grow facility horticultural crops, and increase farmers’ incomes while achieving ecological governance.

  ”Unripe rice is famine, unripe vegetables is bad, and unripe fruit is famine.” The function and position of vegetable technology in the national economy is irreplaceable. In the future, there will be more high-quality, healthy and delicious vegetables to satisfy people’s yearning for a better life.