Fishery is an important part of the agricultural and rural economy. During the”13th Five-Year Plan” period, the development of fishery has made remarkable achievements, with sufficient supply of aquatic products, stable prices, and continuous industrial structure Optimization, the income of fishermen has achieved rapid growth. Since the”13th Five-Year Plan”, fishery technology has provided support and guarantee in the fields of genetic breeding, healthy breeding, disease prevention and control, processing and circulation, energy conservation and environmental protection, facilities and equipment, resource conservation and ecological restoration, fishery informatization, and some frontier fields have begun to enter the world In the parallel running and leading stage, a number of ecological, green, and efficient fishery technology models have been widely used, and the contribution rate of fishery technology progress has increased from 58%in 2015 to 63%in 2020. The national fishery research, teaching, promotion and other institutions and teams focus on scientific and technological innovation. In the past five years, many fishery scientific and technological achievements have won awards, including 8 second prizes of the National Science and Technology Progress Award (Invention Award), 16 Shennong China Agricultural Science and Technology Awards, and Fan Li 33 science and technology awards.
1. There are new breakthroughs in basic breeding research and variety creation
continues to consolidate the theoretical research foundation of aquatic seed industry, and actively carry out original innovation and key technological breakthroughs in the aquatic seed industry. Outstanding progress has been made in the collection and preservation of aquatic germplasm resources, the discovery and utilization of genetic resources, the research and development of breeding technologies, and the cultivation of new varieties. The genome of aquatic products and the creation of germplasm are at the forefront of the world, and 61 new aquatic varieties have been cultivated. An aquatic germplasm preservation technology system with diversified levels has been initially formed, and the whole genome sequence of Japanese flounder, Litopenaeus vannamei, sea cucumber, scallop, kelp, etc. has been deciphered. The development and utilization of large freshwater fish germplasm resources such as grass carp and bream has accelerated. Scallop molecular breeding technology has broken through the technical bottleneck of the practical application of aquatic product all-gene selection breeding, and has established the world’s first aquatic product all-genome selection breeding platform.
Two. There are new developments in the green technology model of aquaculture
steadily promote the green development of aquaculture, integrate and innovate a batch of ecological, green, and high-efficiency aquaculture technologies and productions such as engineering circulating aquaculture in ponds and integrated rice-fishing cultivation mode. The demonstration and promotion area of healthy aquaculture technology for key species such as grass carp, tilapia, river crab, Procambarus clarkii, seaweed, etc. has continued to expand. Multi-nutrient level integrated aquaculture technology and model have been widely recognized internationally, and the theory and technical level of precision nutrient processing and comprehensive utilization of feed With gradual improvement, a batch of precision feeding, harvesting and cleaning equipment has been developed and promoted, and the industrial application of precision control technology for the entire process of aquaculture is in the ascendant.
3. New achievements in resource conservation and ecological restoration technology innovation
adhere to the concept that green water and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains, strengthen the ecological function of fishery, and have achieved remarkable results in technological innovation of resource conservation and ecological restoration. Fishery ecosystem dynamics, water pollution ecology, biogeochemistry and ecosystem integration have entered the international frontier, and the technical level of comprehensive observation, mechanism and simulation prediction of water ecological environment and biological resources has been greatly improved. Preliminarily understand the status of my country’s fishery resources and the structure and function of fishery ecosystems, grasp the changing laws of important fishery resources, build the Yangtze River estuary resource environment monitoring and evaluation system, clarify the Yangtze River estuary fishery resource decline mechanism, and establish marine pasture habitat restoration and biology Resource conservation, freshwater pond culture environment algae directional regulation and other fishery environment restoration technologies.
4. Newly improved fishing gear and equipment for fishing vessels
The optimization and standardization demonstration applications of domestic fishing vessels are gradually advancing, and the automation of fishing vessels has been greatly improved. Actively research the key technologies for the development of deep-sea fishery resources in the South China Sea. The offshore fishery Internet of Things system has begun to take shape, and resource monitoring and fishing forecasts have gradually matured. New fishing gear such as deep-water trawls, double-bracket trawls, variable water-layer trawls, and seines have been developed. A method for survey and evaluation of Antarctic krill resources in high sea conditions has been created, which has become an assessment standard for Antarctic krill resources at home and abroad. Innovated the key equipment and technology for all-day Antarctic krill trawl fishing, and the fishing efficiency is at the international leading level among similar operations.
5. Newly expanded applications in the industrialization of aquatic products deep processing
In order to smooth the international and domestic double circulation, continuously improve the quality and quality of aquatic products, the application field of aquatic product deep processing industrialization is continuously expanded. The research on the theoretical basis of green processing of aquatic food has gradually deepened, and new products such as instant sea cucumbers, canned abalones, and seasoned scallops have been successfully developed, and industrialized production has been realized. Established aquatic product traceability coding, information collection and other aquatic product quality and safety traceability technology systems, researched and developed efficient preparation technology of sea cucumber functional ingredients, successfully realized industrial application of key technologies for tuna quality fidelity and deep processing, and Antarctic krill deep processing technology and Industrialization has made breakthroughs, and mature products such as Antarctic krill oil and Antarctic krill shelling shrimp meat have been formed.