At present, China’s strawberry planting area and output ranks first in the world, and it is planted in most provinces in the country. The Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Risk Assessment Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Hefei), based on the survey of production bases and starting from the actual safety of production, put forward the key points of strawberry safety production risk prevention and control technology.
一. Production environment
Environment firstly complies with NY/T5104″Environmental Conditions for the Production Area of Non-Pollution Food Strawberry”. It should be far away from pollution sources such as urban areas, industrial pollution sources, industrial and mining areas, and suitable isolation for strawberry planting Farmland production areas with good conditions and good ecology. It is advisable to use loamy soil, deep soil layer, loose structure, soil pH value below 7.5, high dry field with supporting ditches and convenient drainage and irrigation.
二. Soil preparation and fertilization
Strawberry cultivation should reasonably regulate fertilizer and water, and do a good job of ditching and drainage. Fertilizers should be those that have been registered or exempt from registration on strawberries, and the use of chlorine-containing compound fertilizers should be restricted. Choose high-quality organic fertilizers, common chemical fertilizers, microbial fertilizers, foliar fertilizers, compound fertilizers, etc., and turn them into the soil.
3. Variety selection
Because of the large investment in facility cultivation, early-maturing, disease-resistant, high-yield, and high-quality strawberry varieties should be selected. At present, the main strawberry varieties in Anhui Province are Hongyan, Zhangji, Fengxiang, etc. Other varieties include Franti, Sweet Charlie, Red Rose and Ningyu.
四. Nurturing seedlings
1. Mother plant selection
Seedlings:Breed virus-free and disease-free seedlings through tissue culture, or self-retained seedlings, but need to use purified and rejuvenated disease-free seedlings .
Cultivate strong seedlings:Keep the greenhouse clean, timely clean up diseased leaves, old leaves, and invalid leaves, and thin flowers and fruits. The greenhouse-mulching film cultivation model can adopt disease-free substrate soil, shelter from rain and humidity, ventilation and micropipe drip irrigation to cultivate strong seedlings.
Planting time and method:Avoid the high temperature and high humidity season that is not conducive to the growth of slow strawberry seedlings during the planting period. Generally, choose a sunny day from March to April or the end of August ~9 At the beginning of the month, choose a rainy day with a temperature of about 25℃ to plant the mother plants in the nursery. When planting, the seedlings are arched outwards, which will allow the inflorescence to bloom on both sides of the border to facilitate flower thinning and fruit picking. The planting distance is about 25cm, and the planting is generally 5000~6000 plants/mu. In order to stretch the root system, the planting depth should be such that the base of the seedling is flush with the soil surface.
Soil disinfection:use high temperature exposure to disinfect the soil, apply organic fertilizer, lime nitrogen, etc. to the soil for deep plowing, flood irrigation, and cover the surface of the soil with plastic film Or greenhouse film, while sealing the shed room for 40 days. This method can not only sterilize the strawberry planting soil, but also further decompose the organic fertilizer, improve the soil matrix, and increase the fertilizer utilization rate.
Seedbed preparation, soil preparation and fertilization:apply 2000~3000kg/mu of organic fertilizer such as chicken manure, pig manure, pen manure, etc. before planting, turn 30cm deep, level, and harrow It is thin and ridged, with a moisture width of 1m～1.5m, a ridge height of 30cm, and a ridge spacing of 25cm.
5. Greenhouse management
1. Plastic film coverage
When the top of the strawberry flower buds show buds, cover the black or silver-black mulch film, and then immediately break the film and raise the seedlings.
2. Water and fertilizer management
Strawberries have high water requirements, so they need to be irrigated many times and drained in time. The fields are not white and there is no open water in the ditches after the rain.”Wet but not waterlogging, dry but not drought” is the best principle. If conditions permit, infiltration irrigation or under-film irrigation techniques can be used.
Strawberry fertilization should be based on the principles of plantar fertilizer, thin application and multiple topdressing. Use decomposed organic fertilizer 1000~2000kg/mu as base fertilizer and add N, P, K three Yuan compound fertilizer 50~60kg/mu; compound fertilizer or urea 5~10kg/mu should be applied during the seedling stage, 0.2%~0.4%KH2PO4 should be sprayed on the foliar surface of the first batch of fruits during the period of swelling. The amount of growth regulators, such as 0.5%nucleotide aqueous solution or 0.136%gibberellin·inethyl·brassica wettable powder, etc., to promote early and more stolons.
3. Temperature and humidity management
The time for buckling sheds for greenhouse cultivation is suitable at night when the temperature drops to 8~10℃, after buckling the sheds can be covered with plastic film. Generally, the temperature of the greenhouse is adjusted by ventilation and covering with straw curtains or sunshade nets, and measures such as high-border mulching, drainage of ditches, and timely irrigation are adopted to ensure the soil moisture, so as to maintain the balance of strawberry nutrition and reproductive growth. In addition, the humidity should be kept as low as possible in the greenhouse during the whole growth period of strawberries, especially during the flowering period. The relative humidity during the day should be kept at about 55%.
4. Plant management
During the growth period of greenhouse cultivation of strawberries, the old leaves, dead leaves, and diseased leaves of the plant should be cleaned up in time, inflorescence, inferior branches and diseased fruits should be removed, and field rot should be removed The branches and leaves are brought outside the shed for harmless treatment to reduce the source of pests; the entire growth period should be manually weeded in time, and underground pests should be caught in time or combined with pesticides to improve the yield of high-quality fruits.
VI. Pest control
1. Major pests and diseases
Strawberry diseases are mainly powdery mildew, root rot, gray mold, virus disease, bud blight, anthracnose, etc.; pests are mainly mites, aphids, Mainly whitefly. The investigation found that in the process of planting and management, diseases are prone to occur under the conditions of dense planting, excessive humidity, excessive rain, and extensive management. The principle of prevention first and comprehensive prevention and control should be adhered to to manage the plant strawberry diseases and insect pests.
2. Agricultural control
Variety selection:select varieties with strong resistance to diseases and insects.
Seedling selection:Use virus-free and disease-free seedlings to cultivate strong seedlings.
Facilities management:promptly remove diseased plants, old leaves, diseased fruits, keep away from the park burned, deep buried, etc. for harmless treatment, spray in time after each cleaning Medicine protection, reasonable crop rotation.
3. Physical control
High temperature disinfection in the shed and disease prevention in the stuffy shed:deep turn after harvest, combined with solar high temperature disinfection treatment, to kill some soil-borne pathogens; during flowering and fruiting period, you can Increase ventilation and reduce the humidity in the shed to below 50%. At the same time, increase the temperature of the shed to 35°C, keep the shed for 2 hours, and then let the air cool down. Repeat 2 to 3 times continuously, which can effectively prevent gray mold.
yellow board traps and kills whiteflies and aphids:select commercial or self-made yellow boards, which can hang 30 to 40 pieces per mu, evenly distributed, the yellow boards are full of pests It needs to be replaced in time.
Repelling and blocking insects:You can use black or silver-gray mulch film or hang silver-gray mulch film at the air outlet of the shed to repel pests. Insect nets can also be installed at the air outlet and doorway of the shed to prevent mosquitoes, flies, and insects from flying into and laying eggs. This is the most effective and simple control method, which can correspondingly reduce the pollution of pesticides to fruits and ensure the quality and safety of strawberries.
4. Biological control
releases 3 adult bees per plant every 5d after the shed, and releases a total of three times to prevent and control whitefly; during the flowering and fruiting period, according to the benefit ratio 1:10~1:30 releases predatory mites to prevent and control red spiders and other pests; meanwhile, a sex attractant is installed in the strawberry field to trap pests such as the leaf moth, the best use height is about 1.2m, and the trap is cleared every 2~3d For moths, 15-30 individual attractants are generally placed per hectare.
5. Chemical control
Chemical control needs to comply with pesticide safety use standards and pesticide rational use guidelines. It is recommended to use high-efficiency, low-toxicity and low-residue pesticides. Protected areas should use smoking law, The dust method is used for prevention and control, and it is also sprayed for prevention and control in dry and sunny weather. The following methods are recommended for common pests and diseases.
Gray mold selection:16%polyoxin soluble granules, 50%boscalid water dispersible granules and other pharmaceutical spray control. When spraying against gray mold, focus on spraying on the back of the leaves. You can also use aerosols or powder tip agents to smoke overnight in the greenhouse.
powdery mildew selection:25%tetrafluraneconazole aqueous emulsion, 30%kresoxim-methyl wettable powder, 30%difenoconazole·azoxystrobin suspension Agents such as 1000-1500 times liquid should be sprayed in time before flowering in early spring.
aphids can be cultivated in greenhouses. Spray 2%matrine aqua, 1.5%matrine solution or 10%imidacloprid WP during the peak period of aphids onset. It not only achieves a good control effect but also prevents the fruit from being polluted by pesticides.
When red spiders are found, the insect leaves should be removed in time. When the number of red spiders reaches 2~3 before the strawberry blooms, 0.5%Iverm may be used Spray control such as plain tablets EC and 43%bifenazate suspension.
Source:Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Risk Assessment Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Hefei)