Pu’er tea is a unique tea variety in China with a long production history. In May 2008, Pu’er tea was announced by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China to approve the implementation of geographical indication product protection. In August of the same year, the national standard of”Geographical Indication Product Pu’er Tea” was formally implemented; after that, it was strongly supported by the Yunnan Provincial Party Committee and the Provincial Government Under the guidance of policies and the unremitting efforts of the majority of Pu’er tea production and marketing enterprises, the Yunnan Pu’er tea industry has kept increasing in volume and price for several consecutive years, becoming the core product of the Yunnan tea industry. At present, more than 80%of Pu’er tea in the province is sold to various provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions (outside Yunnan Province) and more than 30 countries and regions in the world, and has a high reputation and popularity among consumers.
In order to fully grasp the production and sales of Pu’er tea in China, and to study the development trend of Pu’er tea and its industrial development prospects, the China Tea Circulation Association, based on long-term continuous research, combined with industry big data, and discussed with relevant units, formed the”2020 China Pu’er Tea Analysis Report on Tea Production and Marketing Situation. The details are as follows:
Pu’er tea production situation
1. Steady growth in output value
According to the latest data from the China Tea Circulation Association:In 2019, the output of Pu’er tea in China was about 155,000 tons, an increase of 15,000 tons from the previous year, an increase of 10.7%year-on-year, accounting for 36.8%of the tea output of Yunnan Province in the same year, accounting for the country. 5.55%of the total output of tea; the agricultural output value of Pu’er tea is about 7.83 billion yuan, accounting for 3.26%of the total agricultural value of tea in the country. Compared with 129,300 tons and 4.64 billion yuan in 2015, the cumulative increase was 19.88%and 68.8%respectively.
2. Green tea garden construction
Practicing the development concept of green ecology, Yunnan Province pays attention to strengthening ecological environmental protection, promoting the construction of high-standard ecological tea gardens, and the rapid growth of organic certification tea gardens and green food certification tea gardens in the province. According to the data of the Yunnan Tea Circulation Association:In 2019, the area of organically certified tea gardens in Yunnan province reached 710,000 mu, an increase of 260,000 mu from last year, an increase of 57.8%; the area of green food certified tea gardens was 440,000 mu, an increase of 70,000 mu from last year , An increase of 18.9%. The structure of the tea garden was gradually optimized, laying a foundation for the improvement of tea quality.
3. The processing level continues to improve
Supported by standardization, industrialization, biotechnology, etc., Pu’er tea processing technology is optimized and developed, which effectively improves product quality and flavor. For example:Menghai County, Banna Prefecture, through the promotion of standardized production of primary processing, vigorously promoting traditional hand-made techniques, improving the quality of sun-dried green tea products, focusing on the unique flavor of”strong and heavy”, and comprehensively improving the grade of tea products by increasing unit prices and improving quality To improve the level of tea industrialization; Linxiang District of Lincang City vigorously promotes clean and functional ripe Pu fermentation technology, strengthens the hygiene control in the production process of Pu’er ripe tea, and changes the original problem of low economic added value of ecological terrace tea.
4. Cultural tourism extension industry
Combining the rich advantages of famous mountains, ancient trees, nationalities, history, and cultural resources, Yunnan Pu’er tea industry is actively exploring the extension of the industrial chain, tea is integrated with culture, tourism, ethnicity, health and other industries, and comprehensive and dynamic expansion of tea The industry function, the effect is remarkable:the tea culture tourism economy continues to grow, and the subject content of the project is becoming more abundant. For example, the Menghai Pu’er Tea City system construction underway in Menghai County promotes the organic integration of physical buildings and natural landscapes, historical features and ethnic tea culture through planning, deployment, protection and transformation, and highlights the unique architectural style of ethnic houses. A tea culture city integrating ecology, mountains, tea culture, and farming culture has been created”a painting of landscape and countryside, integration of towns and villages”.
5. Targeted poverty alleviation has achieved remarkable results
The healthy development of the Pu’er tea industry has a significant effect on the economic construction of tea villages and the promotion of rural revitalization. At present, 60 counties in the province have achieved poverty alleviation through the Pu’er tea industry. Take Menghai County as an example. In 2019, the tea planting area was 875.4 thousand mu, the output of Maocha was 28,800 tons, and the output of refined tea was 28 thousand tons. The comprehensive output value of the tea industry in the county exceeded 12 billion yuan, and the ratio of the output value of tea processing to the output value of tea agriculture was 3.4 :1. 390 million yuan of tea tax paid. Another example is Pu’er City. In 2019, the tea industry will cover 10 counties in the city (8 counties are impoverished counties), with 220,000 tea-related farmers and about 1.166 million; the city’s gross tea production is 117,600 tons (of which ancient tree tea is 0.5 million tons). ), 75,000 tons of finished tea, 86.3 million yuan in taxes, and 27.2 billion yuan in comprehensive output value.
Pu’er tea domestic sales situation
1. Market size
According to the statistics of the China Tea Circulation Association:In 2019, the domestic sales of Yunnan Pu’er tea was about 105,500 tons, and the domestic sales was about 11.53 billion yuan. Pu’er tea accounted for 11.2%of the total domestic tea sales, an increase of 10,200 tons or 10.7%compared with last year.
Sales growth is due to the improvement of product quality brought about by quality control and R&D innovation. While the reputation of the Pu’er tea market is improving, the tea producing areas and enterprises have carried out targeted R&D around the convenience and characteristics of the consumer market. Many enterprises have developed tea products with small weight and convenient brewing; The district has strengthened the protection of ancient tea resources to ensure the sustainable development of famous mountain and ancient trees-this important Pu’er tea production resource, and a stable foundation for high-end supply.
Focusing on the resource characteristics of Pu’er tea, each producing area has increased the concentration of resources such as”famous mountains”,”famous products” and”famous villages” in the region, focusing on shaping a number of representative regional public brands, strengthening standards and highlighting Features, form synergy, improve brand recognition, concentrate resources, and group development, forming a development situation with various characteristics and multiple blossoms in the industry.
2. Channel construction situation
According to the investigation of Pu’er tea production and marketing enterprises conducted by the Pu’er Tea Special Committee of the China Tea Association:Traditional retail channels and wholesale markets are still the most important sales channels for Pu’er tea. In 2019, Pu’er tea will be sold in direct chain stores and Although the sales volume of the wholesale market decreased slightly year-on-year, they still accounted for 42.9%and 47.9%of the surveyed companies’ sales volume. At the same time, e-commerce channels increased from 2.92%of sales in 2018 to 3.48%in 2019, showing a strong momentum.
3. Sales area
The survey results show that:South China is still the main sales area of Pu’er tea. In 2019, Pu’er tea sales accounted for 32.2%of the total sample sales; followed by the southwest region where Yunnan Province is located, followed by East China, North China and Central China. The situation of Pu’er tea consumption expanding to the national market is already very obvious. The total consumption of Pu’er tea in the Northeast and Northwest markets is not high, but the future can be expected.
According to the introduction of the Guangdong Tea Industry Association, the annual tea consumption in Guangdong is about 200,000 to 250,000 tons (including market circulation); among them, the annual per capita tea consumption in the Pearl River Delta reaches 2 kg, and the Chaoshan area The annual per capita tea consumption is as high as 3 kg, ranking first in the country. In promoting circulation and consumption, Guangzhou Fangcun Tea Wholesale Market has contributed. As a large-scale tea distribution center with the largest scale and the most concentrated merchants in the country, the market has an annual transaction volume of more than 8 billion yuan, of which Pu’er tea has the largest transaction volume. In 2018 and 2019, it was about 80, 90,000 tons (including circulation the amount). After years of development, after entering the Guangdong market, Yunnan Pu’er tea will radiate to the whole country and the world through a complete industrial chain with Fangcun as the core and wholesale as the main business form.
From the perspective of the market level, first-tier cities are still the preferred areas for Pu’er tea companies to expand their markets.
4. Brand building and promotion
Brand building has become an important direction for Pu’er tea to expand the market, which has promoted the accelerated development of Pu’er tea to the brand consumption model, and formed a good atmosphere for branding in the production field and looking at the brand in the consumer market. Ten counties in the province were selected as the “Top 100 Tea Counties in 2020”, among which Menghai County was recommended as the “Thirteenth Five-Year” Tea Industry Development Top Ten Counties, and Shuangjiang Autonomous County was recommended as the “2020 Tea Industry Brand Construction Top Ten Counties”. Strong County”. A total of 26 companies in the”Top 100 Tea Companies in 2020″ have Pu’er tea product sales. Nine Yunnan Pu’er tea production enterprises were selected as “Top 100 Tea Enterprises in 2020”, Yunnan Baiyao Tianyi Tea Co., Ltd. was recommended as “Top Ten Enterprises in Tea Industry Innovation in 2020”, Yunnan Xiaguan Tuocha (Group) Co., Ltd. It was recommended as the “Top Ten Enterprises of Social Responsibility in the Tea Industry in 2020”, and Yunnan Zhongjihao Tea Co., Ltd. was recommended as the “Top Ten Enterprises in the Tea Industry in 2020”.
At the same time, Yunnan Province launched the”One County, One Industry” Pu’er Tea Industry Demonstration County in 2018. Three counties and districts received special support from the provincial finance and supported 30 million yuan per county per year for three consecutive years. Established a pioneer in the development of Pu’er tea; for three consecutive years, the selection of”Top 10 Famous Products” and”Top 10 Enterprises” and”Top 20 Innovative Enterprises” has been carried out, setting a benchmark for leading the development of the industry. In 2019, the sales of Yunnan’s “Top 10 Famous Products” increased by an average of 17.8%compared with 2018, and the “Top 10 Famous Teas” increased by 29.5%. This series of activities effectively created and promoted the well-known brand of Pu’er tea, and helped the award-winning companies and products enhance their market competitiveness.
At the same time, Pu’er tea actively expands the scope of cultural knowledge radiation through diversified marketing methods and actively develops the incremental market for Pu’er tea. For example, the Yunnan Tea Mobile Association established the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Yuncha Cultural Communication Center and Heilongjiang Yuncha Cultural Communication Center in Shenzhen to promote the northward development of Yuncha, and jointly launched the”Pu’er Tea Lecture Hall” with the Tea Channel of Hunan Radio and Television. In addition, various Pu’er tea producing areas have expanded Pu’er tea channel resources and boosted market development through”inviting in and going out”. For example, in 2019, leading tea companies in Tengchong successively invited more than 200 distributors and major customers to Tengchong to inspect the development of Tengchong tea industry. Through entering the company, watching tea gardens, and visiting tea mountains, they experienced the superior nature of”Tengchong tea”. Conditions and ecological tea garden management model further strengthened the confidence and determination to promote Tengchong Pu’er tea.
Pu’er tea export situation
In 2019, China’s Pu’er tea exports amounted to 2786 tons, a decrease of 6.2%year-on-year, accounting for 0.76%of total domestic tea exports; the export value was US$52 million, an increase of 85.7%year-on-year, accounting for 2.6%of total tea exports ; The average export price was US$18.7/kg, a year-on-year increase of 98.9%.
From the perspective of export situation by province, the three provinces with the largest export volume of Pu’er tea in 2019 are Guangdong Province (1135.5 tons), Yunnan Province (735.2 tons), and Hunan Province (284.6 tons). A relatively obvious trend of change is:the export volume of Yunnan province increased significantly in 2019, an increase of 285.3 tons compared with 2018, an increase of 63.4%.
From the perspective of importing countries and regions, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China is still the largest Pu’er tea export market. In 2019, the export volume has increased significantly by more than 10%. Among other major markets, exports to Malaysia and South Korea The volume has dropped significantly. In terms of export value, Hong Kong grew rapidly, Germany and Singapore grew rapidly, and Malaysia, Myanmar and Japan declined significantly. In terms of unit price, the unit price of exports to ASEAN countries such as Vietnam, Myanmar and Cambodia is relatively high, and the unit price of exports to Europe has increased rapidly.
In accordance with the overall goal of”big industry, new main body, new platform”, with the main line of”creating famous brands, nurturing leaders, grasping organic, building platforms, occupying the market, and strengthening technology”, vigorously promote”greening, organization and scale” To achieve the green and high-quality development of Pu’er tea industry in the new era.
1. Adhere to the green ecology and consolidate the industrial foundation.
Led by green development, focused on building green and organic tea bases, with the goal of increasing the income of tea farmers, and in accordance with the principle of”key layout, scale management, and coordinated development”, laying a foundation for the transformation and upgrading of Pu’er tea industry and the conversion of momentum Solid foundation. Strengthen the construction of tea garden infrastructure, accelerate the integration and application of technology, promote the supporting of”water, electricity, and roads”, and”improve soil, remodel, replant, control fertilizer, control medicine, and save water” simultaneously. Carry out the centralized and continuous improvement of the base to improve the moderate scale operation of tea gardens.
2. Equipment skills are upgraded, and production is improved in quality and efficiency.
Use the concept of industrialization to plan the tea industry and promote the transformation and upgrading of the industry; to improve the tea processing capacity and level as a breakthrough, highlight the characteristics, individualization and high-end characteristics of Pu’er tea products, and improve the standardization, branding and information of Pu’er tea The level of transformation and capitalization. Increase the level of enterprise equipment, establish a brand-name, strong, and reasonable structure of Pu’er tea processing system to increase the added value of products. Accelerate the improvement of the comprehensive production capacity of the Pu’er Tea Processing Park, promote the integration of science, industry and trade, and improve the supporting capabilities of enterprises in technological innovation.
3. Increase the cultivation of dragon heads and stimulate the vitality of the main body.
Increase the implementation of various enterprise support preferences issued by the Yunnan Provincial Party Committee and the Provincial Government, take the construction of”Ten Cloud Tea” as the starting point, increase the cultivation of leading enterprises, and enhance the core competitiveness and industrial concentration of Pu’er tea enterprises . Focusing on larger and stronger leading enterprises, break the bottleneck of the scale of tea enterprises, create a Pu’er tea scale enterprise with core competitiveness, operate on a moderate scale, focus on cultivating new types of tea business entities, encourage the development of tea farmer cooperatives, and improve the tea industry The degree of organization of development stimulates the innovation vitality of small and medium tea enterprises, and develops”specialized, refined, special, new and excellent”.
4. Expand the market and strengthen the brand, and resolve the dilemma of supply and demand.
Market-oriented and brand-led, focusing on the new demands, new formats and new models of tea consumption, insight into the demands of consumption upgrades, and intensified efforts to develop domestic and international markets. Strengthen the construction of the e-commerce field, promote the development of”Pu’er tea + Internet”, promote the simultaneous development of physical stores, experience stores, and online stores, and establish modern marketing of online and offline interaction, service experience integration, business travel culture and sports collaboration, shopping experience combination, and scale business combination system. Give full play to the supporting role of high-quality regional brands and the leading role of superior brand companies, vigorously promote”Pu’er tea + one county, one industry and rural revitalization”, and focus on the creation of”one county, one industry” and demonstration counties for rural revitalization of the Pu’er tea industry to build a world The first-class”green food brand”—Yunnan Pu’er tea, focusing on”polishing the golden sign of Pu’er tea”, gathers the capital and advanced concepts of domestic and foreign enterprises to expand and strengthen the market.
5. Exploit resource potential and develop”Pu’er tea+”
Doing the”Pu’er Tea+” article to enhance the added value of Pu’er tea with the tourism industry, and promote the superposition and optimization of Pu’er tea industry with special products such as ecotourism, cultural tourism, industrial tourism, and urban tourism. Through the development of Pu’er Tea Museum, Pu’er tea culture theme manor, theme scenic spot, leisure tea farm, farmhouse, ethnic villages, ancient tea-horse town, ancient tea-horse road and other diversified models, make full use of”Pu’er tea +” articles to promote integrated development.
Yunnan Tea Circulation Association
Guangdong Tea Industry Association
Tea Research Institute of Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences